Part 2 Business Communication and Corporate Life Skills

Syllabus For Business Communication & Corporate Life Skills Communication Skills Creativity & Innovation at Work (Role Plays) Managing Business Meetings & Exercises Managing Business Meetings Managing Business Meetings The Art of Leadership Skills Managing Business Meetings Customer Relationship Management An Overview Written & Oral Communication Etiquettes Managing Business Meetings How to Meet your Senior’s Expectations Team Building (Role Play) Art of Presentations Listening Skills

Professional Introductions A Company Protocol Corporate & Social Etiquettes

Written & Oral Communication Etiquettes (Personality Development)

Written Communication Business Etiquettes The standard of your business’s written correspondence plays a huge part in the image that your business portrays. Getting it WRONG can lead to creating an undesired image with your clients or even worse a misunderstanding about details and inflammatory situations where none need have existed. Getting it RIGHT can increase your credibility as a business with your customers, suppliers and business partners and avoid heated situations that might have occurred. If you follow some basic rules, getting it right it isn't so hard and if you set it up right your business systems correctly with some easy to use letter templates it doesn't take very long either. In this article the basics of a strategy for handling your business's written communication and how to write an effective business letter using tried and tested

formulas for effective written business communication. Being consistent by having a formal strategy for handling written business communication is imperative. This strategy needs to cover: 1) Meeting a standard turn around time for correspondence 2) Making sure that all outgoing correspondences answers the Why 3) Correspondence is not bureaucratic, stuffy, defensive or too long 4) Letters address every receiver as a client 5) Correct Grammar and modern plain English is used Key Points in Letter Writing What a letter needs to be is: 1) Written in plain English - Clear, Concise and Logical 2) Have a friendly conversational tone. 3) Show empathy for the person reading it. Letter Structure All letters that you write should have a basic structure to them follow this and you are half way there. • Header BlockIt must contain information about the business including Business Name, Logo, Address, Contact details and maybe a quick line about the business (no more than ~10 words) • Address BlockThe name of the person or business that you are writing to must be precise. Include all titles necessary. Correct addresses must be mentioned. There is no punctuation in the address block. • SalutationThe salutation needs to be personal. It would be nice to avoid "Dear Sir/Madam" or "To whom it may concern”. The Title and Surname of the person must be included. There is no punctuation in the salutation • Paragraph In the case of a response refer to the date of the incoming correspondence. A Paragraph must contain a summary of the subject of the letter • BodyIt must contain all the information in a clear, concise and logical sequence.

• Closing ParagraphThe Closing paragraph should be short, positive and helpful. It must contain contact details for further information. • Signature BlockThe signature block Contains your name and position. Leave 5 vertical spaces between "Yours Sincerely" and your Name to allow enough room for signature • EnclosuresIf you have attached or included any other documents in the letter mention them here.

The Standard Letters Business letters can be broken down to a few basic types which can be applied to most situations. These standard correspondence formats have been tried and tested extensively, they work so it would make a lot of sense to set you letter templates up in WORD (or whatever) around these formats: The Request Letter To ask someone to do something or continue what they are doing Introduce yourself (business) and state clearly what you are requesting up front Give the background or reason that you are making the request Ask specific questions (this implies you want a specific answer) Identify exactly when, where and how you need the request to be confirmed Close politely The Yes Letter Accepting an offer (Yes we want to business with you / employ you) Open with the main message  Give specific answers or details Close politely The No Letter  Decline an offer, (Rejecting an employment application) Open with a polite buffer paragraph that is neutral and avoids immediate hostility Lead logically through the reasons for making the decision Specify the decision clearly Make an alternative offer or a positive suggestion (to restore friendship) Close politely

The Persuasive Letter To get someone to act in a certain way or adopt your point of view. (This is the basis for a marketing letter, but this can be a whole topic on its own....) Arouse the readers interest (best done with something that will benefit them) Build your case by leading logically the issue that surround the decision you are asking them to make. Show the reader the benefits that they will receive if they agree Ask specifically for the necessary action required to accept the offer . Remember that whatever the letter; it is a piece of communication between you and another single person reading the letter. Have empathy for the person reading what you are writing; write in their language, and in a friendly conservational tone. The Content The overall aim of a business letter is to communicate a message and leave the reader feeling good about them and this in turn means they will feel good about your business. So when it comes to adding the content to a business letter there is a few standard formats you can follow to help ensure that you achieve these aims. The message usually revolves around answering a query, informing someone of a negative or positive outcome or responding to a complaint or even responding to praise (Yes, you need to do that as well) Writing in any form involves three steps: • Plan - Sketch out a plan of what your letter needs to contain to meet its objective, what sort of letter is it? • Write - Put it down on paper (or the monitor I guess:) complete the letter in draft form before you edit it. • Edit b& Rewrite - Have a break, come back and edit it. Do it from a perspective of whether it meets the objective of writing the letter. Sometimes it helps to get somebody else to read it as well..... Some other Considerations • Try not to use abbreviations (unless appropriately defined) • Steer away from the use of symbols • Clichés should be avoided, or at the very least, used with caution • Brackets are used to play down words or phrases • Dashes are generally used for emphasis • Great care should ALWAYS be taken to spell the names of people and companies correctly • Numbers should be expressed as words when the number is less than 10 or is used

to start a sentence (example: Ten years ago, my brother and I…). The number 10, or anything greater than 10, should be expressed as a figure (example: My brother has 13 Matchbox cars.) • Quotation marks should be placed around any directly quoted speech or text and around titles of publications. • Keep sentences short While the above tips cover the most common mistakes made when writing letters, memos and reports, they in no way cover everything you need to know to ensure your written communications are accurate and understood. Letter Writing Hints When writing letters, it is best to address the letter to an individual. And, when beginning the letter with a personal name, be sure to end it with an appropriate closing, such as ‘Sincerely yours’. If you cannot obtain an individual’s name, consider ending it with a more generic (less personal) closing, such as ‘With kindest regards’. For normal business letters, your letter should start with an overall summary, showing in the first paragraph why the letter is relevant to the reader. It’s not a good practice to make the reader go past the first paragraph to find out why the letter was sent to them. The body of the letter needs to explain the reason for the correspondence, including any relevant background and current information. Make sure the information flows logically, ensuring you are making your points effectively. The closing of the letter is the final impression you leave with the reader. End with an action point, such as ‘I will call you later this week to discuss this further’. The Importance of Careful Proofing Perhaps the most important thing to remember when writing a letter is to check it thoroughly when it is completed. Even when you think it is exactly what you want, read it one more time. This “unwritten” rule holds true for everything you write – memos, letters, proposals, and so on. Use both the grammar and spell check on your computer, paying very, very close attention to every word highlighted. Do not place total faith on your computer here. Instead, you should have both a printed dictionary and thesaurus nearby to doublecheck everything your computers editing tools highlight, as these tools are certainly not always reliable, for a variety of reasons. When checking your written communications, make sure the document is clear and concise. Is there anything in the written communication that could be misinterpreted? Does it raise unanswered questions or fail to make the point you

need to get across? Can you cut down on the number of words used? For instance, don’t use 20 words when you can use 10. While you do not want to be curt or abrupt, you do not want to waste the reader’s time with unnecessary words or phrases. Is your written communication well organized? Does each idea proceed logically to the next? Make sure your written communications are easy to read and contain the necessary information, using facts where needed and avoiding information that is not relevant. Again, outline the course of action you expect, such as a return call or visit. B. Oral Communication Business Etiquettes Oral communication describes any type of inter-action that makes use of spoken words, and it is a vital, integral part of the modern business world. "The ability to communicate effectively through speaking as well as in writing is highly valued, and demanded, in business, " Herta A. Murphy and Herbert W. Hildebrandt wrote in their book Effective Business Communications. "Knowing the content of the functional areas of business is important, but to give life to those ideas—in meetings or in solo presentations—demands an effective oral presentation." The types of oral communication commonly used within an organization include staff meetings, personal discussions, presentations, telephone discourse, and informal conversation. Oral communication with those outside of the organization might take the form of face-to-face meetings, telephone calls, speeches, teleconferences, or videoconferences. Conversation management skills are essential for small business owners and managers, who often shoulder much of the burden in such areas as client/customer presentations, employee interviews, and conducting meetings. For oral communication to be effective, it should be clear, relevant, tactful in phraseology and tone, concise, and informative. Presentations or conversations that bear these hallmarks can be an invaluable tool in ensuring business health and growth. Unclear, inaccurate, or inconsiderate business communication, on the other hand, can waste valuable time, alienate employees or customers, and destroy goodwill toward management or the overall business. Oral Presentations A good oral presentation will include transitional phrases to help listeners move through the material, and will not be overly long or technical. It is also important for the speaker to anticipate questions the audience might have and either include that

information in the presentation or be prepared to answer afterward. Professional and gracious presentation is another key to effective communication, whether the setting is a conference, a banquet, a holiday luncheon, or a management retreat. "Recognize that when you speak at a business event, you represent your company and your office in that company, “stated Steve Kaye in IIE Solutions. "Use the event as an opportunity to promote good will. Avoid complaints, criticism, or controversy. These will alienate the audience and destroy your credibility quickly. Instead, talk about what the audience wants to hear. Praise your host, honor the occasion, and compliment the attendees. Radiate success and optimism." Oral presentations can be delivered extemporaneously (from an outline or notes); by reading from a manuscript; or from memory. The extemporaneous approach is often touted as a method that allows the speaker to make eye contact and develop a rapport with the audience while simultaneously conveying pertinent information. Reading from a manuscript is more often utilized for longer and/or detailed communications that cover a lot of ground. Memorization, meanwhile, is usually only used for short and/or informal discussions. The delivery of effective oral presentations requires a speaker to consider his or her vocal pitch, rate, and volume. It is important to incorporate changes in vocal pitch to add emphasis and avoid monotony. It is also helpful to vary the rate of speaking and incorporate pauses to allow the listener to reflect upon specific elements of the overall message. Finding the appropriate volume is crucial to the success of a presentation as well. Finally, speakers should be careful not to add extraneous words or sounds—such as "um,” "you know, “or "okay"—between words or sentences in a presentation. Nonverbal elements such as posture, gestures, and facial expression are also important factors in developing good oral communication skills. "Your outward appearance mirrors your inner mood”, Murphy and Hildebrandt confirmed. “Thus good posture suggests poise and confidence; stand neither at rigid attention nor with sloppy casualness draped over the podium, but erect with your weight about equally distributed on each foot.” Some movement may be helpful to hold listeners' attention or to increase emphasis, but constant shifting or pacing should be avoided. Likewise, hand and arm gestures can be used to point, describe, or emphasize, but they should be varied, carefully timed, and adapted to the audience. Finally, good speakers should make frequent eye contact with the audience, let their facial expression show their interest in the ideas they are presenting, and dress in a way that is appropriate for the occasion.

Small business owners reflect the general population in that their enthusiasm for public speaking varies considerably for individual to individual. Some entrepreneurs enjoy the limelight and thrive in settings that call for public presentations (formal or informal). Others are less adept at public speaking and avoid being placed in such situations. But business consultants urge entrepreneurs to treat public presentations and oral communication skills as a potentially invaluable tool in business growth. "You may consider hiring a presentation coach or attending a workshop on business presentations, " counseled Kaye. "These services can show you how to maximize your impact while speaking. In fact, learning such skills serves as a long-term investment in your future as an effective leader." Some other Considerations • Add an introduction to your speech • Add a conclusion to your speech 1. Verbal communication is communication done by word of mouth and face-to-face. 2. Three general telephone etiquettes when answering the telephone are: • Identify yourself, with your first and last name, when answering the phone. • Return phones calls within 24 hours, and apologize if the call is late. • Identify yourself when you place a call. Say your name, the company, business or department you represent. Then state the nature of your call. If you do not identify yourself, expect to be asked and do not take offense. 3. The speaking style is problem-solving style. 4. Women are found to talk to create connections and intimacy. 5. The steps to creating an effective speech are: • Choose a topic • Define the purpose of your speech • Get to know your audience • Gather information for your speech • Organize your speech

6. Skills an active listener should use – • Concentrate on what is being said (doesn't read, shuffle papers or otherwise nonverbally communicate a lack of interest) • Listen to all facts and try not to interrupt until the speaker has concluded his/her statements. • When someone is talking for a long period of time, it is sometimes helpful to either take notes or ask the speaker to stop so that you can feed back to them what you have heard. • Listen for key words of interest on which to comment and ask questions (communicating that I am really interested and want to hear more or better understand what you are saying.) • A Listener must hear people as they are, & not the way you'd like them to be heard. • Hold back personal judgments until the speaker has presented his/her ideas. 7. Effective feedbacks that a good communicator should use: • Descriptiveness (not evaluative)(avoids defensiveness.) By describing one's own reactions, it leaves the individual fee to use it or not to use it as he sees fit. • Avoid accusations; present data if necessary. • Describe your own reactions or feelings; describe objective consequences that have or will occur; focus on behavior and your own reaction, not on other individual or his or her attributes. • Suggest more acceptable alternative; be prepared to discuss additional alternatives; focus on alternatives. • Be Specific rather than general. • Focus on behavior & not the person. It is important that we refer to what a person does rather than to what we think he is. Thus we might say that a person "talked more than anyone else in this meeting" rather than that he is a "loud-mouth."

• Take into account the needs of both the receiver and giver of feedback. It should be given to help, not to hurt. We too often give feedback because it makes us feel better or gives us a psychological advantage. • It is directed toward behavior which the receiver can do something about. A person gets frustrated when reminded of some shortcoming over which he has no control. • It is solicited rather than imposed. Feedback is most useful when the receiver himself has formulated the kind of question which those observing him can answer or when he actively seeks feedback. • Feedback is useful when well timed (soon after the behavior depending, of course, on the person's readiness to hear it, support available from others, and so forth). Excellent feedback presented at an inappropriate time may do more harm than good. • Sharing of information, rather than giving advice allows a person to decide for himself, in accordance with his own goals and needs. When we give advice we tell him what to do, and to some degree take away his freedom to do decide for himself. • It involves the amount of information the receiver can use rather than the amount we would like to give. To overload a person with feedback is to reduce the possibility that he may be able to use what he receives effectively. When we give more than can be used, we are more often than not satisfying some need of our own rather than helping the other person. • It concerns what is said and done, or how, not why. The "why" involves assumptions regarding motive or intent and this tends to alienate the person generate resentment, suspicion, and distrust. If we are uncertain of his motives or intent, this uncertainty itself is feedback, however, and should be revealed. • It is checked to insure clear communication. One way of doing this is to have the receiver try to rephrase the feedback. No matter what the intent, feedback is often threatening and thus subject to considerable distortion or misinterpretation. • It is checked to determine degree of agreement from others. Such "consensual validation" is of value to both the sender and receiver.

• It is followed by attention to the consequences of the feedback. The supervisor needs to become acutely aware of the effects of his feedback. Listening Skills Introduction People need to practice and acquire skills to be good listeners as information is an intangible substance that must be sent by the speaker and received by an active listener. Many a times people express their feelings But we fail to understand them and we are not able to hear what exactly they wanted to tell us. This is mainly due to failure on the part of the listener to listen effectively. Of course there are also instances where the speaker might not have conveyed the message effectively. Thus we can say that both speaking and listening skills are necessary for communication to serve its purpose. The ability to listen well is as important as the ability to speak well, as communication involves the negotiation of mutual meanings, which requires two parties. The lack of listening skill is primarily responsible for many problems we experience while communicating with people. Poor listeners are also poor negotiators along with being ineffective in times of crisis. Effective Learning is one of the critical skills related to effective communication. It requires more than merely listening to the speaker .It requires grasping and understanding what the speaker speaks. It also includes active, empathetic and supportive behaviours. Hearing and Listening People confuse hearing with listening; these are two different processes which are used synonymously. Hearing is a natural process involving mere picking up of sound vibrations. If our brains and ears are functioning normally we cannot help hearing sounds of certain intensity. Listening is a higher cognitive process which involves paying attention, interpreting and remembering sound stimuli. It is under our control, hence we can listen whenever we want and we can tune out any time we wish to as it is under our control.

Thinking and Listening Our brain works with hundreds of words in addition to those we hear. which means our brain continues to think at a higher speed while the spoken words arrive at a lower speed. This implies that we can listen and still have some spare time for our thinking as we think much faster than we talk. Research has disclosed the following points of information about listening: • Listening skills can be improved by instruction, though the improvement achieved may not be permanent. • There is a distinct difference between speaking rate and listening rate, hence even if the speaking rate is increased by 100%, the listening rate does not suffer. • There is a high correlation between intelligence and listening. Important Types of Listening 1) Directive Listening: In directive listening the directing listener does not just listen but also takes control of the situation and leads the speaker by guiding the limits and direction of the conversation. 2) Judgemental Listening: The listener introduces personal value judgements into the conversation. Rather than gearing the speaker, judgmental listeners tend to interrupt with their personal values. 3) Probing Listening: The listener asks a lot of questions and is inquisitive to the point of frustrating the speaker and hence satisfies his personal needs rather than that of the speaker. 4) Soothing Listening: The speaker is reassured by the listener’s behaviour. This person believes that conflict is bad and hence should be avoided. 5) Deliberative Listening: Is listening to get the content of the message and is the least needed and expected in organisational settings. 6) Passive Listening: The listener does not empathize with the speaker to understand communication from his point of view unlike active listening. 7) Active Listening: It is listening without passing any judgement, but reflecting back on what has been spoken about so as to indicate that the feelings of the speaker have been understood. The active listener gives neutral summaries to encourage the speaker and allow the speaker to express himself by creating an environment in which the speaker feels free to develop his thoughts. The listener puts in as much energy into listening as the speaker puts into speaking. Hence, active listening is

hard work in which we have to concentrate to fully understand what a speaker is saying. The most effective listener is the active listener as he maintains the role of a listener while the others attempt to influence or dominate the speaker. Barriers to Active Listening Not all listeners use their energies for effective listening .Inefficient listeners generally: • Drift their attention from what the speaker has to say and criticize the speaker or the delivery • Listen only for facts ignoring the feeling or emotions and also overreact to certain ideas or phrases • Assume in advance that the subject is uninteresting and hence withdraw attention and daydream considering it not important • Hear only what they expect to hear and accept only those communications that are consistent with their existing beliefs • Interrupt unnecessarily, allowing emotions to block the message and hence discouraging the speaker.

Tips for Good Listening Effective listening needs comprehension, appreciation and evaluation. To comprehend what the speaker is saying one needs to get the central idea of the speech and relate that idea to one’s knowledge. Appreciation requires a relaxed, receptive and imaginative attitude on the listener’s part. To evaluate, We need to listen to the speakers analysis of problems and his reasoning. Practically we can achieve this by: • Making eye contact and being patient • Removing distractions and empathizing with the speaker • Asking questions and showing him that we want to listen by putting him at ease. The Commandments, that work out for Effective Listening are as follows: • Listening is not just about receiving information. How you listen also sends a message back to the sender. • Remove Distractions and paraphrase what’s been said to show you understand.

• Avoid being judgemental without understanding the other person’s point of view • Listen to the total meaning i.e., both the content of the words besides the feeling underlying the words. • Attend to both verbal and non-verbal hues and go easy on arguments as they tend to put people in the defensive mode and can make them angry. • Confirm what has been spoken about before each person leaves.

The Art of Presentations

Introduction Presentation is the process of presenting the content of a topic to an audience. Effective presentations can win you new clients, sell your products or services or help you gain access to much-needed funding. A good presentation is all about having a clear message and the confidence and conviction to communicate that message. Even the most compelling brands or concepts are lost if the face-to-face delivery is weak and there is often only one opportunity to impress the customer. Poor presentations can cost your business dearly. Some of the pitfalls people fall into include: • Not doing enough preparation.

• Being overcome by nerves. • Underestimating or overestimating the audience’s knowledge. • Relying too much on visual aids. • Boring the audience with a speech that has no structure and is delivered without passion. Check list before you decide on a Presentation Before you decide on a presentation three things need to be kept in mind, which are known as PAL i.e. P - Purpose A - Audience L – Logistics As a presenter/speaker you should know the purpose or aim of your presentation and prepare it accordingly. You should know what the audience expects of you and be able to deliver the same. Its always good to know your audience beforehand. It helps in connecting with them and also helps in better preparation. Example if it’s a student audience you need to keep in mind that all students do not have the same mental level and hence prepare accordingly. When using audio-visual aids to enhance your presentation, be sure all necessary equipment is set up and in good working order prior to the presentation. If possible, have an emergency backup system readily available. Check out the location ahead of time to avoid being late

Elements for a Good Presentation A good presentation should have three essential elements or qualities. These are known as PIE i.e. P - Persuading

I - Informative E – Explanatory A presentation should be able to influence or persuade the audience on a particular subject. This element holds more importance to people from the marketing or selling field. Marketing is all about persuading the consumers hence a presentation of such nature should surely have this element. Same goes when you are selling an idea. Leadership speeches are also persuading. A presentation could also be informative in nature. It could be giving out information/details on a particular subject. A presentation could also be explanatory in nature. A certain issue for instance needs to be explained. While explaining one needs to go in the details of the topic. 7 P’s of Presentation Before we go any further one must know the 7 P’s of presentation. They are – 1. Passion: Eagerness, urge & a dare to be different. Love self & you will love your attempt. 2. Perseverance: Don’t deviate from goal, and believe that you will be successful. 3. Preparation: Collate and gather enough information & knowledge of the subject. 4. Pronunciation: Clarity and correctness in speech. Do not rush or speak softly, it’s too hard to pay attention. 5. Pitch: Avoid monotones. This puts the audience off (‘Oh how boring’). 6. Presentation: Accommodate regional differences. Keep your chin up while speaking. 7. Punch: Emphasize words. Use punch lines/words. “Positive attitude yields positive results”.

How to Give a Good Presentation When you are presenting in front of an audience, you are performing as an actor is on stage. How you are being perceived is very important. Dress appropriately for the occasion. Be solemn if your topic is serious. Present the desired image to your audience. Look pleasant, enthusiastic, confident, proud, but not arrogant. Remain calm. Appear relaxed, even if you feel nervous. Speak slowly, enunciate clearly, and show appropriate emotion and feeling relating to your topic. Establish rapport with your audience. Speak to the person farthest away from you to ensure your voice is loud enough to project to the back of the room. Vary the tone of your voice and dramatize if necessary. If a microphone is available, adjust and adapt your voice accordingly. Body Language Body language is important. Standing, walking or moving about with appropriate hand gesture or facial expression is preferred to sitting down or standing still with head down and reading from a prepared speech. Use audio-visual aids or props for enhancement if appropriate and necessary. Master the use of presentation software such as PowerPoint well before your presentation. Do not over-dazzle your audience with excessive use of animation, sound clips, or gaudy colors which are inappropriate for your topic. Do not torture your audience by putting a lengthy document in tiny print on an overhead and reading it out to them. Know your Topic / Be Prepared Do not read from notes for any extended length of time although it is quite acceptable to glance at your notes infrequently. Speak loudly and clearly. Sound confident. Do not mumble. If you made an error, correct it, and continue. No need to make excuses or apologize profusely. Speak with conviction as if you really believe in what you are saying. Persuade your audience effectively. Emphasize on certain words. There should be Punch in your speech delivery. Go Slow Pause. Allow yourself and your audience a little time to reflect and think. Don't race through your presentation and leave your audience, as well as yourself, feeling out of breath. Eye Contact Maintain sincere eye contact with your audience. Use the 3-second method, e.g. look

straight into the eyes of a person in the audience for 3 seconds at a time. Have direct eye contact with a number of people in the audience. Connect with the Audience Speak to your audience, listen to their questions, respond to their reactions, adjust and adapt. If what you have prepared is obviously not getting across to your audience, change your strategy mid-stream if you are well prepared to do so. Communication is the key to a successful presentation. If you are short of time, know what can be safely left out. If you have extra time, know what could be effectively added. Always be prepared for the unexpected. Humor Add humor whenever appropriate and possible. Keep audience interested throughout your entire presentation. Remember that an interesting speech makes time fly, but a boring speech is always too long to endure even if the presentation time is the same. Have a Back up Plan Even though the logistics might be in place it’s always good to have a back up of your presentation. Besides carrying your presentation on a pen drive, one can also have it on a CD just in case the pen drive does not work. Have a written portion of your assignment or report for reference as well. Have a Conclusion To end your presentation, summarize your main points in the same way as you normally do in the CONCLUSION of a written paper. Terminate your presentation with an interesting remark or an appropriate punch line. Leave your listeners with a positive impression and a sense of completion. Thank your audience and sit down. Some Pointers • Learn to handle on the spot problems. • Have crisp information. It should be short and apt. • Each slide should not have more than 5 or 7 bullet points. • Change statements to questions. Example – What do you think about this problem? • A picture is indeed a thousand words, but it must be an apt one. • People remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see and 50% of what they hear and see together.

Corporate & Social Etiquettes

“Your manners are always under examination, and by committees little suspected, awarding or denying you very high prizes when you least think of it”, Ralph Waldo Emerson. When a person gets into employment for the first time he gets confused with the corporate culture and finds it very difficult to learn the corporate etiquette which is otherwise also known as business etiquette. There will be vast cultural gaps from the background from where the individual has come and that of the organization he enters. He finds it very difficult to get along with new cultures, customs, norms and rules. There would certainly be a gap. It takes certain time to get adjusted and adapted to the corporate culture and learns the etiquette. Every one knows the meaning of etiquette. Etiquette is nothing but manners to be followed in a given cultural environment. Every culture has its own etiquette. But overall the etiquette is universal with certain characteristics and qualifications that run across all people like a common thread. Business etiquette is also an etiquette that has to be adopted in every business keeping ethics and integrity in view. It varies from culture to culture and from country to country and from industry to industry. All the differences are only superficial in nature with the commonalities of basic business etiquette being at the core level. Etiquettes are of different types. It is desirable to focus on a few basic etiquettes which collectively constitute the corporate etiquette. They are Hand shake, Interview etiquette, Mobile etiquette, Telephone etiquette, Office etiquette, Dress code, Giving business card, Dining etiquette, Handling people, International business etiquette, Email etiquette, etc., Handshake When two men meet each other they shake their hands as a symbol and sign of meeting. There is a right manner in handshake. There has to be firm handshake that represents the confidence level of the persons. If a person presses down the palm of the other person and shakes his hand it indicates that the person is dominant in nature. On the other hand, if the person allows his own palm pressed downwards and lets the other person’s palm upwards it indicates the submissive style of the person. In the third scenario if both the persons keep their palms perpendicular to the

ground and if both persons plays neutral neither being in the dominant level nor in the submissive level then it is the right method of handshake and it indicates win-win or assertive handshake. A person’s nature can be easily judged by the way he shakes his hand with others. It becomes the core part of any corporate culture.

Interview Etiquettes When going for an interview, the door is to be knocked, and after seeking the permission the person should enter the interview room. The person should greet the interview panel member like ‘Good morning Sir/Sirs’ depending upon the time of interview and wait for the permission to be seated. If there is a woman Interviewing Officer(IO) it is etiquette to greet her first followed by male members as it is part of the Indian culture to respect women. After getting the permission to sit, the person should sit with straight posture at the back with his back touching the chair and without dragging the chair or dragging the feet. No attempts should be made either to lean forward or to lean too much backward or to sit in totally at an ease position. The person should sit straight and be alert by keeping both the legs together with both feet touching on the ground. When the question is posed, the person should fully wait till the completion of the sentence by the IO and then reply. No attempts should be made to interrupt or interfere with the conversation of IO. After listening carefully the person should analyze, process with in his mind and then should reply appropriately with clear cut thoughts. In case if there are any differences of opinion, the same should be handled with tact and diplomacy. In case if there is a need to clarify anything, the same can be asked with a request to speak the same. After the completion of the interview, thank them and exit the room smartly without any unnecessary noise Mobile Etiquettes Now a days mobiles have become both a boon and bane. Whenever there is an engagement or any hectic or important activities are going on, the mobile should be kept in a silent mode. It is not proper to talk over the phone when important

discussion or meeting is in progress. After the completion of the meeting the calls can be attended as unattended calls are reflected in the handset. These days, marketing calls do come frequently and it disturbs the mood and also the precious time. These are known as unsolicited calls. The best thing is to cut short such calls by saying, ‘I will get back to you’ or ‘Can I call you back?’ Telephone Etiquettes It is more or less like mobile etiquette only. The caller has to identify himself first, and then should confirm whether he is looking for the concerned person and then should start conversation. Even if you are interrupted, exercise patience to the caller and respond. Be enthusiastic and if it is not possible, at least be calm so that the caller feels comfortable and convenient to communicate. Do not keep the caller on hold by saying, ‘May I put you on a hold for a moment?’ and then put the caller on hold till you connect the right person or to give the correct information. Personalize the conversation to make it polite and presentable. Office Etiquettes When you visit to somebody’s office, do no roam around as though it is your own office. When you are a stranger to a place maintain and behave like a visitor or as a guest not like a host. Do not disturb the receptionist with too many queries. When you are asked to work in your cubicle stick to that only and do not encroach into others’ cubicles. You can call person by name at the corporate world but politely. There is no need to call ‘Sir’ or ‘Madam’ frequently. The body language must be positive and assertive it should neither be aggressive nor submissive. While addressing a woman if it is not clear whether she is married or unmarried, you can use Ms as that can convey politely for both married and unmarried woman. Personal space from person to person needs to be maintained properly. It is known as proxemics. You should not behave with unknown people by being too close by maintaining intimate distance as it creates discomfort for others. Dress Code For men the shirt should be in light colour with a tie. There should not be any

cabbage socks. The socks need to be changed regularly. Avoid wearing white socks. The body can be applied with light perfume. It is essential to wear tie for formal meetings. A few companies have separate and specific dress code to its employees on specific days. There is a traditional formula for male attire. BBTTSS is the acronym for Boot and Belt which must be of the same colour, Tie and Trouser should preferably match with each other and Shirt and Socks should match with each other. There is no hard and fast rule to accept this formula but it all depends on the situation and occasion. Ultimately the dress code should be pleasing, neat and clean and presentable. Dress code for women is a very complicated one. It differs from region to region and from country to country based on their cultural background as well as their tastes and temperaments. They should not dress like a Christmas tree. There should not be any hanky panky costumes. Don’t decorate with excessive jewellery or ornaments. The dress should match as per the corporate culture and values of the organization. The clothes must be positive and presentable and not of tight fittings, no obscene clothes or revealing clothes etc. Business Cards When business card is given, it must be taken with the right hand in India. It must be read with details like name, designation and other details and then it should be kept in a visiting card holder. Always give fresh cards and do not give the cards that look dirty or old or faded cards

Dining Etiquette • Wait for your host to ask you to sit or else sit after the host sits. • Keep solids of the food on the left and the liquids on the right side. • Keep the napkin folded towards you on your lap. • If you have any food allergies tell the same in advance or to the server and if it is already served leave it on the plate. • Don’t fill your plate with entire food at one go. Fill little by little as you consume.

• If you have any doubts regarding the starting of eating food or about the chronological order of eating food, observe your host closely and follow. • At the time of eating, keep the knife across the top of your plate when you are eating, blade facing towards you. • It is formal to leave some food on the plate at the end. • If you are a slow eater and the host has completed eating food, you leave the food and catch up with the host. • If the food is not good and if the host enquires how is the food, say politely, “Fine, thank you”. • Once the meal is finished your silverware should be parallel to each other in the ten and four O clock position with handles at 4.00 and tops of the utensils at 10.00. The knife blade points towards you. • The amount is usually paid by the host. • Thank the host for your meal at the end. Handling People Every business person should learn basic etiquette to deal with people. Of course, there are number of written and unwritten rules and guidelines and when in doubt stick to the basic and follow. • Build good relations with peers and subordinates. • Never differentiate people based on designations and rank. • Memorize the names of the people. If not, then correlate the name of the person with that of your previous acquaintances with in your mind for effective retention. Make a good practice of collecting the names of the people with their phone numbers, date of birth, family details. This will help you to build strong relations with them. • Learn to appreciate people sincerely. If it is essential to criticize, do not attack the person rather attack his behaviour as it takes the matter away from person-centric to problem-centric or behaviour-centric. • Never surprise your boss. Always keep him informed about the work related activities and try to be in the good books of your boss. International Business Etiquettes With the rapid growing technology the globe has become smaller. As a result, there are plenty of opportunities since the communication has become easier. Employers began thinking broadly and are trying to set up their ventures at the global level.

Along with that the employees have opportunities to work with the people across the globe. It is necessary to know the basics of international etiquette such as the multicultural issues, different time zones, different workings hours, holiday patterns, table manner etc., Mr. Laxmi Niwas Mittal the global steel czar has clearly mentioned about the significance and importance of multicultural issues so as to succeed in the international business. Email Etiquette Paper correspondence is gradually losing its relevance. In every business there is growing significance attached to Email and it is necessary to dwell at length about email etiquette in this context. The subject matter should be simple, specific and short. It should not be like compound sentences. The receiver should be in a position to identify its source and the objective behind it. In the ‘To’ address column put the main addressee and if the same is to be informed to other addresses you can add those emails in the ‘CC’ column. It is usually considered unethical to use the ‘BCC’ column. If the mail is not to be known to the other addressees and in extreme cases you can use ‘BCC’. Personalize the mail to create bonding with the reader. Dear Sir/Madam, followed by the name of the person with designation as it impresses the reader for the significance you have accorded to the designation and also for having made it personal. Follow proper alignment and the margin on the left side. Write the contents in simple, straight and short manner. The contents must be concise, crisp and clear. Put across all the points. At the end, you may conclude with ‘Regards’, or ‘Best regards’, or ‘With regards’, or ‘Best wishes’ followed by your signature. Before sending an email, check for grammar, syntax, sentence format and punctuation. Read and reread the email before hitting the ‘send’ button as it becomes an evidence for future records. While replying to official mails do not check ‘Reply all’ button as the confidential information, if any, will be known to all. Never type the contents in capital letters as that indicates that you are shouting at others. And also avoid using lower case. As far as possible the business letter should not last more than a page as it is an official document. Do not visit pornographic sites as every company has an internal scanning

system to check the same. And ultimately you will be in deep hot water. Try to use soft, polite and neutral words and avoid using unparliamentarily language. Other Etiquettes Etiquette codes prescribe and restrict the ways in which people interact with each other, based on respect for other people and the accepted customs of a society. Modern etiquette codifies social interactions with others, such as • Greeting relatives, friends and acquaintances with warmth and respect • Refraining from insults and prying curiosity • Offering hospitality to guests • Wearing clothing suited to the occasion • Contributing to conversations without dominating them • Offering assistance to those in need • Eating neatly and quietly • Avoiding disturbing others with unnecessary noise • Following established rules of an organization upon becoming a member • Arriving promptly when expected • Comforting the bereaved • Responding to invitations promptly • Accepting gifts or favors with humility and to acknowledge them promptly with thanks or refusing the gift politely (e.g. a thank-you card) Conclusion Social etiquette and business etiquette is essential to survive and succeed both at the personal and professional level. It has paramount significance and importance at the corporate world either to make or break the business deals. Therefore, it is mandatory to stick to the basics of all etiquettes to become a successful professional. To conclude, the business etiquette is essential from peon to principal and from employee to employer.

Professional Introductions – A Company Protocol While introducing an existing or a new employee to another person within a company or any official gathering, one has to take extreme care to ensure facts and

details acquired about the individual are correct and up-to-date. 1. Research/ enquire on Mr. X’s full name, his educational qualification, companies previously worked for, designations held, the list can go on. How much ever information you gather, make sure you don’t find out too many details, which might put him in a uncomfortable situation. 2. While introducing, despite the wealth of information you might have on him, give out only BASIC information about him to a new person, i.e. name and assigned designation. 3. Be CLEAR and CONCISE while you’re introducing. Make sure you know HOW the name is pronounced and that you remember it! 4. Avoid ping-pong intros. E.g. “Ted, Susan. Susan, Ted.”

Illustrations: The ideal ways to make introductions is amongst colleagues. In this case, Mr. Ted is the existing employee and Susan is the new recruit. 1) Ted, I’d like you to meet Susan. 2) Ted, this is Susan. Susan is new to our company. 3) Ted, meet Susan, this is Susan’s first day on the job. 4) Ted, this is Susan. Susan is our new sales manager. 5) Everyone, I’d like you to welcome Susan to our company. 6) Everyone, this is Susan. I’d like you to introduce yourself to Susan sometime today.

Customer Relationship Management Customer relationship management (CRM) is a term applied to processes implemented by a company to handle its contact with its customers. CRM software is used to support these processes, storing information on current and prospective customers. Information in the system can be accessed and entered by employees in different departments, such as sales, marketing, customer service, training, professional development, performance management, human resource development, and compensation. Details on any customer contacts can also be stored in the system. The rationale behind this approach is to improve services provided directly to customers and to use the information in the system for targeted marketing and sales purposes. While the term is generally used to refer to a software-based approach to handling customer relationships, most CRM software vendors stress that a successful CRM strategy requires a holistic approach. CRM initiatives often fail because implementation was limited to software installation without providing the appropriate motivations for employees to learn, provide input, and take full advantage of the information systems Overview From the outside, customers interacting with a company perceive the business as a single entity, despite often interacting with a variety of employees in different roles and departments. CRM is a combination of policies, processes, and strategies implemented by a company that unify its customer interaction and provides a mechanism for tracking customer information. CRM includes many aspects which relate directly to one another: • Front office operations — Direct interaction with customers, e.g. face to face meetings, phone calls, e-mail, online services etc. • Back office operations — Operations that ultimately affect the activities of the front office (e.g., billing, maintenance, planning, marketing, advertising, finance, manufacturing, etc.) • Business relationships — Interaction with other companies and partners, such as

suppliers/vendors and retail outlets/distributors, industry networks (lobbying groups, trade associations). This external network supports front and back office activities. • Analysis — Key CRM data can be analyzed in order to plan target-marketing campaigns, conceive business strategies, and judge the success of CRM activities (e.g., market share, number and types of customers, revenue, profitability, etc.). Types/Variations of CRM There are several different approaches to CRM, with different software packages focusing on different aspects. In general, Campaign Management and Sales Force Automation form the core of the system (with SFA being the most popular[ Operational CRM Operational CRM provides support to "front office" business processes, e.g. to sales, marketing and service staff. Interactions with customers are generally stored in customers' contact histories, and staff can retrieve customer information as necessary. The contact history provides staff members with immediate access to important information on the customer (products owned, prior support calls etc.), eliminating the need to individually obtain this information directly from the customer. Consequently, many call centers use some form of CRM software. Operational CRM processes customer data for a variety of purposes: • 'Managing Campaigns' • Enterprise Marketing Automation • Sales Force Automation • Sales Force Automation (SFA) Sales Force Automation automates sales force-related activities such as: • Tracking leads • Scheduling sales calls or mailings • Tracking responses • Generating reports Analytical CRM Analytical CRM analyzes customer data for a variety of purposes: • Designing and executing targeted marketing campaigns • Designing and executing campaigns, e.g. customer acquisition, cross-selling, upselling • Analysing customer behavior in order to make decisions relating to products and services (e.g. pricing, product development)

• Management decisions (e.g. financial forecasting and customer profitability analysis) Analytical CRM generally makes heavy use of data mining. Sales Intelligence CRM Sales Intelligence CRM is similar to Analytical CRM, but is intended as a more direct sales tool. Features include alerts sent to sales staff regarding: • Cross-selling/Up-selling/Switch-selling opportunities • Customer drift • Sales performance • Customer trends • Customer margins Campaign Management Campaign management combines elements of Operational and Analytical CRM. Campaign management functions include: • Target groups formed from the client base according to selected criteria • Sending campaign-related material (e.g. on special offers) to selected recipients using various channels (e.g. e-mail, telephone, post) • Tracking, storing, and analyzing campaign statistics, including tracking responses and analyzing trends Collaborative CRM Collaborative CRM covers aspects of a company's dealings with customers that are handled by various departments within a company, such as sales, technical support and marketing. Staff members within the departments can share information collected when interacting with customers. For example, feedback received by customer support agents can provide other staff members with information on the services and features requested by customers. Collaborative CRM's ultimate goal is to use information collected by all departments to improve the quality of services provided by the company. Geographic CRM Geographic CRM (GCRM) combines geographic information system and traditional CRM. Geographic data can be analysed to provide a snapshot of potential customers in a region or to plan routes for customer visits. Strategy Several commercial CRM software packages are available, and they vary in their approach to CRM. However, as mentioned above, CRM is not just a technology but rather a comprehensive, customer-centric approach to an organization's philosophy

of dealing with its customers. This includes policies and processes, front-of-house customer service, employee training, marketing, systems and information management. Hence, it is important that any CRM implementation considerations stretch beyond technology toward the broader organizational requirements. The objectives of a CRM strategy must consider a company’s specific situation and its customers' needs and expectations. Information gained through CRM initiatives can support the development of marketing strategy by developing the organization's knowledge in areas such as identifying customer segments, improving customer retention, improving product offerings (by better understanding customer needs), and by identifying the organization's most profitable customers. CRM strategies can vary in size, complexity, and scope. Some companies consider a CRM strategy only to focus on the management of a team of salespeople. However, other CRM strategies can cover customer interaction across the entire organization. Many commercial CRM software packages that are available provide features that serve the sales, marketing, event management, project management, and finance industries. Successes While there are numerous reports of "failed" implementations of various types of CRM projects, these are often the result of unrealistic high expectations and exaggerated claims by CRM vendors. Many of these "failures" are also related to data quality and availability. Data cleaning is a major issue. If a company's CRM strategy is to track life-cycle revenues, costs, margins, and interactions between individual customers, this must be reflected in all business processes. Data must be extracted from multiple sources (e.g., departmental/divisional databases such as sales, manufacturing, supply chain, logistics, finance, service etc.), which requires an integrated, comprehensive system in place with well-defined structures and high data quality. Data from other systems can be transferred to CRM systems using appropriate interfaces. A well specified system is of vital importance before starting any implementation as it can lead to a significant reduction in the time and cost of implementation, as well as highlighting any unrealistic expectations. Privacy and data security One of the primary functions of CRM software is to collect information about customers. When gathering data as part of a CRM solution, a company must consider the desire for customer privacy and data security, as well as and legislative and cultural norms. Some customers prefer assurances that their data will not be shared

with third parties without their prior consent and that safeguards are in place to prevent illegal access by third parties.

Managing Business Meetings Introduction Meetings are a standard and often an essential way of sharing information, planning, solving problems, developing strategies, and making decisions. They will be the core of your planning work. Managing effective meetings requires commitment and diligence, but including fun and opportunities for networking can also help them go more smoothly. Meetings are expensive- consider the hourly rates of the people involved. Making Meetings Productive 1. Develop a decision-making process. Voting? Consensus? Majority rules? When to “sleep on it”? Put these decisions in your bylaws. 2. Refocus tangential conversation. Relate the group process to the purpose. 3. Define clearly decisions that are made. Establish the need for follow-up. Promote and expect accountability. How to Support the Process of Working Together 1. Establish criteria for attendance, share them with the group’s members, and put them in the bylaws. 2. Communicate clearly and multiple times, if possible, the date, place, time, and purpose of each meeting. 3. Plan the meeting’s physical environment. Consider parking, access, room arrangement, room temperature, noise, lighting, food, etc. Pay attention to special needs (see the chapters on learning styles and promoting consumers’ involvement).

4. Have necessary meeting materials organized and available for everyone. Keep them concise, user friendly, and easy to understand. (Don’t assume people read everything beforehand.) Send out lengthy or important materials before the meeting so that people have time to review and think about them. 5. Make people feel welcomed as they walk in the door. Smile, offer food, inquires about their day, show them where they might sit, and introduce them to one another as needed. Particularly if you have newcomers, take the time for” housekeeping” at the beginning of the meeting. Let people know where bathrooms and water fountains are; remind them to turn off cell phones. 6. Acknowledge the value of everyone’s time and effort. Be positive about the meeting’s purpose. Invite participants to engage themselves fully in the process. Make participants all knows one other. (Name tags or name tents may be helpful.) 7. Facilitate, don’t dictate. 8. Develop and write agreed-upon ground rules or the group’s assumptions about how they will work together. Post them where they can be seen at each meeting, and refer to them as necessary. 9. Use active listening skills to understand what a participant contributes and to help the group follow along 10. Know and use conflict resolution skills 11. Acknowledge and use differences of opinions to enrich the group process. • Help participants identify their interests, not just their positions • Find opportunities for levity, and allow time for the group to get to know something about each other. • Understand the concept of groupthink and how to deal with it

• Check in periodically with how the group feels about the progress on their purpose. • Expect that identifying and solving problems will be messy at times. If it were easy, the group would not have to meet. • Keep detailed minutes, and archive them. • Continually thank people for their participation. Follow up as necessary for assignments, promises, and decisions.

Before Meetings 1. Determine whether a meeting is essential. What are the burning issues that necessitate this meeting? If business can be handled electronically, through phone calls, or with other means, don’t have a meeting. 2. Plan the meeting carefully, ascertaining who needs to be there, why, when, and for how long. Make sure everyone invited to the meeting knows these details. 3. Prepare an agenda and send it to participants. Email makes it easier for people to respond immediately about their attendance or requested changes in the agenda. Allow ample advance time for regular mail. 4. The more people who come to your meeting, the longer it is likely to be. Consider meetings with fewer participants, but make sure you have a communication network that supports ongoing, prompt sharing of information among all parties. 5. Make sure everyone knows why their presence is necessary for the meeting’s business. This conveysthe need for personal responsibility and honors their efforts to attend. 6. Remind everyone who should attend the meeting about one business day before it is scheduled, and give out directions (and parking information) to the meeting one

more time. It is also helpful to include a contact phone number in case questions come up (try not to make it yours—you have enough to do). 7. Get to the meeting early, and set up the environment so that business can start on time. Post the meeting site on the front door or front desk if the building is large and unfamiliar to some participants. 8. Have a clock visible to the facilitator of the meeting. During Meetings 1. Always start on time. If funds permit, reward people with food or beverages if they come early. 2. Keep introductions brief (name tents and name tags are useful for this). 3. Welcome people, but limit introductory remarks. Set a pace that will allow the meeting to cover the identified tasks and end at the designated time. 4. Note any agreed-upon group interaction guidelines or norms. This can help prevent inappropriate behaviors that can stall a meeting. At the End of the Meeting 1. Prioritize any next steps. 2. Find ways to spread the work around so as not to overburden the dedicated few. 3. Establish through group consensus or personal agreement what happens next and who does what. 4. Set parameters for accountability. For example, “Mary will send out her list of recommended speakers for our community dialogue within 10 days. Use her e-mail to contact her with your suggestions for names.” 5. Assign tasks and time limits.

6. Decide how and when the minutes will be distributed. 7. Ask for any changes in contact information (phone numbers, e-mails, etc.), and have someone write these down for distribution. 8. Show genuine appreciation for the cooperation and effective participation of the meetings’ membership. 9. Highlight the meeting’s accomplishments and the roles of the participants. If they feel they and their time were valued, they are more likely to attend and work well together again. Time Management in Business Meetings 1. At the beginning of the meeting, state what needs to be accomplished. If possible, assign supporting roles before the meeting (a recorder, flip chart writer) and have any materials ready and available (flip charts, markers, computers, pencils, and paper). Taking notes during the meeting on a computer can make it easier and quicker to produce minutes later. 2. Don’t use meeting time to conduct business that only involves one or two parties. Discuss any issue that isn’t relevant to the majority of the team at some other time. 3. Limit meeting interruptions by having a group policy on cell phone use, emergency contacts, etc.

4. If resource materials are needed, put them on the table or on individuals’ chairs beforehand. Do not read the material out loud. Highlight necessary information. Encourage questions or input with openness but with an eye on the task at hand. 5. If decisions have to be made, discuss first how group decisions will be made to avoid getting the decision mixed up with the decision-making style. 6. Use simple language to convey thoughts, avoid jargon that requires lengthy explanation, and discourage grandstanding. Refocus discussions and tangential

comments. 7. Focus on one topic or problem at a time. If something appears unsolvable at the time or requires more consideration or information, be willing to set it aside, assign a time when it will be readdressed, and move on. 8. To keep the group from endless debate, agree to a time limit on discussion before decisions are made. The group may also assign a person or subcommittee to review and offer prioritized recommendations. 9. If your meeting goes beyond 90 minutes, have a 5 to 10 minute refresher break. Be firm about restarting at the end of the break. 10. If you business is done before the designated ending time, adjourn. People—and their bosses—will be grateful. Managing Minutes of a Meeting • What Are Minutes? 1. An official record of the proceedings of a meeting,given to members before the start of the next meeting 2. A reminder of what happened at a meeting 3. A record of who is to undertake certain actions • Why Should a Team Take Minutes? 1. Permanently recording a meeting lets people know that they have been listened to. 2. Minutes provide a historical record that can be used in future meetings for verification of decisions and as a reminder of events and actions. 3. Minutes can provide important information to people who were unable to attend the meeting.

4. Minutes help keep everyone on track. If a group knows that everything is being documented, it will be more likely to stick to the agenda and act kindly to one another. 5. People are less likely to repeat themselves from meeting to meeting if they feel their concern or issue has been documented. However, it is not necessary to take minutes if the meeting is very short, extremely casual, or informal; if the level of trust is high among participants; if the reason for the meeting is primarily social; or if no significant decisions or actions will be taken (however, it may be very important to document the content of an “informational” meeting).

Role play 1 One hat- One session In this we start a session by having a discussion on one area, lets, take an example, vice president sales has called for a meeting to discuss “increase in sales in third quarter”. He tells everyone to play the same role and discuss within the ambit. Team members will not go outside the roles; if they have anything to share then they will reserve their comments till the appropriate session. Let’s discuss some of the roles; an organisation can generate as many roles as possible, which they think is suitable and appropriate to get the best out of the meeting. For example first session is, optimist- members will talk how things are looking up and there is a great deal of positive expectation, critic- how things went wrong and what could go wrong in future, Be creative- by which creative ways we can increase distribution or sales, etcetera. In this way we are avoiding conflict and getting each one to discuss about the matter in a manner which is avoiding conflict and getting everyone to speak on almost every

issue without hesitation. Good manager will get as detailed in choosing his hat, so he can have both qualitative and quantitative discussion in the meeting.

The Art of Leadership Skills Leadership is the process of directing the behavior of others toward the accomplishment of some common objectives. Definition of Leadership "Leadership is influencing people to get things done to a standard and quality above their norm and doing it willingly." As an element in social interaction, leadership is a complex activity involving: 1. A process of influence 2. Actors who are both leaders and followers 3. A range of possible outcomes - the achievement of goals, but also the commitment of individuals to such goals, the enhancement of group cohesion and the reinforcement of change of organizational culture Leadership Attributes Leadership attributes are the inner or personal qualities that constitute effective leadership. These attributes include a large array of characteristics such as values, character, motives, habits, traits, competencies, motives, style, behaviors, and skills. Most of the leadership attributes cluster into four overarching categories of what you need to be, know, and do: 1. Demonstrate personal character 2. Set directions

3. Mobilize individual commitment, and 4. Engender organizational capability Learning to Lead Effective leaders recognize that what they know is very little in comparison to what they still need to learn. To be more proficient in pursuing and achieving objectives, you should be open to new ideas, insights, and revelations that can lead to better ways to accomplishing goals. This continuous learning process can be exercised, in particular, through engaging yourself in a constant dialogue with your peers, advisers, consultants, team members, suppliers, customers, and competitors. Leading others is not simply a matter of style, or following some how-to guides or recipes. Ineffectiveness of leaders seldom results from from a lack of know-how or how-to, nor it is typically due to inadequate managerial skills. Leadership is even not about creating a great vision. It is about creating conditions under which all your followers can perform independently and effectively toward a common objective. James O'Tool7, a noted management theorist proposes a new vision of leadership in the business world - a values-based leadership that is not only fair and just, but also highly effective in today's complex organizations. It is based on: • Your ideas and values • Your understanding of the differing and conflicting needs of your followers • Your ability to energize followers to pursue a better goal that they had thought possible • Your skills in creating a values-based umbrella large enough to accommodate the various interests of followers, but focused enough to direct all their energies in pursuit of a common good. Types of Leadership Styles The bureaucratic leader is very structured and follows the procedures as they have been established. This type of leadership has no space to explore new ways to solve problems and is usually slow paced to ensure adherence to the company. The charismatic leader leads by infusing energy and eagerness into their team members. This type of leader has to be committed to the organization for the long run. If the success of the division or project is attributed to the leader and not the team, charismatic leaders may become a risk for the company by deciding to resign

for advanced opportunities The autocratic leader is given the power to make decisions alone, having total authority. This leadership style is good for employees that need close supervision to perform certain tasks. Creative employees and team players resent this type of leadership, since they are unable to enhance processes or decision making, resulting in job dissatisfaction. The democratic leader listens to the team's ideas and studies them, but will make the final decision. Team players contribute to the final decision thus increasing employee satisfaction and ownership, feeling their input was considered when the final decision was taken. When changes arise, this type of leadership helps the team assimilate the changes better and more rapidly than other styles. The people-oriented leader is the one that, in order to comply with effectiveness and efficiency, supports, trains and develops his personnel, increasing job satisfaction and genuine interest to do a good job. The task-oriented leader focuses on the job, and concentrates on the specific tasks assigned to each employee to reach goal accomplishment. This leadership style suffers the same motivation issues as autocratic leadership, showing no involvement in the teams needs. It requires close supervision and control to achieve expected results. The servant leader facilitates goal accomplishment by giving its team members what they need in order to be productive. This leader is an instrument employees use to reach the goal rather than an commanding voice that moves to change. The transformation leader motivates its team to be effective and efficient. Communication is the base for goal achievement focusing the group in the final desired outcome or goal attainment. This leader is highly visible and uses chain of command to get the job done. Transformational leaders focus on the big picture, needing to be surrounded by people who take care of the details. The environment leader is the one who nurtures group or organizational environment to affect the emotional and psychological perception of an individual’s place in that group or organization. An understanding and application of group psychology and dynamics is essential for this style to be effective. The leader uses organizational culture to inspire individuals and develop leaders at all levels. This leadership style relies on creating an education matrix where groups interactively learn the fundamental psychology of group dynamics and culture from each other. The leader uses this psychology, and complementary language, to influence direction through the members of the inspired group to do what is required for the benefit of

all. Leadership & Human Behaviour As a leader, you need to interact with your followers, peers, seniors, and others, whose support you need in order to accomplish your objectives. To gain their support, you must be able to understand and motivate them. To understand and motivate people, you must know human nature. Human nature is the common qualities of all human beings. People behave according to certain principles of human nature. Leadership involves the following • Setting up the goals of an organization Good organizations convey a strong vision of where they will be in the future. As a leader, you have to get your people to trust you and be sold on your vision. Using the leadership tools described in this guide and being honest and fair in all you do will provide you with the ammo you need to gain their trust. To sell them on your vision, you need to possess energy and display a positive attitude that is contagious. • Supervising Supervision is keeping a grasp on the situation and ensuring that plans and policies are implemented properly. It includes giving instructions and inspecting the accomplishment of a task. A good leader is one who is a good supervisor as well.A leader is one who maintains an equal balance in supervision & evaluation in an organization. There is a narrow band of adequate supervision. On one side of the band is over-supervision (micro-management); and on the other side is undersupervision. Over-supervision stifles initiative, breeds resentment, and lowers morale and motivation. Under-supervision leads to miscommunication, lack of coordination, and the perception by subordinates that the leader does not care. All employees benefit from appropriate supervision by seniors with more knowledge and experience who tend to see the situation more objectively. • Inspiring Employees 1. Be passionate: In organizations where the is a leader with great enthusiasm about a project, a trickle-down effect will occur. You must be committed to the work you are doing. If you do not communicate excitement, how can you expect your people to

get worked up about it? 2. Get your employees involved in the decision making process: People who are involved in the decision making process participate much more enthusiastically than those who just carry out their boss's order. Help them contribute and tell them you value their opinions. Listen to them and incorporate their ideas when it makes sense to so. 3. Know what your organization is about: Every decision we make is a people’s issue. Your organization is the same. It may make a product or sell a service, but it is still people! A leader's primary responsibility is to develop people and enable them to reach their full potential. Your people may come from diverse backgrounds, but they all have goals they want to accomplish. Create a "people environment" where they truly can be all they can be.

Communication Skills The ability to communicate is the primary factor that distinguishes human beings from animals. And it is the ability to communicate well that distinguishes one individual from another. The fact is that apart from the basic necessities, one needs to be equipped with habits for good communication skills, as this is what will make them a happy and successful social being. Today, effective communication skills have become a predominant factor even while recruiting employees. While interviewing candidates, most interviewers judge them on the basis of the way they communicate. They believe that skills can be improvised on the job; but ability to communicate well is important, as every employee becomes the representing face of the company. There are trainers, who specialize in delivering custom-made programs on the subject. Through the session they not only facilitate better skills in the department of communications, but also look into the problems that come in the way of being able to convey messages effectively. They discuss these issues with the management and

then sought to design programs accordingly. For instance, time mismanagement becomes a cause for stress and frustration, which then hampers the possibility of healthy communications at work. Then in weeks to come the company organizes a program on time management. Thus, a workshop on communication skills helps the management t to deal with the finer employee nuances about which they lack awareness. Definition of Communication Skills Every individual needs to be well equipped with the tools to communicate effectively, whether it is on the personal front, or at work. In fact, according to the management gurus, being a good communicator is half the battle won. After all, if one speaks and listens well, then there is little or no scope for misunderstanding. Thus, keeping this fact in mind, the primary reasons for misunderstanding is due to inability to speak well, or listen effectively. According to the various dictionaries the definition of communication skills is as follows: • Communication skills includes lip reading, finger-spelling, sign language; for interpersonal skills use, interpersonal relations. • Communication skills are the ability to use language (receptive) and express (expressive) information. • Communication skills are the set of skills that enables a person to convey information so that it is received and understood. Communication skills refer to the repertoire of behaviors that serve to convey information for the individual. • Communication skills are the ability an individual displays in consistently demonstrates the ability to effectively communicate with clients, colleagues, subordinates, and supervisors in professional manner and in the personal department. • Communication skills are generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral language and written language. It includes a large number of experiences, actions and events; also a variety of happening and meanings, as well as technologies.

This means that every platform for communicating is a communication event. This includes formal meeting, seminars, workshops, trade fairs, etc. Then there are the communication media such as radio, TV, newspapers, etc. The communication technologies include pagers, phones, etc. The communication professionals include advertisers, journalists, camera crew, etc. Types of Communication Skills Communication is generally classified into a couple of types. The classifications include: • Verbal and non-verbal • Technological and non-technological • Mediated and non-mediated • Participatory and non-participatory However, the commonly known types of communications are: Intra-personal Communication Skills This implies individual reflection, contemplation and meditation. One example of this is transcendental mediation. According to the experts this type of communication encompasses communicating with the divine and with spirits in the form of prayers and rites and rituals. Interpersonal Communication Skills: This is direct, face-to-face communication that occurs between two persons. It is essentially a dialogue or a conversation between two or more people. It is personal, direct, as well as intimate and permits maximum interaction through words and gestures. Interpersonal communications maybe:

• Focused Interactions : This primarily results from an actual encounter between two persons. This implies that the two persons involved are completely aware of the communication happening between them. • Unfocused Interactions : This occurs when one simply observes or listens to persons with whom one is not conversing. This usually occurs at stations and bus stops, as well as on the street, at restaurants, etc.

Non Verbal Communication Skills: This includes aspects such as body language, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, etc., which also become a part of the communicating process; as well as the written and typed modes of communications. Mass Communication: This is generally identified with tools of modern mass media, which includes: books, the press, cinema, television, radio, etc. It is a means of conveying messages to an entire populace. No matter what the different types of communication skills are, communicating is an ever-continuing process that is going on all the time. It is as important to human life as is day-to-day existence. Effective Communication Skills While it is an undisputable fact the communications forms one of the essential basis of human existence, yet most individuals overlook the need to refine their communication skills, from time-to-time. Effective communication skills is a must whether it is individual or then effective team communication skills. According to the experts one can communicate effectively when they understand the stages of interpersonal communication, which are explained below: The Phatic Stage: This is the initial exploratory stage, which determines the course of the conversation. This begins with the greetings and accompanying gestures such as eye contact, the smile, etc. In a formal encounter there is more distance between the individuals, as compared to in the case of an informal encounter. This stage is also known as the warming up stage. There is a no meaning and intention, but just the setting for the next level of the conversation.

The Personal Stage: This is the second stage in which the individuals bring a more personal element into the conversation. During this stage one generally brings down their social guard and begin to interact more openly. They are ready to let the others involved in the conversation more about themselves and the hesitation decreases. Interpersonal interactions generally move into a third stage. Otherwise professional interactions are generally confined to this stage.

The Intimate Stage: This stage is mainly meant for conversations between friends, family and relatives, where those involved in the conversation share a higher level of intimacy with each other. This stage of communicating usually entails opening one's heart and sharing rather intimate details, which is not a part of professional conversations. Keeping in mind these stages, one becomes more aware of how their conversations should progress and where they need to conclude a conversation, or extend it for that matter. Effective skills in communication calls for awareness and attentive listening. Examples of Barriers in Communication Skills More often than never, most people consider themselves to be good and effective communicators simply because they feel they can speak fluently. While speaking fluently is an important aspect of communicating, yet it is not the only requirement. One should be able to listen effectively, speak fluently and clearly, write well and read in the language/s they are familiar with. Apart from these basic aspects of communications, one needs to keep in mind the non-verbal aspects too, in order to be considered adept in communication skills. The fact is that one needs to constantly work towards developing effective communication skills. And primarily they need to overcome the barriers to effective communication. The verbal barriers are: Attacking Interrogating Criticizing Blaming Shaming Moralizing Preaching Advising Diagnosing Endorsing Power Ordering Threatening Commanding Directing Shouting

Name-calling Refusing to talk The non-verbal barriers are: Flashing eyes Rolling eyes Quick movements Slow movements Arms crossed Legs crossed Gestures out of exasperation: Slouching Hunching Lack of personal hygiene Doodling Avoiding eye contact Staring at people Over fidgeting Verbal Communication Skills Everybody has interesting thoughts floating in their mind, however only a few are able to communicate them effectively, and bring about a resounding impact on their audience. This is because they have probably sharpened their verbal communication skills. Many feel that this skill does not need any training, as every individual is able to communicate. Yes, every individual can communicate, but the problem is that every individual cannot effectively communicate. Interesting tips/ ways in which one can improve the way in which they communicate: Be aware of the Communication Process: One should be aware of every aspect of the present communication - the purpose, objective and needs. One needs to be aware of what is occurring within the self; aware of what the others present feel; aware of all that is occurring between the communicators and aware of all that is happening around the communicators. Digging Deeper: One should be able to dig below the surface and derive and understands each

communicator's primary needs from the conversation taking place. Clarity of Thought: One needs to be clear and focused on the subject at hand and not beat around the bush and be ambiguous. Listening Empathetically: One should hone the skills of listening with understanding. Assert Respectfully: It is important that one develops speaking up assertive communication skills. This is because when one is assertive, they are proving that they are confident about what they need to convey. Conflict Resolution: One should be able to come to win-win solutions in orde to solve all problems that may occur from time-to-time. Good Communication Skills The way one communicates does not only have an impact on their own profession and personal relations, but also an effect on others. Those who do not have appropriate communication skills are usually ignored or simply kept at bay whereas those with good communication skills are looked upon and well respected. After all good listeners and good orators are popular in their groups - professional and personal. Based on the communication skills training programs conducted by known experts in the field, here are some tips to good communication skills: Maintain eye contact with the audience: This is vital as it keeps all those present involved in the conversation. It keeps them interested and on the alert, during the course of the conversation. Body awareness: One needs to be aware of all that their body is conveying to them, as well as others. For instance, if there is anxiety rising during the course of a conversation then one feels thirsty and there maybe a slight body tremor. At that point one needs to pause

and let someone else speak. A few deep breaths and some water works as the magic portion at this point. Gestures and expressions: One needs to be aware of how to effectively use hand gestures and the way they need to posture their body to convey their messages effectively. Sometimes it may happen that they verbally convey something, but their gestures and facial expressions have another story to tell. Convey one's thoughts: It is important for one to courageously convey what they think. This is because when things are left unsaid, then what is being spoken is not as convincing as it should be. Then a lack of confidence develops. Practice effective communication skills: One should practice speaking and listening skills as often as possible. In order to practice effective speaking skills one cane read passages from a book aloud, in front of a mirror, or simply performs a free speech in front of the mirror. And where listening is concerned, one can try transcribing from the radio or television, etc. this helps in honing sharper listening skills. List Of Communication Skills The ability to communicate effectively is a trick learnt by many, but practiced perfectly by not too many. This is because for most communicating is simple process. However, it is not so, it a rather simple-complex-networking system that has varied undercurrents flowing between the speaker and listener/s. Given here is an interesting list of communication skills that one should be aware of in order to better their ability to convey their valuable messages... Taking responsibility for one's messages Claiming ownership for one's messages Preparing to listen Encouraging the speaker to speak more Reflecting on what the speaker has to say

Adapting to difference of opinions Being open minded Acknowledging differences Assessing without being judgmental Accepting feedback Being assertive Ability to share one's thoughts Sharing one's feelings Conveying to others a message without commanding or dictating terms Being aware of the information coming in Maintaining a communication wheel of conclusions, sense data, emotions, impact and desire Calm repetition to drive in a message Addressing people by their name Ability to explain a concept differently so that all those present understand it at their level Ability to resolve conflicts so that it is a win-win for all Ability to be concise and clear Ability to convey thoughts in a focused and concrete manner Ability to confront a situation without ruffling any feathers Ability to convey with and empathetic statement Ability to explain objectively without evaluating Ability to provide specific details supported by concrete examples Basic Communication Skills Communication is essentially the transfer of ideas, messages or information from one person to another. It is effective when it gets the desired action or response. Basic communication skills are essential for continued success, whether personal or professional. At the very base one needs to understand the communication process. Thus, one may ask what are communication skills? To answer that simply - Basically, communicating is like a two-way street, which entails the relation between the sender and the receiver. In this process, a cycle of communicating messages is formed between the sender and the receiver. The sender is required to conceive the message he/she wishes to send, encode this message and then transmit. The receiver then is required to receive the message, decode is and clarify his/her understanding of the message.

In order to maintain healthy communication, the two must go through this process, without bringing in other elements of intellectual thoughts and judgments, as they tend to harm the harmonious process of message passing and receiving. From the sender's perspective one needs to have the following essential skills: • Skills to compose the message • Skills to send the message From the receiver's perspective one needs to have the following essential skills: • The skill of receiving a message 1. Without assumptions 2. Placing biases aside 3. Actively listening Thus, the elements of effective communication are: • Listening • Verbal skills • Non-verbal skills How to Meet your Senior’s Expectations

As the part of an organization your organization goal should be your goal. You and your seniors should have the same goals that you want to target. To achieve the goal with well planned strategy, is what the senior should expect from you. The expectations include: Time management: Time management is a set of principles, practices, skills, tools, and systems that work together to help you get more value out of your time with the aim of improving the quality of your work. One can meet his / her senior’s expectations by getting work done on time. A Senior expects you to do all work in time. Time plays an important role for one to achieve the goals of the organization. As a firm you deal with the organisation’s clients and you behave as client for other organisation, so finishing work in time will help to

maintain and build the goodwill. Being Proactive This is another way to meet one’s seniors’ expectations. Proactive people focus their efforts on the things over which they have influence, and in the process often expand their area of influence. Reactive people often focus their efforts on areas of concern over which they have no control. Their complaining and negative energy tend to shrink their circle of influence. In our area of concern, we may have direct control, indirect control, or no control at all. We have direct control over problems caused by our own behaviour. We can solve these problems by changing our habits. We have indirect control over problems related to other people's behaviour. We can solve these problems by using various methods of human influence, such as empathy, confrontation, example, and persuasion. Many people have only a few basic methods such as fight or flight. For problems over which we have no control, first we must recognize that we have no control, and then gracefully accept that fact and make the best of the situation.

Being Updated In an organization, seniors expect you to update yourself with the changing technology in the organization. Updating yourself will help you as well as your organization minimize the cost on training employees and seeing to their development. Team Work In an organization, you should work as a team, with the team and within the team. You have to do what your team wants you to. Teamwork is essential for competing in today's global arena, where individual perfection is not as desirable as a high level of collective performance. In knowledge based enterprises, teams are the norm rather than the exception. A critical feature of these teams is that they have a significant degree of empowerment, or decisionmaking authority. There are many different kinds of teams: top management teams, focused task forces, self-directed teams, concurrent engineering teams,

product/service development and/or launch teams, quality improvement teams, and so on. The purpose of assembling a team is to accomplish bigger goals than any that would be possible for the individual working alone. The aim and purpose of a team is to perform, get results and achieve victory in the workplace and marketplace. The very best managers are those who can gather together a group of individuals and mould them into a team. Ownership In, members tend to focus on themselves because they are not sufficiently involved in planning the unit's objectives. They approach their job simply as a hired hand. "Castle Building" is common. In a team, members feel a sense of ownership for their jobs and unit, because they are committed to values-based common goals that they helped establish. Creativity and Contribution In a group, members are told what to do rather than being asked what the best approach would be. Suggestions and creativity are not encouraged. In a team, members contribute to the organisation's success by applying their unique talents, knowledge and creativity to team objectives. Trust in a group, members distrust the motives of colleagues because they do not understand the role of other members. Expressions of opinion or disagreement are considered divisive or non-supportive. In a team, members work in a climate of trust and are encouraged to openly express ideas, opinions, disagreements and feelings. Questions are welcomed. Common Understandings In a group, members are so cautious about what they say, that real understanding is not possible. Game playing may occur and communication traps be set to catch the unwary. In a team, members practice open and honest communication. They make an effort to understand each other's point of view. Personal Development In a group, members receive good training but are limited in applying it to the job by the manager or other group members. In a team, members are encouraged to continually develop skills and apply what they learn on the job. They perceive they have the support of the team. Conflict - Resolution. In a group, members find themselves in conflict situations they do not know how to resolve. Their supervisor/leader may put off intervention until serious damage is done, i.e. a crisis situation. In a team, members realise conflict is a normal aspect of

human interaction but they view such situations as an opportunity for new ideas and creativity. They work to resolve conflict quickly and constructively. Participative Decision Making. In a group, members may or may not participate in decisions affecting the team. Conformity often appears more important than positive results. Win/lose situations are common. In a team, members participate in decisions affecting the team but understand their leader must make a final ruling whenever the team cannot decide, or an emergency exists. Positive win/win results are the goal at all times. Clear Leadership In a group, members tend to work in an unstructured environment with undetermined standards of performance. Leaders do not walk the talk and tend to lead from behind a desk. In a team, members work in a structured environment, they know what boundaries exist and who has final authority. The leader sets agreed high standards of performance and he/she is respected via active, willing participation. Commitment In a group, members are uncommitted towards excellence and personal pride. Performance levels tend to be mediocre. Staff turnover is high because talented individuals quickly recognise that (a) Personal expectations are not being fulfilled (b) They are not learning and growing from others and (c) They are not working with the best people. In a team, only those committed to excellence are hired. Prospective team members are queuing at the door to be recruited on the basis of their high levels of hard and soft skill sets. Everyone works together in a harmonious environment. Planning and Implementation Planning is work of seniors and implementation is what juniors expect to do. Planning and implementation is continuous process as soon as one plan is implement you have to get ready for another one. Implementation of a plan may have to go through many problems, as soon as you come across any problem in implementation you should inform seniors as plan is dynamic, or should dynamic, as one should expect problem to minimize the gap between planning and implementation Prepare the Backup

Every organization face the problem of employee changing the job, for this a seniors expect you to prepare back-up of every thing. Backup in from of trainee working under you so he can take your place if your leaving firm or if you are transfer on another project. Also backup of data, client information, project details in form of hardcopy and softcopy in a CD in any future loss of information you should ready with information

Team Building Definition of a Team A team comprises a group of people linked for a common purpose. Teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are high in complexity and have many interdependent subtasks. A group in itself does not necessarily constitute a team. Teams normally have members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated effort which allows each member to maximize his or her strengths and minimize his

or her weaknesses. Team Size, Composition, and Formation Team size and composition affect the team processes and outcomes. The optimal size (and composition) of teams is debated and will vary depending on the task at hand. At least one study of problem-solving in groups showed an optimal size of groups at four members. Other works estimate the optimal size between 5-12 members. Less than 5 members results in decreased perspectives and diminished creativity. Membership in excess of 12 results in increased conflict and greater potential of subgroups forming. Regarding composition, all teams will have an element of homogeneity and heterogeneity. The more homogeneous the group, the more cohesive it will be. The more heterogeneous the group, the greater the differences in perspective and increased potential for creativity, but also the greater potential for conflict. Team members normally have different roles, like team leader and agents. Large teams can divide into sub-teams according to need. Many teams go through a life-cycle of stages, identified by Bruce Tuckman as: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning Team Building The term team building generally refers to the selection, development, and collective motivation of result-oriented teams. Team building is pursued via a variety of practices, such as group self-assessment and group-dynamic games, and generally sits within the theory and practice of organizational development. When a team in an organizational development context embarks upon a process of self-assessment in order to gauge its own effectiveness and thereby improve performance, it can be argued that it is engaging in team building, although this may be considered a narrow definition. The process of team building includes, • Clarifying the goal, and building ownership across the team and • Identifying the inhibitors to teamwork and removing or overcoming them, or if they cannot be removed, mitigating their negative effect on the team. To assess itself, a team seeks feedback to find out both: • Its current strengths as a team • Its current weakness To improve its current performance, a team uses the feedback from the team assessment in order to: • Identify any gap between the desired state and the actual state

• Design a gap-closure strategy Team Building, or Team Development, is a coverall term given to methods of developing an effective team. The methods of doing this vary widely, and include • Simple social activities - to encourage team members to spend time together • Group bonding sessions - company sponsored fun activities to get to know team members • Personal development activities - personal change applied on a group level, sometimes physically challenging • Team development activities - group-dynamic games designed to reveal how individuals approach a problem and how the team works together • Psychological analysis of team roles, and training in how to work better together Team building generally sits within the theory and practice of organizational development. Teamwork has also become increasingly acknowledged as an essential skill for employees in companies both small and large. Teamwork has become so valued that many large corporations have developed specific tests to measure potential employees’ teamwork abilities. Many companies are even acknowledging this in their job titles by changing the designation of supervisors or managers to “team leader.” Team Work Teamwork is the concept of people working together cooperatively as a team in order to accomplish the same goals/objectives. A general dictionary defines teamwork as a "Cooperative or coordinated effort on the part of a group (sociology) of persons acting together as a team or in the interests of a common cause, unison for a higher cause, people working together for a selfless purpose, and so on." Applied to workplaces teamwork is a method that aligns employee mindsets in a cooperative and usually selfless manner, towards a specific business purpose. Today there is no business or organization that does not talk about the need and value of teamwork in the workplace. Effective collaborative skills (knowledge) are necessary to work well in a team environment. As businesses and organizations become larger or more sophisticated many employers attempt to enhance their employees' collaborative efforts through training, cross-training, and workshops in order to help people effectively work together in a cohesive group and accomplish shared goals. In order for teamwork to succeed one must be a team player. A Team player is one who subordinates personal aspirations and works in a

coordinated effort with other members of a group, or team, in striving for a common goal. Businesses and other organizations often go to the effort of coordinating team building events in an attempt to get people to work as a team rather than as individuals. Teamwork Skills Aside from any required technical proficiency, a wide variety of social skills are desirable for successful teamwork, including: • Listening - it is important to listen to other people's ideas. When people are allowed to freely express their ideas, these initial ideas will produce other ideas. • Discussing - it is important to discuss your ideas with your teammates until you agree. • Questioning - it is important to ask questions, interact, and discuss the objectives of the team. • Persuading - individuals are encouraged to exchange, defend, and then to ultimately rethink their ideas. • Respecting - it is important to treat others with respect and to support their ideas. • Helping - it is crucial to help one's coworkers, which is the general theme of teamwork. • Sharing - it is important to share with the team to create an environment of teamwork. • Participating - all members of the team are encouraged to participate in the team. (usually consist of three or more people) • Communicating - For a team to work effectively it is essential team members acquire communication skills and use effective communication channels between one another e.g. using email, viral communication, group meetings and so on. This will enable team members of the group to work together and achieve the team's purpose and goals. The forming-storming-norming-performing model takes the team through four stages of team development and maps quite well on to many project management life cycle models, such as initiation - definition - planning - realisation. Team Roles: • Coordinator This person will have a clear view of the team objectives and will be skilled at inviting the contribution of team members in achieving these, rather than just pushing his or her own view. The coordinator (or chairperson) is self disciplined and applies this

discipline to the team. They are confident and mature, and will summarize the view of the group and will be prepared to take a decision on the basis of this. • Shaper The shaper is full of drive to make things happen and get things going. In doing this they are quite happy to push their own views forward, do not mind being challenged and are always ready to challenge others. The shaper looks for the pattern in discussions and tries to pull things together into something feasible, which the team can then get to work on. • Planter This member is the one who is most likely to come out with original ideas and challenge the traditional way of thinking about things. Sometimes they become so imaginative and creative that the team cannot see the relevance of what they are saying. However, without the plant to scatter the seeds of new ideas the team will often find it difficult to make any headway. The planter's strength is in providing major new insights and ideas for changes in direction and not in contributing to the detail of what needs to be done. • Resource Investigator The resource investigator is the group member with the strongest contacts and networks, and is excellent at bringing in information and support from the outside. This member can be very enthusiastic in pursuit of the team’s goals, but cannot always sustain this enthusiasm. • Implementer The individual who is a company worker is well organized and effective at turning big ideas into manageable tasks and plans that can be achieved. Such individuals are both logical and disciplined in their approach. They are hardworking and methodical but may have some difficulty in being flexible. • Team worker The team worker is the one who is most aware of the others in the team, their needs and their concerns. They are sensitive and supportive of other people’s efforts, and try to promote harmony and reduce conflict. Team workers are particularly important when the team is experiencing a stressful or difficult period.

• Completer Finisher The Completer Finisher is a perfectionist and will often go the extra mile to make sure everything is "just right," and the things he or she delivers can be trusted to have been double-checked and then checked again. The Completer Finisher has a strong inward sense of the need for accuracy, rarely needing any encouragement from others because that individual's own high standards are what he or she tries to live up to. They may frustrate their teammates by worrying excessively about minor details and refusing to delegate tasks that they do not trust anyone else to perform. • Monitor evaluator The monitor evaluator is good at seeing all the options. They have a strategic perspective and can judge situations accurately. The monitor evaluator can be overcritical and is not usually good at inspiring and encouraging others. • Specialist This person provides specialist skills and knowledge and has a dedicated and singleminded approach. They can adopt a very narrow perspective and sometimes fail to see the whole picture. Types of Teams • Independent and Interdependent Teams Coaching an "interdependent" team necessarily requires a different approach from coaching an "independent" team because the costs and benefits to individual team members — and therefore the intrinsic incentives for positive team behaviors — are very different. An interdependent team benefits from getting to know the other team members socially, from developing trust in each other, and from conquering artificial challenges Independent teams typically view these activities as unimportant, emotion-driven time wasters. They benefit from more intellectual, job-related training. The best way to start improving the functioning of an independent team is often a single question, "What does everyone need to do a better job?" • Self-Managed Teams The main idea of the self-managed team is that the leader does not operate with positional authority. In a traditional management role, the manager is responsible for providing instruction, conducting communication, developing plans, giving orders, and disciplining and rewarding employees, and making decisions by virtue of

his or her position. In this organizational model, the manager delegates specific responsibility and decision-making authority to the team itself, in the hope that the group will make better decisions than any individual. Neither a manager nor the team leader makes independent decisions in the delegated responsibility area. • Project Teams A team used only for a defined period of time and for a separate, concretely definable purpose, often becomes known as a project team. Managers commonly label groups of people as a "team" based on having a common function. Members of these teams might belong to different groups, but receive assignment to activities for the same project, thereby allowing outsiders to view them as a single unit. In this way, setting up a team allegedly facilitates the creation, tracking and assignment of a group of people based on the project in hand. The use of the "team" label in this instance often has no relationship to whether the employees are working as a team. • Virtual Teams Developments in communications technologies have seen the emergence of the virtual work team. A virtual team is a group of people who work interdependently and with shared purpose across space, time, and organization boundaries using technology to communicate and collaborate. Virtual team members can be located across a country or across the world, rarely meet face-to-face, and include members from different cultures. Many virtual teams are cross-functional and emphasize solving customer problems or generating new work processes. Not all Groups are Teams Some people also use the word "team" when they mean "employees." A "sales team" is a common example of this loose or perhaps euphemistic usage, though interdependencies exist in organizations, and a sales team can be let down by poor performance on other parts of the organization upon which sales depend, like delivery, after-sales service, etc.. However "sales staff" is a more precise description of the typical arrangement. The Five Dysfunctions of a Team • Absence of Trust The first of the dysfunctions, absence of trust, stems from teams unwillingness to be vulnerable within the group. Team members who are not genuinely open with one another about their mistakes and weaknesses make it impossible to build a foundation for trust. • Fear of Conflict

This failure to build trust is damaging because it sets a tone for the second dysfunction: fear of conflict. Teams that lack trust are incapable of engaging in unfiltered passionate debate of ideas. Instead, they resort to veiled discussions and guarded comments. • Lack of Commitment A lack of healthy conflict is a problem because it ensures the third dysfunction of a team: lack of commitment. Without having aired their opinions in the course of passionate and open debate, team members rarely, if ever, buy in and commit to decisions, though they may feign agreement during meetings. • Avoidance of Accountability Because of this lack of real commitment and buy-in, team members develop an avoidance of accountability, the fourth dysfunction. Without committing to a clear plan of action, even the most focused and driven people often hesitate to call their peers on actions and behaviors that seem counterproductive to the good of the team. • Inattention to Results Failure to hold one another accountable creates an environment where the fifth dysfunction can thrive. Inattention to results occurs when team members put their individual needs (such as ego, career development, or recognition) or even the needs of their divisions above the collective goals of the team.

Creativity and Innovation at Work Businesses, whether for-profit or non profit, are facing change like never before. To keep pace they need people who can consistently generate new ideas and adapt to constant change. Numerous driving forces to this change included a rapidly expanding marketplace (globalization), and increasing competition, diversity among consumers, and availability to new forms of technology. Creativity and innovation are often key to the success of a business, particularly when strategizing during strategic planning, and when designing new products and services. A Few Relevant Terms o Change: To alter, make different, move from one state to another. o Creativity: The state or quality of being creative. The ability to create. o Innovation: The act of introducing something new, a thing that is introduced as a novelty. o Lateral thinking: Thinking which seeks new ways of looking at a problem rather than proceeding by logical steps What does Creativity and Innovation mean? • Innovation: Innovation is the production or implementation of ideas. Innovation is an action or implementation which results in an improvement, a gain, or a profit. The National Innovation Initiative (NII) defines innovation as "The intersection of invention and insight, leading to the creation of social and economic value." It also encompasses implementing new business processes, fresh ways of doing things, radical alliances, brilliant new routes to market and business strategies. There are three types of innovation that contribute to wealth creation in

organizations: 1) Business Model Innovation: Significantly changing the structure and / or financial model of the business. 2) Operations Innovation: Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of core business processes and functions. 3) Product/Services/Markets Innovation: Creating new or significantly differentiated products, services or go-to-market activities. • Creativity: Corporate Creativity is characterised by the ability to perceive the world in new ways, to find hidden patterns, to make connections between seemingly unrelated phenomena, and to generate solutions. Generating fresh solutions to problems, and the ability to create new products, processes or services for a changing market, are part of the intellectual capital that give a company its competitive edge. It is stimulated by the ideas of other people and insights often come from making connections between different fields. This is why the best creative teams are crossdisciplinary. Creativity requires whole brain thinking; right-brain imagination, artistry and intuition, plus left-brain logic and planning. Relation between Creativity and Innovation Creativity is the process of having original ideas: innovation is putting them into practice. It is a crucial part of the innovation equation. For innovation to flourish, organizations must create an environment that fosters creativity; bringing together multi-talented groups of people who work in close collaboration together exchanging knowledge, ideas and shaping the direction of the future. What Hinders Creativity and Innovation In an organisation, over time individuals lose the ability to experiment, improvise and take mental detours. Some of the factors that hinder creativity and innovation can be: • Relying on procedural methods of doing things • Rigid expectations of “right answers”

• Thinking within boundaries • Complacency • Making assumptions without checking them • Following the rules • Over reliance on logic • Fear of failure . Creativity and Innovation in the Corporate Sphere Some organisations are plainly more creative than others. Levels of organisational creativity are affected by three factors: 1. Habits - How people relate and work with each other 2. Habitats - The physical environment in which they work 3. Operating systems - The management processes that support the business. Each can inhibit creativity and each can be changed to promote it. For example: Consider BMW, one of the leaders in innovation. Professor Burkhard Goschel, BMW Board Member says, “In order to systematically expand our capacity for innovation, we have focused on providing answers to four key questions that will enable us to measure our future innovativeness: * Do we have an innovation strategy and innovation goals that are closely linked to our corporate strategy? * Are there innovation processes and structures to support our innovations from the original idea to embodiment in the product? * Do we use our own resources efficiently and involve our cooperation partners intelligently? * Do we have a climate and culture of innovation that promotes and rewards courage and creativity?” A Simple Model for implementing an Idea Management based Innovation Strategy Management's main task is to create within the organisation a culture of innovation which will empower workers to think creatively, collaborate on ideas and contribute their ideas to the company. This is not an easy task, but done well it will make construction of the remainder of the innovation machine a relatively easy job. • Management Focus: 1. Ensure there is an environment of trust 2. Establish innovation goals 3. Designate responsibility and resources 4. Develop a communications plan

5. Reduce creative risk 6. Establish a rewards scheme • Idea Generator: If management is the power source of the innovation machine, then the idea generator – the tools and techniques for generating ideas – is the motor that drives the innovation process. In order to understand how the tools and techniques function, it is important to understand • Creativity versus innovation • Individual creativity versus organisational creativity • Creative collaboration - creative teams - brainstorming groups - networking - open collaboration via Internet/intranet • Tools & Techniques: Organisations should have a small “toolbox” of tools and techniques for facilitating innovation. The central tool should be an idea management system capable of soliciting, capturing and evaluating ideas. Properly used, such a tool permits a steady stream of innovative ideas for implementation. Other tools, such as brainstorming, creative spaces and creative meetings further your organisation's innovation potential. Available tools include... • Kipling Method Rudyard Kipling used a set of questions: 5 W’s and 1H, to help trigger ideas and solve problems. Any questions work because we are conditioned to answer the questions we are asked. Also, because the questions are short and also general, they can be applied to many different situations and contexts. What is the problem? Where is it happening? When is it happening? Why is it happening? How can one overcome this problem? Who do you need to get involved? When will you know you have solved the problem? • Problem Statement Solve a problem by first defining the problem and discussing the overall context and situation in which creative activity is aimed. While stating the problem may seem obvious, yet many creative efoerts fail because the problem is either unclear or focused in the wrong place. Once a good problem statement is zeroed in on, the solution sometimes seem very obvious.

• Challenge Method We deal with the complexity of the world around us by making assumptions and pattern matching. It often results in many things going unnoticed. Challenge method can be used to force oneself and others outside a thinking rut, and also test out ideas for validity. Find something to challenge and question it deeply. This can include: concepts, assumptions, impossibilities, essentialities etc. • Idea quality control: Evaluation The more successful an idea management programme is, the more ideas it will generate. As a result, you need an efficient quality control system. Some organisations have highly structured systems comprising multi-stepped systems for reviewing ideas. While this can be effective, it is also important to retain flexibility in the system. • Output: Implemented Ideas Once ideas pass all required quality control processes, they are ready to be implemented. Most companies already have effective implementation procedures for new products, services or operations. If you do not, you should run ideas campaigns on improving these procedures. 1. Monitor the results of the idea implementations 2. Communicate, via the communication plan 3. Reward the people who have submitted and implemented ideas • Maintaining the Results It is important to monitor the results of your innovation strategy and tweak it over time in order to improve results. A major review after six months and annually thereafter allows you to evaluate the results, determine weak points and improve the functioning of your innovation strategy. FISH FISH - Finding Innovative Strategies Helps ( Role Play) In order to understand Innovation and Creativity at work better, a role play was conducted in class. Two teams were formed of which one was the team of boys and the second team comprised of girls. The teams were shown a video of a fish mart performing at workplace in a very strange manner. The clipping was muted so the teams did not know what exactly was being said and done. They got a very vague idea of what was happening of which they were to recreate and perform the play in class after a stipulated time period. After the two teams presented the play the video was played again this time with audio as well. Thus, the concept was understood, which

was to find innovative strategies that helps at work. After the concepts were clear, the performance of the two teams was compared. The presentation shown us included the following Change your Approach Unrealistic demands & deadlines – Needs new stimulus. Perception shift is desired. Challenge, Fresh Ideas, New perspectives. Strategic vision- the new mantra. Progress emanates from Change. Play  Incorporate: Energy, Passion & Enjoyment – bring these to work. Work isn’t easy. Juggle thoughts, actions & align. Create & innovate a change – A new POA. Work = money & happiness – smile away loads.  Change the recipe – retain the vegetables.

Make their Day - Spray Perfume Catch Energy Deal in Service - Serve People People accomplishing their mission – Different mood Their mood = +ve graph rise. Enquire = better informed (Empathize). Recognize people. Use your entire workforce, as unity is strength. Show you care. Take feedback. Track their expertise and laurels. Be a people’s man. Sincere work + blessings = success.

Love Your Job • With clients- be there, like with your best friend. • OK not to seal deal- 1st shot. Succeeded on 1st cycling attempt?

• Release yr potential. More people = more ideas, alternatives & creative solutions. • Team work & celebration in unison= fun in enjoying success. Reinforces Information • Same Qs, different people. Each is Client No-1. Show you care. • Involve customer/client. Share ups and downs, through hospitality. Choose your Attitude Boss,Choose your Attitude AccountabilityColleague, Customer Be aware of what customers say. Your discussion, your reverts. May not become your immediate customer. Future lies is in what’s taken back (in his mind) about you/ your company. Choose - call it a bad day it will be. Change your view and it changes a situation. Be more involved not distant. Your response is your deal. Each one is a potential customer

1. Balloon Balance In this event minimum five people and maximum ten people can participate. In this participants holds on to balloon with their head. To be successful, the most important thing is to move slow and steadily and balance the balloon. The game is about bonding and believing in each others abilities. 2. Team Act of a Mute Video The team will be shown a mute video which the team has to enact. The core theme is what the team has to enact and also come up with the dialogues which are coherent with the actions. This tests the ability of the team members to comprehend the story and come up with a "common story". 3. Clue Finding Exercise Different clues were hidden through out the academic block and groups of 10 students had to find the clues and prepare a logical sequence of all that was asked to be done. The main essence of this exercise is to work in a group and help in team building & coordination.

4. Collage and Role Play Another exercise conducted included the preparation of a collage on the basis of the pictures and information provided in magazines to bring out the importance of communication. Enacting a role play along with props made of news paper formed the second part to this exercise. The role play included portraying a product that had a negative image created and also promoting the product along with a jingle made by the students 5. Presentations This exercise included a 3 minute presentation made on a topic of our choice. The students were judged on their presentation skills, content, body language, research work, facial expressions. The same exercise was repeated again but this time a topic of the teachers choice was given. This was done to see how comfortable a student would be talking on a new topic all together.

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