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Part 4 Media Research Methods

Media research methods

Module code:103

INTRODUCTION Research refer to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating hypothesis, collecting facts or data, analyzing the facts & reaching

certain conclusion either in the form of solutions towards the concerned problem or in certain generalization for some theoretical formulation. Media research is basically intended to provide flow of information about target groups and the effects of media, to the planners, producers and users of media. If research on audience characteristics is known and readily available, the possible failure of communication strategies can be avoided and the limited funds can be utilized most effectively and delivery of information can be made more efficient. Thus research on media is important from many points of views: It tells us about possible positive and negative effects of the media It develops understanding regarding how communication through various media takes place and how it influences people It provides us a necessary statistical and theoretical base for solving the practical problems in utilizing media for education and development It helps us to understand the potential of various media for educational, developmental and entertainment purposes It shows how media shape public opinion and societal values. SCOPE OF MASS MEDIA RESEARCH. How mass media research can help modern societies? Manage media organizations more effectively from a business point of view. Become more socially responsible as communication professionals and more aware as media consumers, Make better decisions as a society about how to manage and regulate the media Media influence on modern societies can be as powerful as societies influence on media. Media content and media organizations are also powerfully influenced by the types of government, the social values, and the cultural legacies of the societies in which they arise. The Medias influences on our thinking, their role in our everyday life, and the variations in the media institutions from one society to another are all important and meaningful areas of research 2) Module: MEDIA RESEARCH METHODS Topics Covered: Research Basics, Applied vs. Social Research, Media Studies and interdisciplinary research

Research Basics Research as an activity is directed at the systematic search for pertinent information on a topic. Research is also defined as the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories, resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events. Important characteristic features of research are: Research is directed towards the solution of a problem. Research emphasizes upon development of generalizations, principles or theories that will be helpful in predicting future occurrences. It adds something to existing knowledge. Research is based upon observations, experiences or empirical evidence. Knowledge of the field of study is an essential prerequisite for research. It leads to further enrichment of knowledge. Research demands accurate observation, experimentation and description of the phenomena. Without precision research can have no acceptable basis. Research requires the use of scientific methods and logical reasoning to probe deeper and reach the truth or as near to reality as possible. Research strives to be objective and logical. Research results are obtained either by way of generalization of the observations or establishing some generally observed phenomena. Research findings are systematically recorded and reported without involving value judgment.

Research is an activity undertaken for generating fresh knowledge. Its principal goal is description, prediction, control and understanding the nature and the human beings individuals as well as groups. Though research is a continuous activity, for understanding the complete process it can be taken to pass through certain distinct

stages, one following the other. These steps are essentially interlinked and starting with the conception of the problem and selection of the area of investigation, it ends with documentation of the research findings.

There can be eight distinct stages in the process of research:

Applied vs. Social Science Research Applied Research Applied research is research designed to improve a product or process. For e.g. advertising agencies conduct research to determine the effectiveness of an advertising campaign. A public relations professional may use applied research to determine if the campaign is accomplishing its goals or whether public opinion is changing. An investment company may conduct applied research to determine what newspapers or magazines its clients read, in order to place ads in the right publications. Technology research examines ways to improve the functioning and application of technology such as how to refine a satellite antenna to make it smaller, yet more powerful. The sales department of a television station conducts research on broadcast ratings to determine how the ratings can be communicated to sponsors who buy commercials and produce income for the station. Newspapers conduct research surveys, which involve collecting data about readers attitudes and opinions in addition to demographic information such as age, sex, education and income. A local newspaper may decide to publish a special weekly edition directed at a certain section of the city. Applied research would examine the demographic characteristics

of the potential readers in the target market and formulate reader profiles that could be used to convince retail businesses to buy advertisements in the special edition. Television networks and local stations both conduct applied research. For e.g. local public television stations may conduct research in such areas as audience analysis, program funding, donor characteristics and new revenue sources. Local commercial stations have in-house research departments. Research at local stations is designed to gather information such as the audiences size, demographic characteristics and buying habits, their use of products and services, the number of radio and television sets in the coverage area, public opinion on specific issues and the effectiveness and popularity of on-air personalities. Applied research Is concerned with solving specific problems Focuses on analyzing and solving social and real life problems. The research is investigative in nature. It applies different methods of using scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. Applied Research is generally conducted on large-scale basis and therefore it is expensive.

Social Science Research Social Science research attempts to discover facts concealed in a social phenomenon or the law governing it. It is a tool used to understand the social processes, social values, ideals, reality, their interrelationship and linkage with natural laws. It attempts to reveal the cause and effect relationship existing in various factors contributing to change in the society.

Social Research would broadly pertain to the following functions: It checks the functioning of the society Studies Individual behavior and social action Evaluates social problems Studies the Effects on the society of particular phenomenon Finds possible solutions Explores social reality Explains social life Develops theories

Utility of Social science research: Social science research has great relevance and practical utility and contributes towards social welfare and development. Its utility maybe judged by the fact that it has the ability to control Social phenomenon. Social research generates knowledge about society and its institutions. Therefore, it leads to the growth of social systems. It also helps in social planning and social predictions. It helps to create social understanding and leads to growth and human understanding. Social research, through better understanding of the environment, satisfies the urge to know and understand human beings and the society. Following are the objectives of Social Science ResearchTheoretical goals: Verification, falsification, modification or discovery of a theory Pragmatic goals: Solution to social problems- Development of social policy, evaluation of programmes, planning of reconstruction, empowerment and liberation. Educational objectives: To educate and inform the public Institutional objectives: To enhance the research quantum of the institutions for which the researcher works. Political motive: To provide support to political plans and programmes. Tactical objectives: To delay decision or action for as long as the investigation is under way Steps in social research

Research problem and hypotheses Formulating research design Gathering of data Interpreting the results so as to test the hypotheses Media Studies and interdisciplinary research Advertising Research Advertising Research employs both quantitative as well as qualitative techniques. Large-scale samples are used for this purpose. Backing up the quantitative studies are group discussions or in-depth interviews which test the adverts or give creative teams in advertising agencies ideas for campaigns. Advertising research reduces the risk and uncertainties in the many decisions and choices advertisers must make at almost every step of the advertising process. They have to determine the best consumer prospects for their products. Target market research helps advertisers to make that determination. They need to know what those products mean in the lives of their prospects. Positioning research gives them that understanding. They have to create advertising messages that will convey the meaning persuasively, and they want to know what impact the message had. Message research helps them determine which advertising messages can stand the best chance of conveying the desired information to the minds of the consumers to lead to the desired consumer action. They want to know how many consumer prospects saw the messages in the media used to deliver them. Audience research gives them information about the number of people who saw the media vehicles in which the advertising appeared. Research will not usually identify the best choice in each decision, but if used correctly, it can reduce the risk of a wrong decision by eliminating alternatives that do not have a good chance of success. Broadcast Research (Research in Television and Radio)

Broadcasting nowadays is a highly competitive business. The transition from analogue to digital transmission is revolutionizing the structure of broadcasting. Competition from audiences has been good for the business of audience researchers. The audience researcher can contribute his/her professional skills to identify the talent appropriate to the station, its deployment and promotion. Researchers working in this area need to deploy a wide range of research tools and do so in an area where practice changes very fast. Broadcasters try to get advertisers and potential customers together, at least for the fleeting moments when broadcast ads are on the air and customers might encounter them. Specialized advertisers want to reach specialized prospective customers- often using specialized media (such as radio stations and TV channels) or vehicles (specific programs). The key questions broadcasters and their advertising clients want answered include a. Who the audience is, b. What the audience thinks or wants, c. And how many of them are being reached when a client purchases and airs an ad. To answer these essential questions, the broadcast industry relies very heavily upon an army of research firms and consultants. We can describe broadcast research as falling into two general camps: ratings research (counting ears or eyeballs) and all other research (anything that goes beyond audience size estimation and tries to describe the nature, attitudes or feelings of prospective customers in the audience). Readership (Newspaper) Research The main goal of much readership research is to ascertain how many readers, newspapers deliver to their advertisers. Before readership studies of this type became commonplace, advertisers relied on circulation numbers to accomplish this. There is still some debate over whether readership numbers or circulation counts provide better information on a newspapers reach. Circulation counts of most daily newspapers are verified by an independent auditor, primarily the Audit Bureau of Circulation. Newspaper readership research is primarily carried out by researchers employed by newspapers, research firms that conduct proprietary studies for newspapers and research firms that conduct syndicated studies for newspapers.

Syndicated studies measure all newspapers with significant market share in a particular market. These generally consist of telephone interviews conducted among large representative samples of adults in each market with careful attention given to design and data collection. The results are generally sold to anyone who wants to buy them, including newspapers, other media, advertising agencies, and advertisers. Applied Public Relations Research In Public Relations, research is needed in three areas- front-end research on public relation contexts, evaluation during and after a program, and monitoring of media coverage. In recent years, several developments have increased the need for research in public relations. One of them has been the understanding that public relation requires systematic, careful listening to important publics as well as speaking to them. Secondly, good public relations occur primarily where a practitioner is truly a part of the management team that sets organizational direction and policy. Public relations is most effective when these two conditions are met. And it seems obvious that: Research is central to the listening process. Unless communications people actually participate in designing research- and they effectively interpret results in ways that suggest application- they may become marginal on management teams.

Selecting topics for research A topic is a relatively narrow area of interest that could be thoroughly researched and written about in the time and length of the given assignment. The ability to develop a good research topic is an important skill. A focused research topic helps you target the most relevant information for the research project. If an instructor assigns a specific topic, it may be possible to give that topic a more specific focus to make it

more personally interesting. Research topics commonly include at least two aspects or concepts. If you started with the subject "illegal immigration", for example, after some preliminary research or background reading, you might find that many people writing about the subject are concerned with the impact of illegal immigration on the U.S. economy. The economy could be the second concept for your research topic. The two (or more) concepts in a research topic can often be phrased in relationship to each other, such as "The effect of _________ on _________", "The role of _________ in _________" or "The use of _________ in _________". Following our focusing process from the subject "illegal immigration", a possible research topic could be "The effect of illegal immigration on the U.S. economy." It can often be helpful to phrase a topic as a research question. For example, if you reworded this topic as research question, it would be "How does illegal immigration affect the U.S. economy?" When you focus in on a research topic from a broad subject area, it's important to select a topic which is: 1) Interesting to you, and 2) Not too broad and not too specific. If you select a topic that is too general, you will be overwhelmed with too much information to choose from and it will be difficult to focus your search. If there are whole books written about your topic, it is too broad for a research paper. If you choose a topic that is too specific, it will be difficult to find enough information to support your ideas and there may not be enough sources to allow you to develop a balanced perspective on a topic. If your research question can be fully answered in a few paragraphs, your topic is too limited. Narrowing in on a precise topic often continues well into the research process. As you gather more information, you will come up with more ideas to focus your research. Paying attention to the wording of your research question can sometimes help you avoid being too specific. Research questions beginning with "How..." or "Why..." are usually broader and typically lead to more substantial research projects than questions beginning with "Who...", "Where..." or "When...", which can often be too limited for most research assignments. Questions beginning with "What..." tend to vary in breadth, depending on the wording of the rest of the question. For example, "What is the effect of illegal immigration on the U.S. economy?" is essentially the same relatively broad question as our earlier example that started with "How...; while "What percentage of total U.S. employees are illegal immigrants?" is a much

more specific question and would not be broad enough for most research assignments. Research questions that have no simple answers usually lead to more productive research papers. Topics that are controversial and for which there are various different points of view give you more possibilities for developing your own ideas and analysis from your research. When you choose your own topic, you will need to: brainstorm for ideas read general background information focus in on a manageable topic make a list of useful keywords be flexible define your topic as a focused research question research and read more about your topic formulate a thesis statement Be aware, selecting a good topic is not easy. It must be narrow and focused enough to be interesting, yet broad enough to find adequate information for your research. Before you select your topic, make sure you know what your final research project should look like. Use the steps below to help you carefully define and select your research topic. Step 1: Brainstorm to get research topic ideas Choose a topic that interests you. Even if a topic has been assigned, you may be able to choose a particular aspect of the topic that interests you personally. Use the following questions to help you generate topic ideas. o Do you have a strong opinion on a current social or political controversy? o Did you read a newspaper article, or see a TV broadcast recently that piqued your curiosity or made you angry or anxious? o Do you have a personal issue, problem, or interest you'd like to know more about? o Do you have a research paper due in a class this semester? o Is there an aspect of one of your courses you are interested in learning more about? Look at some of the topically oriented web sites and research sites for ideas Ideas for topics can come from a number of places: Textbooks - A textbook can provide an overview of topics. Reference Books - Browse the subject area in a library's reference collection. Magazine/Journal Articles - Magazines and newspapers publish articles on current events. If you already have a topic in mind,

search an article database see what is being written on your topic. Be original. Select an original topic or an original stance on an overused topic. Using the right research strategy, you can find information on any topic. Be aware of overused topic ideas. You may wish to avoid such topics unless you have a new and unique approach. Step 2: Read general background information Read a general encyclopedia article on the top two or three topics you are considering. Reading a broad summary enables you to get an overview of the topic and see how your idea relates to broader, narrower and related issues. It also provides a great source for finding words commonly used to describe the topic. These keywords may be very useful to your later research. If you can't find an article on your topic, try using broader terms and ask for help from a librarian. For example, the Britannica may not have an article on "Social and Political Implications of Jackie Robinson's Breaking of the Color Barrier in Major League Baseball" but there will be articles on "baseball history" and on "Jackie Robinson". o Browse the Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia on your topic ideas. Notice the Britannica also provides links to magazine articles and Web sites. These are listed on either side of the encyclopedia articles in the display. Use article databases to scan current magazine, journal or newspaper articles on the topic. Use Web search engines to find Web sites on the topic. Step 3: Focus in on your topic Keep it manageable. A topic will be very difficult to research if it is too broad, or too narrow. One way to narrow a broad topic such as "the environment" is to limit your topic. Common ways to limit a topic are: o by geographic region Example: What environmental issues are most important in the Southwestern United States? o by culture Example: How does the environment fit into the Navajo world view? o by time frame Example: What are the most prominent environmental issues of the last 10 years?

o by discipline Example: How does environmental awareness affect business practices today? o by population group Example: What are the affects of air pollution on senior citizens? Remember that a topic will be more difficult to research if it is too: o Locally confined - Topics this specific may only be covered in local newspapers, if at all! Example: What sources of pollution affect the Ogden valley water supply? o Recent - Be aware if a topic is very recent, books and journal articles will not be available, but newspaper and magazine articles will. Web sites may or may not be available. Example: Events that happened yesterday or last week o Broadly interdisciplinary - You could be overwhelmed with superficial information Example: How can the environment contribute to the culture, politics and society of the Western states? o Popular - You will only find very popular articles about some topics, including sports figures, rock music and rap stars. If you have any uncertainties about the focus of your topic: o discuss your topic with your instructor o discuss your topic with a librarian Step 4: Make a list of useful keywords Keep track of the words that are used to describe your topic. o Look for words that best describe your topic. o These words will be found in the encyclopedia articles and other reading that you do while selecting your topic. o Find synonyms, broader and narrower terms for each keyword you find in order to expand your search capabilities. Keep a list of these words to use as keywords later as you search in catalogues and other online databases. Step 5: Be flexible It is common to modify your topic during the research process. You can never be sure of what you may find. You may find too much and need to narrow your focus, or too little and need to broaden your focus. This is a normal part of the research

process. When researching, you may not wish to change your topic, but you may decide that some other aspect of the topic is more interesting or manageable. Keep in mind the assigned length of the research paper, project, bibliography or other research assignment. Be aware of the depth of coverage needed and the due date. These important factors may help you decide how much and when you will modify your topic. You instructor will probably provide specific requirements, if not the table below may provide a rough guide: Assigned length of research paper or project Suggested guidelines for approximate number and types of sources needed 1-2 page paper 2-3 magazine articles or Web sites 3-5 page paper 4-8 items, including book, articles (scholarly and/or popular) and Web sites Annotated bibliography 6-15 items including books, scholarly articles, Web sites and other items 10-15 page research paper 12-20 items, including books, scholarly articles, web sites and other items Remember to consult your instructor and assignment for specific requirements Step 6: Define your topic as a focused research question You will often begin with a word, develop a more focused interest in an aspect of something relating to that word, and then begin to have questions about the topic. For example: o Ideas = Frank Lloyd Wright or modern architecture o Research Question = How has Frank Lloyd Wright influenced modern architecture? o Focused Research Question = What design principles used by Frank Lloyd Wright are common in contemporary homes? Step 7: Research and read more about your topic Use the key words you have gathered to research in the catalogue, article databases and Internet search engines. Find more information to help answer your research question. You will need to do some research and reading before you select your final topic. Can you find enough information to answer your research question? Remember, selecting a topic is an important and complex part of the research process.

Step 8: Formulate a thesis statement Write your topic as a thesis statement. This may be the answer to your research question and/or a way to clearly state the purpose of your research. Your thesis statement will usually be one or two sentences that state precisely what is to be answered, proven, or what you will inform your audience about your topic. The development of a thesis assumes there is sufficient evidence to support the thesis statement. o For example, a thesis statement could be: Frank Lloyd Wright's design principles, including his use of ornamental detail and his sense of space and texture opened a new era of American architecture. His work has influenced contemporary residential design. The title of your paper may not be exactly the same as your research question or your thesis statement, but the title should clearly convey the focus, purpose and meaning of your research. o For example, a title could be: Frank Lloyd Wright: Key Principles of Design for the Modern Home. Remember to follow any specific instructions from your instructor.

EXAMPLES If you started to brainstorm with this idea... Your focused research question might be ... Your thesis statement may be ... Your keywords may be ... legalization of marijuana What would be the effects of the legalization of marijuana on the terminally ill? Marijuana has many practical medical uses. Legalizing marijuana would positively effect terminally ill patients. marijuana, cannabis, legalization, legalize, legal, therapeutic, medical sports and violence Are professional athletes more violent than the average male? Many factors contribute to a higher than average rate of violence among professional

athletes. professional athletes, sports, violence, abuse Parental involvement in schools How can parental involvement improve a child's learning? Parental involvement in elementary school can help students reach academic success parents, students, parental involvement, elementary schools, achievement

Importance of a literature review A literature review is the review of a collection of published research relevant to a research question. All good research and writing is guided by a review of the relevant literature. An integral component of the scientific process, a literature review is the mechanism by which research is viewed as a cumulative process. The literature review has two components: the actual literature search and the writing of the review. Purpose of a literature review It provides a framework for establishing the importance of your study. Benchmark for comparing the results of your study to other findings. Presents results of other studies that are closely related to your study comparative and contrasting studies are appropriate here. Relates your study to the larger ongoing discussion in the literature. Demonstrates how your study fills in gaps in the literature or extends the work of prior studies.

Regardless of the research methodology used, the purpose of the literature review remains the same. It is an essential test of the research question against that which is already known about the subject. The literature review reveals whether or not a research question has already been answered by someone else. If it has, often the question needs to be changed or modified, so that an original contribution to the research is made. In the process of creating the work it is very important to pay attention to the literature review in order to prove your papers accuracy. So, literature review in a dissertation is a register of used resources related to the topic of the dissertation. Literature review uses a lot of quotations. The purpose of literature review list is not to give the list of used material only, but also to show the importance of it, its influence and general information. In the process of creating the literature review you can express your own ideas as for the necessity of chosen resource, describe the further using in of the statements given in it. The qualitative approach uses the literature inductively towards the end of the study; the quantitative approach uses it inductively at the beginning. Although, it is recommended to place the literature towards the end of a qualitative study (to be compared and contrasted with the outcomes of the study), it also can be found in the introduction to frame the problem or in a separate section called the review of literature. A common format for a quantitative study is to present a separate review of literature. Materials to include in a review Include essential information from articles in a review of a single research study or essay. Researchers need to consider what is to be extracted from a study and summarize it. A good summary of a journal article includes the following points: Mention the problem being addressed State the central purpose or focus of the study State briefly information about the sample, population or subjects. Review key results that relate to the study Priority for reviewing the literature Consider a priority for searching the literature, beginning with the most respected, national refereed journal articles that report research studies. This search should be followed by books, conference papers, and dissertations. Model for delimiting the literature review When composing a review of the literature, it is difficult to determine how much

literature to review. To address this problem write a review of the literature that contains sections about the literature related to major independent variables, major dependent variables, and studies that relate the independent and dependent variables. This focuses the literature review, relates it closely to the variables in the research questions and hypotheses, and sufficiently narrows the study. Research map of the literature One of the first tasks of the researcher working with a new topic is to organize the literature about the topic. This task enables a person to understand how his or her study of the topic adds to, extends, or replicates research already completed. A useful tool for this task is to design a map of the research literature. Maps are visual renderings of the literature, and they can be organized in different ways. The central idea is that the researcher begins to build a visual picture of existing research about the topic. To identify the literature, the computerized library systems can be helpful. Consider the on-line catalogue and the CD-ROM databases available in many academic research libraries. One final design consideration is to identify an accepted style manual, given the audience for the study, and to consider using a computer bibliographic citation system systematically to organize and retrieve references in different styles.

Asking questions related to media, society and culture Media research When you do research about mass communication, you are engaged in something that is quite different from actual journalistic work, although there are also some important connections between these two activities. You are trying to understand how the media actually work what influences they have, and what in turn influences them. This works best if you can put yourself in the mood to step back from your everyday life and look at it as though you never saw it before. This is the frame of mind that anthropologists once adopted in studying cultures very different from their own, where even the simple activities of daily life could be difficult to understand for an outsider. But you can adopt the same approach in your own culture and learn things you might never have noticed otherwise. Journalism versus social science Often, student researchers find it hard at first to conceptualize the difference

between doing journalistic work and doing social science. This isnt surprising because there are many important similarities between the two. Ideally, both rely on the careful and systematic collection and analysis of data, whether in words or in numbers. Both strive for objectivity, although experienced professionals in either field recognize that personal interpretation inevitably has an important place as well. Whats different is the purpose. Journalists are interested in keeping the public informed about events they believe are important. Social scientists, however, are interested in understanding and explaining human social behaviour. They want to know how social institutions, including mass media work. Their primary goal is to generating knowledge, whereas the primary goal of journalism is communicating it. Finding out more about how the mass media work can help you understand modern societies. The results can help resolve can help resolve controversies about violence in the media, unravel questions about the effect of news on public opinion and politics, and understand the ways in which the media can meet audiences needs. The answers to these questions can help us: Manage media organizations more effectively from a business point of view, Become more socially responsible as communication professionals and more aware as media consumers and Make better decisions as a society about how to manage and regulate the media. Social science can never answer most of these questions once and for all, but it almost always provides important insights. Finally, understanding how to do this type of research about the media will help you understand how social science works more generally because you will be using social scientific approaches. The media both reflect and help shape our perceptions of the appropriate roles of men and women and our stereotypes of ethnic groups, professional groups, and public figures. They teach us what public issues are important and provide us with much of the information we use to form opinions. They also serve social as well as informational needs and contribute to our entertainment as well as our education. The medias influence on modern societies can be powerful, although this is not a one-way street. Media content and media organizations are also powerfully influenced by the types of government, the social values, and the cultural legacies of the societies in which they arise. Defining Culture Culture is the knowledge necessary to act as a member of a given social group. This definition encompasses many of the more narrow ways of thinking about culture. To

be a member of a social group, we have to know what is expected of us what the norm or rules for behaviour are, including whats expected on ceremonial occasions and in everyday interaction with others. This does not just mean we need to know the laws that we will be punished for breaking, but we must understand what subtle aspects of behaviour everyone in the group takes for granted. Cultural Relativism Anthropologists are often cultural relativists to at least some degree; that is they explicitly avoid assuming that one culture is better than another or evaluating a particular groups value system by comparing it to their own but try to understand each culture on its own terms. Cultural relativism, in its extreme form, can generate ethical conflicts. Social Roles Different cultures not only have different beliefs about the world around them, they also have very different expectations for how people should behave in a particular social role, such as mother or brother. In each case, there is some kind of biological foundation for the existence of different roles, but the forms these take very much socially determined. Asking questions related to culture and society This is not meant to be a definitive list of questions, but an indication of what general areas of culture might contain significant information, together with illustrations of what kinds of specific questions might need answers and what their significance might be. The various aspects of culture do not have the same relative importance to people in different groups, but that is among the questions for which we need answers. 1.General 2.Family 3.The Life Cycle 4.Interpersonal Relationships 5.Communication 6.Decorum and Discipline 7.Religion 8. Dress and Personal Appearance 9.History and Traditions 10.Education 11.Time and Space 12.Pets and Other Animals

13. Art and Music 1. GENERAL a. What are the major stereotypes which you and others have about each cultural group? To what extent are these accepted by the group being typed? b. To what extent and in what areas has the traditional culture of each minority group changed in contact with the dominant American culture? In what areas has it been maintained? c. To what extent do individuals possess knowledge of or exhibit characteristics of traditional groups? These general questions must be kept in mind when asking questions about 'traditional' or 'typical' cultural beliefs or behaviors in all of the areas of culture which follow. While there are systematic differences between groups of people which we need to recognize and understand, we need to critically analyze all information for the effects of stereotyping, recognize the facts of acculturation, and be sensitive to individual differences. Otherwise there is a danger of merely adding to the stereotypes, or generalizing what is 'typical' to all. 2. FAMILY a. Who is in a 'family'? Who among these (or others) live in one house? b. What is the hierarchy of authority in the family? The family is the initial and often the primary socialization unit of people, and many of the individual's most basic social perceptions and values are formed in that context. An understanding of the family structure and system of expected responsibilities, values, and behaviors is essential to the researcher. Such knowledge can be helpful in anticipating and interpreting the behaviors or attitudes of the individual or other family members in particular situations. In addition, it may serve as a point of departure or contrast in presenting information about family patterns in the majority culture. Since family structure is so variable, particularly under circumstances of immigration and acculturation, individual differences (including those associated with social class) should be carefully determined. At the same time, differences between expressions of group 'norms' or 'ideals' and individual reality should be appropriately recognized. 3. THE LIFE CYCLE a. What are criteria for the definition of stages, periods, or transitions in life? b. What are attitudes, expectations, and behaviors toward individuals at different

stages in the life cycle? What stage of life is most valued? What stage of life is most 'difficult'? c. What behaviors are appropriate or unacceptable for children of various ages? How might these connect with behaviors taught or encouraged in the school? d. How is language related to the life cycle? The stages in the life cycle are like all aspects of human existence, basically culturally defined. When one ceases to be a child, when and by what criteria one becomes an adult, how one is treated at different stages by members of other age groups, what one's privileges and responsibilities are at different stages, are quite different in different societies. Passage from one stage to another may be totally unmarked in one society, and a major traumatic event in another. Stages may also differ by socioeconomic class, as may also the attention given to occasions of passage. Of particular significance for educational (and sometimes mental health) concerns is the fact that for groups undergoing rapid acculturation there may be wrenching changes taking place in the traditional roles, relationships, and responsibilities of different stages in the life cycle, making them individually variable and causing great psychological stresses and strains. 4. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS a. How do people greet each other? What forms of address are used between people in various roles? b. Do girls work and interact with boys? Is it proper? c. How are insults expressed? Researchers must be perceptive as to how they themselves (as culturally conditioned beings) interpret and respond to violations of sociolinguistic expectations and recognize that such 'violations' may simply reflect cross-cultural differences in interactional rules and norms, not occasions for punishment. 5. COMMUNICATION a. What languages, and varieties of each language, are used in the community? b. Which varieties are written and how widespread is knowledge of written forms? c. What are the characteristics of 'speaking well', and how do these relate to age, sex, context, or other social factors? What are the criteria for 'correctness'? There is no complete inventory of different social rules for language usage or of different attitudes toward language which may be consulted. Code-switching between English and the native language may be highly valued socially. No researcher can afford not to have a thorough understanding of the status and uses of languages in the local community.

6. DECORUM AND DISCIPLINE a. What is decorum? How important is it for the individual and for the group? b. What is discipline? What counts as discipline in terms of the culture, and what doesn't? What is its importance and value? c. What behaviors are considered socially unacceptable for people of different age and sex? d. What is the role of language in social control? What is the significance of using the first vs. the second language? The choice of a language for controls and directions is important, with English often perceived by people as milder than their home language. 7. RELIGION a. What is considered sacred and what secular? b. What religious roles and authority are recognized in the community? c. What should an outsider not know, or not acknowledge knowing? d. What taboos are there? What should not be discussed; what questions should not be asked? Violations of beliefs and practices in this area of culture probably result in the most serious conflicts so researcher should have a thorough knowledge of them.. 8. DRESS AND PERSONAL APPEARANCE a. What clothing is 'typical'? What is worn for special occasions? What seasonal differences are considered appropriate? b. What significance does dress have for group identity? c. How does dress differ for age, sex, and social class? d. What restrictions are imposed for 'modesty' (e.g., can girls wear shorts, or shower in the gym)? e. What constitutes a 'compliment', and what form should it take (e.g., in traditional Latin American culture, telling a woman she is getting fat is a compliment)? f. Does the color of dress have symbolic significance (e.g., black vs. white for mourning)? Since dress and personal appearance are for the most part readily observable, most of the questions raised are fairly easy to answer. Despite this fact, however, probably more cross-cultural communication 'misfires' take place in this area than any other. In part this is because the values underlying dress and appearance are not as easily discovered, leaving the superficial aspects highly susceptible to misinterpretation and stereotyping, and in part because no other aspect of a person's behavior (except perhaps speech) is so strongly tied to self image and group identity.

9. HISTORY AND TRADITIONS a. What individuals and events in history are a source of pride for the group? b. To what extent is knowledge of the group's history preserved? c. In what forms and in what ways is it passed on? d. To what extent is there a literate tradition of the history of the group (i.e., written history, and knowledge of written history within the group itself)? e. To what extent are traditions and historical events reflected in aphorisms and proverbs? f. Do any ceremonies or festive occasions reenact historical events? The realities must be kept carefully in mind if the absurdities of the 'romantic fallacy' are to be avoided. Many researchers commit the error of introducing historical and literary-artistic content of questionable relevance from a group's country of origin, and totally ignore the history and achievements of the group to the country they have migrated. 10. EDUCATION a. What is the level of educational qualification in the group? The researcher needs to understand the educational qualifications of the respondents before asking questions so as to frame questions which can be easily comprehended by them. 11. TIME AND SPACE a. What beliefs or values are associated with concepts of time? How important is 'punctuality'? Speed of performance when taking a test? c. Are particular behavioral prescriptions or taboos associated with the seasons (e.g., not singing certain songs in the summertime or a snake will bite, not eating oysters when there is an R in the month)? The organization of time and space is of enormous significance in most cultures, and one of the most frequent areas for cross-cultural conflict or misunderstanding, in large part because it is so often unconscious. In particular, the researcher cannot assume that many of the concepts and attitudes regarding time and space (including personal space) held by the majority culture can be taken for granted. At the same time, a knowledge of the concepts and attitudes of the minority group regarding time and space is important

12. PETS AND OTHER ANIMALS a. Which animals are valued, and for what reasons? b. Which animals are considered appropriate as pets; which are inappropriate, and why? c. Are any animals of religious significance? Of historical importance? The most serious cultural violations occur in cases where particular animals have religious significance, and where even talking or reading about them is restricted or prohibited. Less serious, though unpleasant, are the negative attitudes which may be directed toward the researcher who expresses fondness for cats or dogs, for instance, which are considered 'unclean' in some other cultures. Again, information on cultural differences is essential. 13. ART AND MUSIC a. What forms of art and music are most highly valued? b. What media and instruments are traditionally used? c. Are there any behavioral prescriptions or taboos related to art and music (e.g., can both men and women sing)? Artistic conventions are very important for the interpretation of any tests which make use of pictures, adding to their potential for cultural bias. Each culture has prescribed conventions for both art and music, and no experience which is outside the bounds of those conventions will be recognized or appreciated as 'art'. Receptive appreciation of culturally different conventions may be cultivated, but truly satisfying aesthetic experience is probably limited to the range of conventions which has been internalized as part of socialization. Of course, in art as in all else, it is essential to avoid stereotyping the individual, particularly in minority groups undergoing rapid acculturation

Steps in Research Design A Research Design is the detailed blueprint used to guide a research study toward its objectives. The process of designing a research study involves many interrelated decisions. The research design process is as follows: 1) Research purpose

2) Research objective 3) Estimate value of research information 4) Research approach 5) Research tactics 6) Compare cost and timing estimates with anticipated value 7) Data collection and analysis 8) Conclusions and recommendations

Research Purpose: The research purpose comprises a shared understanding of :

a) Problem or opportunity analysis Research often is motivated by a problem or opportunity. E.g. increased leisure time might be viewed as an opportunity by a recreation-oriented organization. -In such cases the research purpose should specify and identify the problem or opportunity to be explored. This is a crucial first step in the research process.

b) Decision Alternative- For research to be effective it must be associated with a decision. Research is committed to the principal of utility. In general, if research is not going to have an effect on decisions, it is an exercise in futility. -The researcher should always be sensitive to the possibility that either there are no decision alternatives and therefore no decision or that research findings will not affect the decision, usually because of resource or organisational constraints. -In such circumstances the research will have no practical effect on decisions. -When a decision potential does exist, it is important to identify it explicitly, because the research then can be designed for maximum effectiveness.

Research Objective : The research objective is a statement, in as precise terminology as possible, of what information is needed. The research objective should be framed so that obtaining the information will ensure that the research purpose is satisfied. Research objectives have 3 components: 1. Research QuestionThe research question asks what specific information is required to achieve the research purpose. If the research question is answered by the research, then the information should aid the decision maker. -The researcher will always try to make the research question as specific as possible. The more specific the research question is, the more practical guidance will be provided to develop the research design. 2. Hypothesis Development- A hypothesis is a possible answer to a research question. The researcher should always take the time and effort to speculate as to possible research question answers that will emerge from the research. -Another important role of a hypothesis is to suggest variables to be included in the research design. The effort will add a considerable degree of specificity to the research question. -In case of several competing hypotheses, one objective of research is to choose among the possible hypothesis. The challenge for the researcher is to devise a research approach that will gather information that can test each of these hypotheses. 3. Research Boundaries- Much of the dialogue between the researcher and the decision maker will be about clarifying the boundaries of the study. E.g.-Is the interest in the total population restricted to men, or to those on the West Coast? The aim is to make the research question more precise. -A final question of research scope regards the desired precision or accuracy of the results. This will depend on the research purpose.

Estimate value of research information- Before a research approach can be selected, it is necessary to have an estimate of the value of obtaining answers to the research questions. Such an estimate will help to determine how much, if anything, should be spent on the research. -The value will depend on the importance of the decision (specified in the research purpose), the uncertainty that surrounds it, and the influence of the research information on the decision. -If the decision is highly significant in terms of the investment repaired or in terms of its effect in the long-run, then information may have a high value. Uncertainty that is meaningful to the decision also must exist if the information is to have value. If the outcomes are already known with certainty, or if the decision will not be affected by the research information, the information will have no value. Research approach : All research approaches can be classified into one of three general categories of research: exploratory, descriptive, and casual. These categories differ significantly in terms of research purpose, research questions, the precision of the hypotheses that are formed and the data collection methods that are used. Types of Research : Exploratory research- is used when one is seeking insights into the general nature of a problem, the possible decision alternatives, and relevant variables that need to be considered. Typically, there is little prior knowledge on which to build. The research methods are highly flexible, unstructured, and qualitative, for the researcher begins without firm preconceptions as to what will be found. The hypotheses are either vague and ill defined, or they do not exist at all. Exploratory research is useful for establishing priorities among research questions and for learning about the practical problems of carrying out the research. Descriptive Research- embraces a large proportion of marketing research. The purpose is to provide an accurate snapshot of some aspect of the environment, such as: the proportion of adult population that supports the United fund or demographic characteristics of the readership of a magazine etc. Hypotheses often will exist, but they may be tentative and speculative.

In general, the relationships studied will not be casual in nature. However, they may still have utility in prediction. Casual Research- When it is necessary to show that one variable causes or determines the values of other variables, a casual research approach must be used. Descriptive research is not sufficient, for all it can show is that two variables are related or associated but would not show which variable preceded the other and that there were no other casual factors that could have accounted for the relationship, as provided by Casual Research. Because the requirements for proof of causality are so demanding, the research questions and relevant hypothesis are very specific.

Research Tactics : Once the research approach has been chosen, research tactics and implementation follow: the specifics of the measurement, the plan for choosing the sample, and the development of the methods of analyses. Measurement The first step is to translate the research objective into information requirements and then into questions that can be answered by anticipated respondents. Once the individual questions have been decided, the measuring instrument has to be developed. Usually this instrument is a questionnaire, but it also may be a plan for observing behaviour or recording data. Sampling Plan Most research studies are limited to a sample or subgroup of the total population relevant to the research question, rather than a census of the entire group. The sampling plan describes how the subgroup is to be selected. E.g. probability sampling is one approach used when all population members have a known probability of being in the sample. Other critical decisions at this stage are the size of the sample and the means of minimising the effect on the results of sample members who cannot be reached or who refuse to cooperate. Anticipating the Analysis In order to avoid losing sight of the research objectives, the researcher must be alert to the possibility of the data being inadequate for hypotheses testing or incapable of supporting action recommendations, before actual

data collection begins. Once the data have been collected, it is too late to lament about the inadequacy or incapability of the data. -With these concerns in mind, the researcher should plan how each of the items is to be analysed. One useful device is to generate fictional (dummy) data from the questions in the measurement instrument. These dummy data can be analysed to ensure that results address the objectives. Any shortcomings identified will help guide the changes to the questionnaire before it is sent into the field.

Analysis of Value versus Cost and Time Involved At this stage of the design, most of the cost has yet to be expended, but the research is now completely specified and a reliable cost estimate should be available. Thus, a more detailed cost-benefit analysis should be possible to determine if the research should be conducted as deigned or if it should be conducted at all. One component of cost to be considered is the time involved. It may be that the time period delays the decision, thus creating the risk that a set of attractive conditions will be missed. The analysis can conclude that either the research design is cost-effective and should proceed or that it is not and should be terminated or may be revised to make it less costly. Research process thus is more like a series of iterations and reconsiderations rather than an ordered sequence of well-defined steps.

Data collection and analysis : A. Data Collection Methods -The research designer has a wide variety of methods to consider, either singly or in combination. They can be grouped first according to whether they use secondary or primary sources of data. Secondary data are already available, because they were collected for some purpose other than solving the present problem. E.g. a companys information system Primary data are collected especially to address a specific research objective. A variety of methods ranging from qualitative research to surveys to experiments may

be employed. Because different methods serve different purposes, a researcher often will use several in sequence, so the results from one method can be used by another. -Data collection methods also vary depending on the managerial style and the culture of the organization. B. Data Processing and analysis Once the research data has been collected, the process of preparing it for analysis begins. Quantitative data will need to be stored and coded and even qualitative data will need to be indexed or categorized in preparation for analysis. Coding is defined as the process of conceptualizing research data and classifying them into meaningful and relevant categories for the purpose of data analysis and interpretation. Data would then be analyzed as it is ( in case of qualitative research) which can later be used during content analysis as well or would be analyzed by preparing a analysis/tabulation plan.

Conclusions and Recommendations : Findings of the research are the input for drawing conclusions. Findings are therefore the soul of the evaluation report. After considering the findings the last section of the research deign process is to draw conclusions and make recommendations. Conclusions provide a final interpretation of success or failure of the project and how the programme can be improved.

Types of Research Research in ordinary parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge for further advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. Definitions 1. Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English : Research is a careful investigation of inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge 2. Redman and Mory : Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge Types of Research Research can be of varied types depending on the context based on the classification has been made. Classification 1

Scientific Research: is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among the phenomena.

Subjective belief is checked against objective reality . Various characteristics of scientific research are empiricism ( supporting the conclusion with facts and figures), verifiability ( that can be cross checked and proved), Objectivity (free from bias or prejudice), predictability ( predictions can be made based on a particular strategy or rule), generality (the conclusion is general and relevant to most) and systematic ( data is presented in an organized manner). Scientific research improves decision making, reduces uncertainty, helps in adopting new strategies and ascertaining trends.

Social Research: consists of the process of formulating and seeking answers to questions about the social world. It includes in depth studies about the functioning of the society, individual behavior and social action, social problems, societal effects, social life. It also deals with developing social theories and finding possible solutions to varied social problems. The theoretical goals of social research are verification, falsification, modification or discovery of a theory. It is sometimes referred to as normative research. However, it is important to note that scientific and social research are not mirror opposites. They have a lot of similarities. Social research also shares the attributes of scientific research. Like empiricism, verifiability, etc. The points of dissimilarity are: a. While scientific inquiry draws conclusion, social inquiry implies conclusion. b. Scientific method proceeds from evidence to conclusion, the normative method stands with a conclusion and hunts for evidence to support it ( Horton and Hunt) c. The scientific researches pose a question or raise an issue, collect evidence and draw conclusion from the evidence. By contrast, social researches raise the issue in such a way that the conclusion is implied and then look for evidence to support it. For example, the questions, How does a traditional family thwart family planning? or Why does an alcoholic or a drug addict commit crime? in fact state conclusions indirectly and ask for evidence to support it. d. Scientific research is more complete as compared to social research. e. Social research is more open to analysis and may have several interpretations as compared to scientific research. Classification 2

Descriptive Research: This type of research includes surveys and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. In social science and business research we quite often use the term Ex post facto or Ipso facto for descriptive research studies. This type of research describes social situations, social events, social systems, social structures, etc. The researcher observes or studies and then describes what he found. The main characteristic of this research is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. Most descriptive studies are those in which the researcher seeks to measure such items as, for example, frequency of shopping, preferences of people or similar data. Examples: a. The researcher wants to describe the increasing political participation of women in India. He collects information about the number of women candidates elected in the 13 Lok Sabha elections from 1952 to 1999. He finds that out of 499-543 seats (varying in different elections), women got 22 seats in 1952, 27 in 1957, 34 in 1962, 31 in 1967, 22 in 1971, 19 in 1977, 28 in 1980, 44 in 1984, 27 in 1989, 39 in 1991, 40 in 1996, 43 in 1998 and 46 in 1999 (India Today, 13.09.99). He thus describes the increase in womens political participation from 1984 onwards. However, comparing womens rank in India in four different areas with those of six countries, he finds that womens ranking in India is not high. b. Another example of descriptive study is the census in India. The census data accurately and precisely describes a wide variety of characteristics of the population as well as the population of different states and different communities. Exploratory Research: This research studies subject about which either no information or little information is available. Generally, this type of research is qualitative which becomes useful in formulating hypotheses or testing hypotheses and theories. In this research, the assumption is that the researcher has little or no knowledge about the problem or situation under study, or he is unfamiliar with the structure of the group he is studying. Examples: a. In an exploratory study of a prison, the researcher points out how a prison is divided in barracks and wards; what type of work is assigned to different types of prison officers; what recreational, medical, educational, etc., facilities are provided to prisoners what rules they have to follow in interacting with other inmates or with

officials; how are they to maintain contacts with the outside world; and so on. The researcher also comes to explore how prisoners reject the prison norms and come to follow the norms of the inmate world, say, always grumbling about the food, work and the facilities provided, always work less, do not reveal the secrets of inmates to prison officials, and so forth. b. Exploratory studies are also appropriate for some persistent phenomena like deficiencies in functioning of the educational system, corruption among political elite, harassment by police, rural poverty, and so on. Exploratory studies are quite valuable in social sciences. They are essential wherever a researcher is breaking new ground. But, the chief shortcoming of the exploratory studies is that they seldom provide satisfactory answers to research questions, though they can give insights into the research methods that could eventually provide definite answers. Failure to give definite answers is because this type of research lacks representativeness. Explanatory Research: It is also referred to as causal research. This research explains the causes of social phenomena. Explanatory research aims to establish a relationship between variables, that is, how one is the cause of other or how when one variable occurs the other will follow suit. Examples a. Describing the magnitude and nature of crimes committed by females in India is one aspect of female crime but why they commit such crime is its explanatory aspect. b. Also explaining relationship between broken families and juvenile delinquency or between drug abuse and lack of parental control are some examples of explanatory or causal research. Although it is useful to distinguish between the above mentioned three types of researches, it must be stated that some studies have all the tree elements of description, exploration and explanation. Classification 3 Pure Research: It is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is mainly concerned with gathering knowledge for knowledges sake (P.V Young, Scientific Social Surveys and Research). It involves knowing about the phenomena without concern for its practical use. In pure research, one develops or tests hypotheses or

theories. It is said that there is nothing as practical as a good theory. This type of research is also used to reject or support the existing theories about social phenomena. Examples a. Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics. b. Research studies concerning human behavior carried on with a view to make generalizations about human behavior. c. Developing a theory pertaining to the functioning of group mind (collective behavior) or group dynamics. Applied Research: is also known as action research. According to Horton and Hunt, this research is an investigation for ways of using scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It focuses on analyzing and solving real life and social problems. It is generally conducted on a large scale. It is quite expensive and is, therefore, often conducted with the support of some financial agency like government, public corporation, World Bank, UNICEF, UGC, etc. Examples a. Research to identify social, economic and political trends that may affect a particular institution b. Copy research (research to find out whether certain communications will be read and understood), marketing research, evaluation research are examples of applied research. The findings of applied research become basis of framing programmes and policies based on principles of pure research. A sociologist who seeks to find out why crime is committed or how a person becomes a criminal is working for a pure research. If this sociologist then tries to find out how a criminal can be rehabilitated and devises methods to control his deviant behavior, it is applied research. Classification 4 Experimental Research: It is the kind of research conducted by controlling one or more variables and comparing control and experimental groups. There are various reasons for selecting this research:a. Evidence of Causality : Experts help to establish cause and effect relationship b. Control: Researchers have control over the variables and subjects involved in the study. c. Replication: Aids in repeating some of the classic experiments. This technique has two major disadvantages:-

a. Artificiality: is developed by sterile and unnatural conditions created that have little direct application to real world settings where subjects are continually exposed to competing stimuli. b. Experimenter Bias: Research may be biased or prejudiced due to the researchers preconceived perception. Evaluation Research: focuses on monitoring intervention programmes to determine whether and to what extent they achieve their goals and whether they do so in least expensive and most expeditious manner. In past one or two decades, many organizations, industrial corporations and even government bodies have started employing sociologists in evaluation research. Eg; for studying impact of cyclones and rehabilitation of affected people in coastal areas (in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa by the World Bank) Classification 5 Longitudinal Research: involves the study of the same problem or the same body of phenomenon over a period of time. It may include PROSPECTIVE RESEARCH that follows the same body of phenomena forward through a period of time, beginning with the present and RETROSPECTIVE RESEARCH which studies a body of phenomena working backward from the present over a period of time. Longitudinal studies can also be classified as: (a)Trend studies different groups of people drawn at different times from the same population are surveyed. It helps to describe long term changes in a population. However, the data may be unreliable as very often false trends show up in the results. Trend studies must be based on consistent measures to be valuable.

Advantages - Trend studies are valuable in describing long term changes in a population. - They can establish a pattern over time to detect changes and shifts in some event. For e.g. broadcast researchers compile trend studies that chart fluctuations in viewing levels for the major networks. - They can be based on a comparison of survey data originally constructed for other purposes but in utilizing such data, the researcher needs to recognize any differences in question wording, context, sampling, or analysis technique from one survey to another.

Disadvantage - If data are unreliable, false trends will show up in the results. Moreover to be most valuable, trend analysis must be based on consistent measures. - Changes in the way questions are asked and indexes are constructed, produce results that are not compatible over time.

(b)Cohort Analysis refers to studying any group of individuals who are linked in some way or who have experienced the same significant life event with a given time period. It attempts to identify a cohort or group effect over a length of time. Advantages - It is an appealing and useful technique as it is highly flexible. - It provides insight into the effects of maturation and social, cultural, and political change. - In many instances, it can be less expensive than experiments or surveys. Disadvantages - The major disadvantage is that the specific effects of age, cohort, and period are difficult to untangle through purely statistical analysis of a standard cohort table. - There are no uniformly accepted tests of significance appropriate to a cohort table that allows researchers to estimate the probability that the observed differences are due to chance. - As cohorts grow older, many of its members die and the remaining ones may differ in regards to the variable under study i.e. sample mortality (c)Panel studies In such studies a sample from varied background is selected and then asked a set of questions on a specific topic. Then some information is provided on that particular topic on which they were questioned. After that the response of the same group on the same topic is collected after regular intervals of time.

Advantages - Produce data suitable for sophisticated statistical analysis and enables researcher to predict cause-effect relationship. - Useful in answering questions about the dynamics of change. Disadvantages - Panel members are difficult to recruit because of an unwillingness to fill out questionnaires or give interviews several times. - The problem of mortality emerges- panel members drop out for one reason or another. - Respondents often become sensitized to measurement instruments after repeated interviewing, thus making the sample atypical. - Respondent error is always a problem in situations that depend on selfadministered measurement instruments. - Time consuming and expensive. Comparative Research: It is a onetime research. In this research, the similarities and differences between different units or cultural or social groups are studied. Eg Comparing the marriage system of Hindus and Muslims, differences between Indian and American families, etc.

Classification 6

Conceptual Research: is that which is related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. It is similar to pure research in certain ways.

Empirical Research: relies on experience or observation alone, often without due

regard for system or theory. It is data-based research where the conclusion reached is capable of being verified by experiment or observation. It is similar to experimental research in certain ways. Evidence gathered through empirical studies is today considered to be the most powerful support possible for a given hypothesis.

Classification 7:

Quantitative Research: This research employs quantitative measurement and the use of statistical analysis. It conceptualizes reality in terms of variables and relationships between them. It pre structures data and has well developed and codified methods of data analysis. It is uni-dimensional, less variable and easily replicable. Sample size in quantitative research is relatively large. It brings objectivity to research. Examples: a. Research on what percentage of medical, engineering, law, arts, science and commerce students take drugs or consume alcohol. b. Study on what percentage of women leading unhappy marital life take initiative to divorce their husband. Qualitative Research: This research presents non-quantitative type of analysis. It describes reality as experienced by the groups, communities, individuals, etc. It aims for in-depth and holistic understanding. It is multidimensional, diverse and less replicable. The samples are small and the sampling is guided by theoretical rather than probabilistic considerations. Prestructuring of design and data is less common. Its methods are less formalized. It has greater flexibility and, therefore, can be easily modified as the study progresses. Qualitative research is well suited for studying naturally occurring real-life situations. It is able to study the complexity of social phenomena. It is well suited to the investigative process. It also aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires using in depth interviews, word association test (WAT), Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and other projective techniques. It may, however, be stated that it is relatively difficult to apply qualitative research. Example: a. A study on how the structure and organization of wall-less prisons (or minimum security jails) differ from that of the central or district jails (or maximum security

jails) and contribute to the reformation and resocialisation of criminals.

Quantitative v/s Qualitative Quantitative Research Qualitative Research 1.Reality is objective 1.Reality is subjective 2.Reality can be divided into 2.Reality is holistic and various components. cannot be subdivided. 3. It believes that all human beings 3.It believes that all huma are similar. -n beings are fundamentally different. 4. Generates general laws of behavior and 4.Produces a unique explanation explains things across settings. about a given situation or person 5. Research design is pre-determined before 5.Research design evolves during research begins. the research which can be altered adjusted as research progresses. 6. Methods of data collection are telephone, mail 6.Methods of data collection are and internet surveys. focus groups, field observation , in-depth interviews and case studies

Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods: Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, that is, phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind. 1. This research presents non-quantitative type of analysis. 2. It describes reality as experienced by the groups, communities, individuals, etc. 3. It aims for in-depth and holistic understanding. 4. It is multidimensional, diverse and less replicable.

5. The samples are small and the sampling is guided by theoretical rather than probabilistic considerations. 6. Pre-structuring of design and data is less common. 7. Its methods are less formalized. 8. It has greater flexibility and, therefore, can be easily modified as the study progresses. 9. Qualitative research is well suited for studying naturally occurring real-life situations. It is able to study the complexity of social phenomena. 10. It is well suited to the investigative process. It also aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires using in depth interviews, word association test (WAT), Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and other projective techniques. It may, however, be stated that it is relatively difficult to apply qualitative research. Example: a. A study on how the structure and organization of wall-less prisons (or minimum security jails) differ from that of the central or district jails (or maximum security jails) and contribute to the reformation and re-socialization of criminals. Qualitative Paradigm: The qualitative paradigm is termed the constructivist approach or naturalistic approach (Lincoln et al), the interpretative approach (J. Smith), or the post positivist or post modern perspective (Quantz). It began as a countermovement to the positivist tradition in the late 19th century. Assumptions of the paradigm 1. Ontological For the qualitative researcher, the only reality is that constructed by the individuals involved in the research situation. Thus multiple realities exist in any given situation. 2. Epistemological Researchers interact with those they study, whether this interaction assumes the form of living with or observing informants over a prolonged period of time, or actual collaboration. In other words, the researcher tries to minimize the distance between him and those being researched. 3. Axiological refers to the use of values in a study. The qualitative investigator admits the value laden nature of the study and actively reports his or her values and biases, as well as the value nature of information gathered from the field. The language or the study may be first person and personal. 4. Rhetoric refers to the use of language. Different words mark qualitative studies. A language distinct from the traditional research language in order to emphasize the

qualitative paradigm was designed. Words like understanding, discover and meaning formed the glossary of emerging qualitative terms. Language was relatively informal and personal. 5. Methodology In a qualitative methodology, inductive logic prevails. Categories emerge from informants. This emergence provides rich context bound information leading to patterns or theories that help explain a phenomenon. Skill set of a qualitative researcher a. Researcher should be comfortable with the ontological, epistemological, axiological, rhetorical and methodological assumptions of the qualitative paradigm. b. Literary writing skills, computer text-analysis skills, library skills. c. Comfort with lack of specific rules and procedures for conducting research. d. High tolerance for ambiguity and time for lengthy study. Methods associated with the Qualitative paradigm In qualitative methods or approaches the human and social sciences offer several traditions. The most frequently used designs are:1. Ethnographies The researcher studies an intact cultural group in a natural setting during a prolonged period of time by collecting, primarily, observational data. 2. Grounded theory The researcher attempts to derive a theory by using multiples stages of data collection and the refinement and interrelationship of categories of information. 3. Case Studies Researcher explores a single entity or phenomenon (the case) bounded by time and activity (a program, process, institution, etc) and collects detailed information by using various methods of data collection procedures during a sustained period of time. 4. Phenomenological studies Human experiences are examined through the detailed descriptions of people being studied. A small number of subjects are studied through extensive and prolonged engagement to develop patterns and relationships of meaning.

Formats for Qualitative designThe qualitative design is consistent with the basic assumptions of the qualitative

paradigm. We shall study two basic formats Format 1 Introduction Statement of the Problem Purpose of the study The grand tour questions and sub questions Definitions Delimitations and limitations Significance Procedure Assumptions and rationale for a qualitative design The type of design used The role of the researcher Data collection procedures Data analysis procedures Methods of verification Outcome of the study and its relation to theory and literature Format 2 (by Marshall and Rossman, 1989) Introduction and general questions for topic Significance of the research Site and sample selections Researchers role in management including entry, reciprocity and ethics Research strategies Data collection techniques Managing and recording data Data analysis strategies Management plan, timeline, feasibility Let us discuss the steps and methods of qualitative research design in the context of Format 1 A. Introduction 1. The purpose of the statement A fundamental characteristic of a good qualitative purpose statement is that it implies or expresses the assumptions of the qualitative

paradigm, such as the specific rhetoric and methodology. The basic features of the purpose statement are: a. Use words such as intent, purpose and objective to call attention to this statement as a controlling idea in a study. b. Clearly mention the central concept or idea being explored or understood in the study. c. Provide a general definition of the central concept or idea. d. Eliminate words in the purpose statement that suggest a directional orientation to the study( e.g., successful, informing, useful, etc. should not be used) e. Mention the unit of analysis (e.g., individual, group, culture) or research site (e.g., classroom, organization, program or event) for the study. 2. Qualitative research questions One typically finds research questions, not objectives or hypotheses written into qualitative studies. These research questions assume two forms: a. GRAND TOUR QUESTION: is a statement of the question being examined in the study it its most general form. b. SUB QUESTIONS: The general grand tour question is followed by several sub questions that narrow the focus of the study but that do not constrain the qualitative researcher The researcher should pose questions that use non-directional wording. Mostly open ended questions are to be asked. 3. Use of theory from a qualitative perspective In a qualitative study, one does not begin with a theory to test or verify. Instead, the inductive method of thinking is used where a theory may emerge during the data collection and analysis phase of the research or be used relatively late in the research process as a basis for comparison with other theories.

4. Definition of terms in qualitative studies Qualitative studies, because of the inductive, evolving methodological design, may include few terms defined at the beginning of the plan. But most terms are defined as they emerge from the data collection. 5. Delimitations and Limitations are found in both qualitative and quantitative studies. Delimitations are used to address how the study will be narrowed in scope. Limitations are used to identify potential weaknesses of the study. B. Procedure 1. Assumptions of qualitative design a. Qualitative researches are concerned primarily with PROCESS rather than outcomes or products. b. Qualitative researches are interested in MEANING how people make sense of their lives, experiences, and their structures of the world. c. The researcher himself is the PRIMARY INSTRUMENT for data collection and analysis, not inventories or machinery. d. Qualitative research involves FIELDWORK. e. Qualitative research is DESCRIPTIVE and INDUCTIVE. 2. Data collection The parameters for data collection are to be identified. The types of data to be collected are indicated and a rationale for the data collection is provided. 3. Data Recording procedures Observation, interviews, documents, audiovisual materials.

4. Data analysis procedures Data analysis is to be conducted as an activity simultaneously with data collection, data interpretation and narrative report writing. Data analysis will be based on reduction or interpretation. A plan is to be

mentioned for representing the information in matrices. The coding procedure to be used to reduce the information to themes or categories is to be identified. 5. Verification steps includes three steps a. Description of how the study will address the issue of INTERNAL VALIDITY, the accuracy of the information and whether it matches reality. b. Description of the limited generalizability of findings from the study the EXTERNAL VALIDITY. c. The RELIABILTY issue (limitations in replicating the study) is to be discussed. 6. The qualitative narrative A plan for a qualitative procedure should end with some comments about the narrative that emerges from the data analysis. Qualitative research narratives present information in text or image forms (e.g., photographs, videotapes). Certain things have to be kept in mind while writing the qualitative narrative. a. Indicate the forms to be used in the narrative. Realist A practical and factual way of narrating. Confessional Emphasizes on the researchers perspective more than the subject of research. Impressionist Narration predominated by the dramatic element. b. Relate how the narrative outcome will be related to design types. c. Discuss how the narrative outcome will be compared to theories and the general literature on the topic. Advantages of Qualitative Research 1. This method allows the researcher to view behaviour in a natural setting without the artificiality that sometimes surrounds experimental or survey research. 2. Qualitative techniques increase the researchers depth of understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. 3. Qualitative methods are flexible and allow the researcher to pursue new areas of interest. 4. Field observation and focus group help discover facets of a subject that were not considered before the study began.

Disadvantages of Qualitative Research 1. Sample sizes used are sometimes too small (sometimes as small as one) to allow the researcher to generalize the data beyond the sample selected for the particular study. For this reason, qualitative research is often the preliminary step to further investigation rather than the final phase of a project. 2. Reliability of the data can also be a problem since single observers are describing unique events. 3. A researcher who becomes too close to the study may lose the necessary professional detachment. 4. If qualitative research is not properly planned, the project may produce nothing of value. Combining Quantitative Analysis and Qualitative Analysis

A successful research requires a combination of quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. Objectives related to description (qualitative analysis) as well as comparison and relationships have to be merged for an all round study. Both methods are used sequentially to find contradictions and new perspectives to add breadth and scope to a study

A combined method study is one where the researcher uses multiple methods of data collection and analysis. For the same three models have been developed: two phase design, dominant- less dominant design and the mixed model design.

In the two phase design, the researcher conducts separate quantitative and qualitative studies. The advantage of this approach is that the researcher is able to present both aspects separately. It capitalizes on the unique strength of two traditionally separate ways of research. The disadvantage is that the reader may not be able to distinguish between the studies separately or the results could be disjointed.

The second model is the dominant- less dominant design. In this pattern the

researcher involves a major part of one paradigm and only a small part of the other paradigm. For example, a qualitative observation with a limited number of informants followed by a quantitative survey of a sample from a population. The advantage of this approach is that it presents a consistent picture in the study and still gathers limited information to probe in detail one aspect of the study and it utilizes strengths of one research tradition while taking selected attributes of the other. The disadvantage is that this approach would be seen as misusing a paradigm as the central assumption of the study would not be linked to the other paradigm.

The third is the mixed methodology design. It represents the highest degree of mixing qualitative and quantitative analysis. By selecting multiple techniques, the researcher creates a set of complimentary data gathering activities that compensate for the weakness of individual tactics. Both would be mixed at any point of the study in varying proportions based on the research being conducted. This adds complexity to a study and uses the advantages of both. Data has to be descriptively rich and quantitatively meaningful. On the downside, a sophisticated knowledge of both the paradigms is needed and also valid points of connections to the study being undertaken.

Thus, by the use of any of the above model based on the study being undertaken, a blend of quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis can be created and used to conduct an effective study.

DATA COLLECTION TOOLS (IN DETAIL) The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research plan chalked out. Research design is the plan or an outline of the research, just as an architect prepares a blue print before he approves a construction. While

deciding about the method of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind two types of data. DATA: Facts or numbers collected from examination and consideration in any examination which help in decision making are called as data. On the basis of question under investigation, various data is collected and put under analysis and interpretation to get or derive results or inferences. Two types of data are: PRIMARY DATA: Data which is collected for the first time to be used in research is known as primary data, thus, it happens to be original in character. In other words, primary data is the first hand information collected by the researcher. For e.g. National income data collected by the government is primary data for the government but it becomes secondary when used by someone for the purpose of research. SECONDARY DATA: The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. All the data which is published in the books, magazines, journals, newspapers etc. or even the reports of various organisations of national or international agencies is called as the secondary data. Thus, the difference between the primary and secondary data is not in the nature but in the form of retrieval of that data. TOOLS FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA:QUESTIONNAIRE A questionnaire is a self reporting instrument for gathering information. This method of data collection is quite popular, particularly, in case of big enquiries. A questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed or typed in a definite order on a form. In other words, questionnaire is a systematic compilation of questions that are administered to sample of population from which the information is desired. The questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton. Application of questionnaire as a data collection tool is based on three assumptions: Respondents can read and understand questions. Respondents possess the information or knowledge to answer those questions. Respondents are willing to answer the questionnaire. Questionnaire is being adopted by private individuals, research workers, private and public organisations and even by the governments.

MERITS OF THE TOOL The merits of this method are as follows: (1) There is low cost when the universe is large and is widely spread geographically. (2) It is free from the bias of the interviewer; answers are in respondents own words. (3) Respondents have adequate time to give well thought answers. (4) It helps in drawing accurate conclusions. (5) It enables easy tabulation and analysis. (6) Questionnaires can be filled up quickly as the number of questions is not too many and generally, the options are given along with the questions. DEMERITS OF THE TOOL The main demerits of this method can be listed as: (1) Respondent has limited choices to choose from, therefore, he cannot express freely. (2) Low rate of return of the dully filled in questionnaires. (3) It can be used only when the respondents are educated and cooperating. (4) There is inbuilt inflexibility because of the difficulty of amending the approach once the questionnaires have been dispatched. (5) There is also the possibility of ambiguous replies or omission of replies altogether to certain questions; interpretation of omissions is difficult. (6) In case of unstructured questionnaires, too many thoughts may be expressed which makes tabulation difficult. MAIN ASPECTS OF A QUESTIONNAIRE Questionnaire is considered as the heart f the survey. Hence, it should be very carefully constructed. If it is not properly setup, then the survey is bound to fail. Thus, the following three aspects of the questionnaire need to be considered: GENERAL FORM: The questionnaire can be either structured or unstructured. Structured questionnaires are those in which there are definite, concrete and pre-determined questions. A structured questionnaire, on the other hand, is one in which the questions asked are precisely decided in advance. When used as an interviewing

method, the questions are asked exactly as they are written, in the same sequence, using the same style, for all interviews. Nonetheless, the structured questionnaire can sometimes be left a bit open for the interviewer to amend to suit a specific context. An unstructured questionnaire is an instrument or guide used by an interviewer who asks questions about a particular topic or issue. Although a question guide is provided for the interviewer to direct the interview, the specific questions and the sequence in which they are asked are not precisely determined in advance. QUESTION SEQUENCE: In order to make the questionnaire effective and to ensure quality to the replies received, a researcher should pay attention to the sequence of the questions. A proper sequence of questions reduces the chances of individual questions being misunderstood. The question sequence must be clear and smoothly moving, meaning thereby that the relation of one question to another should be readily apparent to the respondent. The opening question should be such as to arouse human interest. The following types of questions should be generally avoided as opening questions in the questionnaires. Questions that put too great a strain on the memory of the respondent. Questions of a personal character. Questions related to personal wealth, etc. QUESTION FORMULATION AND WORDING: With regard to this aspect of questionnaire, the researcher should note that each question must be very clear to prevent any sort of misunderstanding. Questions should also be impartial in order not to give a biased picture of the true state of affairs. In general, all questions should meet the following standards: Should be easily understood Should be simple i.e. should convey only one thought at a time. Should be concrete and should conform, as much as possible to the respondents way of thinking. Concerning the form of questions, there are two principal forms, multiple choice questions and open ended questions. In the former, respondents select one of the alternative possible answers put to him, whereas in the latter, he has to supply the answers in his own words.

ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD QUESTIONNAIRE To be successful, questionnaire should be comparatively short and simple, i.e. the size of the questionnaire should be kept to the minimum. Questions should proceed in a logical sequence moving from easy to more difficult questions. Personal and intimate questions should be left to the end. Technical terms and vague expressions capable of different interpretations should be avoided. There should be some control questions in the questionnaire which indicate the reliability of the respondent.

SCHEDULE: This method of data collection is very much like the collection of data through questionnaire, with little difference which lies in the fact that schedules are being filled in by the enumerators who are specially appointed for the purpose. These enumerators, along with schedules, go to respondents, put to them the questions from the proforma in the order in which the questions are listed and record the replies in the space meant for the same in the proforma. In certain situations, schedules may be handed over to the respondents and enumerators may help them in recording the answers to various questions in the said schedules. Enumerators explain the aims and objectives of the investigation and also remove the difficulty which any respondent may feel in understanding the implications of a particular question. This method requires the selection of enumerators for filling up schedules or assisting respondents to fill up schedules and as such, respondents should be very carefully selected. The enumerators should be trained to perform their job well and the nature and scope of investigation should be explained to them thoroughly so that they may understand the implications of different questions put in the schedule. Enumerators should be intelligent and must possess the capacity of cross examination in order to find out the truth. Above all, they should be honest, sincere, hardworking and should have patience and perseverance. This method of data collection is very useful in extensive enquiries and can lead to fairly reliable results. It is however, very expensive and is usually adopted in investigations conducted by government agencies or some big organisations. INTERVIEW The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral-verbal stimuli.

Rather than asking respondents to fill out surveys, interviewers ask questions orally and record respondents answers. Interviewers also provide a guard against confusing items. If a respondent has misunderstood a question, the interviewer can clarify, thereby obtaining relevant responses. Interviews are a good way to gather information from community leaders, particularly those who might be unwilling or too busy to complete a written survey. This method can be used through personal interviews, and if possible through telephonic interviews. PERSONAL INTERVIEWS: Personal interview involves the interviewer asking questions generally in a face to face contact to the other person or persons. This sort of interview may be in the form of direct personal investigation or it may be indirect oral investigation. In case of direct personal investigation, the interviewer has to collect the information personally from the sources concerned. This method is particularly suitable for intensive investigations. In the cases where it is not possible to contact directly the persons concerned, indirect oral examination can be conducted. The method of collecting information through personal interviews is usually carried out in a structured way. As such, we call the interviews as structured interviews. Such interviews involve the use of set of predetermined questions and of highly standardized techniques of recording. As against it, unstructured interviews are characterized by a flexibility of approach to questioning. Thus, in non structured interviews, the interviewer is allowed much greater freedom to ask supplementary questions or at times he may omit certain questions, if the situation requires. But this sort of flexibility results in lack of comparability of one interview with the another and the analysis of unstructured responses becomes much more difficult and time consuming. MERITS OF THE TOOL: (1) More information and that too in greater depth can be obtained. (2) Interviewer by his own skill can overcome the resistance, if any, of the respondents. (3) There is greater flexibility under this method as the opportunity to restructure the questions is always there, specially in case of unstructured interviews. (4) The language of the interview can be adopted to the ability or educational level of the person interviewed and as such misinterpretations concerning questions can be

avoided. (5) The interviewer may catch the informant off guard and thus may secure the most spontaneous reactions. DEMERITS OF THE TOOL: (1) It is a very expensive method, specially when large and widely spread geographical spread is taken. (2) There remains the possibility of the biasness of the interviewer as well as that of the respondent. (3) Certain types of respondents, such as important officials or executives or people in high income groups may not be easily approachable. (4) This method is relatively more time consuming. (5) The presence of interviewer on the spot may over-stimulate the respondent, sometimes even to the extent that he may give imaginary information just to make the interview interesting. TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS: This method of collecting information consists in contacting respondents on telephone itself. It is not a very widely used method, but plays important part in industrial surveys , particularly in developed regions.

MERITS OF THE TOOL: (1) It is faster than other methods, i.e. a quick way of obtaining information. (2) It is cheaper than personal interviewing method; here the cost per response is relatively low. (3) Recalls is easy, call backs are simple and economical. (4) Replies can be recorded without causing embarrassment to respondents. (5) No field staff is required. (6) Interviewer can explain the requirements more easily. DEMERITS OF THE TOOL:

(1) Little time is given to respondents for considered answers; interview period is not likely to exceed five minutes in most of the cases. (2) Surveys are restricted to respondents who have telephone facilities. (3) Extensive geographical coverage may get restricted by cost considerations. (4) It is not suitable for intensive surveys where comprehensive answers are required. (5) Possibility of the bias of the interviewer is relatively more. MAIL SURVEYS : Questionnaires are mailed to a sample of consumers or industrial users, along with instructions, postage paid return envelopes, and cover letters. Respondents complete and return the questionnaires by mail. The most serious problem with mail surveys is that the response rates are often very low (e.g., often less than 10%). (1) Ad Hoc (one shot) Mail Surveys - Questionnaires are sent to selected names and addresses with no prior (no pre-test) or post-test contact. (2) Mail Panel - Participants are pre contacted and screened, then periodically sent questionnaires for completion to produce data for a series of studies.

OBSERVATION METHOD: The observation method is the most commonly used method specially in studies relating to behavioural sciences. Under the observation method, the information is sought by the way of investigators own direct observati0on without asking from the respondent. For e.g. : In a study relating to consumer behaviour, the investigator instead of asking the brand of wrist watch used by the respondent may himself look at the watch While using this method, the researcher should keep in mind the things like what should be observed, how the observations should be recorded, or how the accuracy of the observation can be ensured. MERITS OF THE TOOL: (1) Subjective bias is eliminated, if observation is done accurately.

(2) The information obtained under this method relates to what is currently happening; it is not complicated by either the past behaviours, future attitudes or intentions. (3) This method is independent of respondents willingness to respond and as such is relatively less demanding of active cooperation on the part of the respondent. DEMERITS OF THE TOOL: (1) It is an expensive method. (2) The information provided by this method is very limited. (3) Sometimes unforeseen factors may interfere with the observational task. At times, the fact that some people are rarely accessible to direct observation creates obstacle in the data collection. STRUCTURED AND UNSTRUCTURED OBSERVATION: When the observation is characterized by careful definition of units to be observed, the style of recording the observed information, standardized conditions of observation, then the observation is called as structured observation. But when the observation is conducted without these characteristics to be thought of in advance, the same is termed as unstructured observation. Structured observation is considered appropriate in descriptive studies, whereas in exploratory studies the procedure is most likely to be unstructured.

PARTICIPANT AND NON-PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION: If the observer observes by making himself , more or less, a member of the group he is observing so that he can experience what the members of the group experience, the observation is called as the participant observation. But when the observer observes as a detached emissary without any attempt on his part to experience through participation what others feel, it is termed as non-participant observation. CONTROLLED AND UNCONTROLLED OBSERVATION: If the observation takes place in the natural setting, it may be termed a uncontrolled observation, but when the observation takes place according to pre-arranged plans,

involving experimental procedure, it is termed as controlled observation. In noncontrolled observation, no attempt is made to use precision instruments. But in controlled observation, we use mechanical (or precision) instruments as aids to accuracy and standardization. TOOLS FOR COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA: Secondary sources of information may be divided into two categories: internal sources and external sources. INTERNAL SOURCES OF SECONDARY INFORMATION: Sales data: All organizations collect information in the course of their everyday operations. Orders are received and delivered, costs are recorded, sales personnel submit visit reports, invoices are sent out, and returned goods are recorded and so on. Much of this information is of potential use in marketing research but a surprising amount of it is actually used. This type of data is useful for identifying an organizations most profitable product and customers. It can also serve to track trends within the enterprise's existing customer group. For example, consider how much information can be obtained from sales orders and invoices: Sales by territory Sales by customer type Prices and discounts Average size of order by customer, customer type, geographical area Average sales by sales person and Sales by pack size and pack type, etc. Financial data: An organization has a great deal of data within its files on the cost of producing, storing, transporting and marketing each of its products and product lines. Such data has many uses in marketing research including allowing measurement of the efficiency of marketing operations. It can also be used to estimate the costs attached to new products under consideration, of particular utilisation (in production, storage and transportation) at which an organizations unit costs begin to fall. Transport data: Companies that keep good records relating to their transport

operations are well placed to establish which are the most profitable routes, and loads, as well as the most cost effective routing patterns. Good data on transport operations enables the enterprise to perform trade-off analysis and thereby establish whether it makes economic sense to own or hire vehicles, or the point at which a balance of the two gives the best financial outcome. Storage data: The rate of stock turn, stock handling costs, assessing the efficiency of certain marketing operations and the efficiency of the marketing system as a whole. More sophisticated accounting systems assign costs to the cubic space occupied by individual products and the time period over which the product occupies the space. These systems can be further refined so that the profitability per unit, and rate of sale, are added. In this way, the direct product profitability can be calculated. EXTERNAL SOURCES OF SECONDARY INFORMATION: The marketing researcher who seriously seeks after useful secondary data is more often surprised by its abundance than by its scarcity. Too often, the researcher has secretly (sometimes subconsciously) concluded from the outset that his/her topic of study is so unique or specialized that a research of secondary sources is futile. Consequently, only a specified search is made with no real expectation of sources. Cursory researches become a self-fulfilling prophecy. Large numbers of organizations provide marketing information, including national and local government agencies, quasi-government agencies, trade associations, universities, research institutes, financial institutions, specialist suppliers of secondary marketing data and professional marketing research enterprises. Dillon et al further advice that searches of printed sources of secondary data begin with referral texts such as directories, indexes, handbooks and guides. These sorts of publications rarely provide the data in which the researcher is interested but serve in helping him/her locate potentially useful data sources. The main sources of external secondary data : Government statistics(federal, state and local):These may include all or some of the following: Population censuses Social surveys, family expenditure surveys

Import/export statistics Production statistics Agricultural statistics. Trade associations: Trade associations differ widely in the extent of their data collection and information dissemination activities. However, it is worth checking with them to determine what they do publish. At the very least one would normally expect that they would produce a trade directory and, perhaps, a yearbook. Commercial services: Published market research reports and other publications are available from a wide range of organizations which charge for their information. Typically, marketing people are interested in media statistics and consumer information which has been obtained from large scale consumer or farmer panels. The commercial organization funds the collection of the data, which is wide ranging in its content, and hopes to make its money from selling this data to interested parties. National and international institutions: Bank economic reviews, university research reports, journals and articles are all useful sources to contact. International agencies such as World Bank, IMF, IFAD, UNDP, ITC, FAO and ILO produce a plethora of secondary data which can prove extremely useful to the marketing researcher.

Experiments - are not used often in social scientific research as they are based on natural scientific methods, however, they are useful when specific controls are added in to the planning process and detailed outcomes are defined. For example, examining the responses of two groups undertaking similar examinations and comparing the results by ethnicity and gender to experiment for equal opportunities. Case studies - can be used to investigate particular issues by there focus on particular cohorts using qualitative techniques

Hypotheses and Predictions: Mass media researchers use a variety of approaches to answer questions. Some research is informal and seeks to solve relatively simple problems; some is based on

theory and requires formally worded questions. All researchers, however, must start with some tentative generalization regarding a relationship between two or more variables. These generalizations may take two forms: research questions and statistical hypotheses. The two are identical except for the aspect of predictionhypotheses predict an experimental outcome; research questions do not. To make a rather complicated explanation short, research questions are used when researchers conduct preliminary research and are not interested in testing the statistical significance of their finding. Research hypotheses are used in situations where researchers are well versed in the topic under investigation and wish to make predictions based on their data. Research hypotheses are the specific testable predictions made about the independent and dependent variables in the study. Usually the literature review has given background material that justifies the particular hypotheses that are to be tested. Hypotheses are couched in terms of the particular independent and dependent variables that are going to be used in the study. An example would be "Children who are exposed to regular singing of the alphabet will show greater recognition of letters than children who are exposed to regular pronouncing of the alphabet" Notice the Independent Variable is specified (singing compared to pronouncing) and the Dependant Variable is specified (recognition of letters is what will be measured). Notice also that this research hypothesis specifies a direction in that it predicts that the singing group will recognise more letters than the pronouncing group. This is not always the case. Research hypotheses can also specify a difference without saying which group will be better than the other. In general, it is considered a better hypothesis if direction is specified. Finally, note the deductive reasoning principle of the scientific method when we test hypotheses. If our theories and ideas are true, we can devise controlled experiments and find evidence to support them. This gives considerable credence to our theories. If we work the other way, and gather data first and then try to work out what happened (inductive reasoning) we could be faced with a large number of competing theories all of which could be true or not true. This is sometimes called posthoc theorising and is a common way in which people explain events in their world. But we have no way of knowing which one is correct, we have no way of ruling out the competing reasons and we usually end up with choosing the one that fits best with

our existing biases. Inductive reasoning does have a role in exploratory research in order to develop initial ideas and hypotheses, but in the end the hypotheses have to be tested before they can have scientific credence.

What Is a Real Hypothesis? A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event. A useful hypothesis is a testable statement which may include a prediction. A hypothesis should not be confused with a theory. Theories are general explanations based on a large amount of data. For example, the theory of evolution applies to all living things and is based on wide range of observations. However, there are many things about evolution that are not fully understood such as gaps in the fossil record. Many hypotheses have been proposed and tested. When Are Hypotheses Used? The key word is testable. That is, you will perform a test of how two variables might be related. This is when you are doing a real experiment. You are testing variables. Usually, a hypothesis is based on some previous observation such as noticing that in November many trees undergo colour changes in their leaves and the average daily temperatures are dropping. Are these two events connected? How? Any laboratory procedure you follow without a hypothesis is really not an experiment. It is just an exercise or demonstration of what is already known. How Are Hypotheses Written? 1. Chocolate may cause pimples. 2. Salt in soil may affect plant growth. 3. Plant growth may be affected by the colour of the light. 4. Bacterial growth may be affected by temperature. 5. Ultra violet light may cause skin cancer. 6. Temperature may cause leaves to change colour. All of these are examples of hypotheses because they use the tentative word "may. However, their form is not particularly useful. Using the word may does not suggest how you would go about proving it. If these statements had not been written carefully, they may not have even been hypotheses at all. For example, if we say "Trees will change colour when it gets cold." we are making a prediction. Or if we write, "Ultraviolet light causes skin cancer" could be a conclusion. One way to prevent making such easy mistakes is to formalize the form of the hypothesis.

VALIDITY: The best available approximation to the truth of a given proposition, inference, or conclusion When we think about validity in research, most of us think about research components. We might say that a measure is a valid one, or that a valid sample was drawn, or that the design had strong validity. But all of those statements are technically incorrect. Measures, samples and designs don't 'have' validity -- only propositions can be said to be valid. Technically, we should say that a measure leads to valid conclusions or that a sample enables valid inferences, and so on. It is a proposition, inference or conclusion that can 'have' validity. All social research involves measurement or observation. And, whenever we measure or observe we are concerned with whether we are measuring what we intend to measure or with how our observations are influenced by the circumstances in which they are made. We reach conclusions about the quality of our measures -- conclusions that will play an important role in addressing the broader substantive issues of our study. When we talk about the validity of research, we are often referring to these to the many conclusions we reach about the quality of different parts of our research methodology. We subdivide validity into four types. Each type addresses a specific methodological question. In order to understand the types of validity, you have to know something

about how we investigate a research question. Because all four validity types are really only operative when studying causal questions, we will use a causal study to set the context.

The figure shows that there are really two realms that are involved in research. The first, on the top, is the land of theory. It is what goes on inside our heads as researchers. It is were we keep our theories about how the world operates. The second, on the bottom, is the land of observations. It is the real world into which we translate our ideas -- our programs, treatments, measures and observations. When we conduct research, we are continually flitting back and forth between these two realms, between what we think about the world and what is going on in it. When we are investigating a cause-effect relationship, we have a theory (implicit or otherwise) of what the cause is (the cause construct). For instance, if we are testing a new educational program, we have an idea of what it would look like ideally. Similarly, on the effect side, we have an idea of what we are ideally trying to affect and measure (the effect construct). But each of these, the cause and the effect, has to be translated into real things, into a program or treatment and a measure or observational method. We use the term operationalization to describe the act of translating a construct into its manifestation. In effect, we take our idea and describe it as a series of operations or procedures. Now, instead of it only being an idea in our minds, it becomes a public entity that anyone can look at and examine for themselves. It is one thing, for instance, for you to say that you would like to measure self-esteem (a construct). But when you show a ten-item paper-and-pencil self-esteem measure that you developed for that purpose, others can look at it and understand more clearly what you intend by the term self-esteem. Now, back to explaining the four validity types. They build on one another, with two of them (conclusion and internal) referring to the land of observation on the bottom of the figure, one of them (construct) emphasizing the linkages between the bottom and the top, and the last (external) being primarily concerned about the range of our theory on the top. Imagine that we wish to examine whether use of a World Wide Web (WWW) Virtual Classroom improves student understanding of course material. Assume that we took these two constructs, the cause construct (the WWW site) and the effect (understanding), and operationalized them -- turned them into realities by constructing the WWW site and a measure of knowledge of the course material. Here

are the four validity types and the question each addresses: Conclusion Validity: In this study, is there a relationship between the two variables? In the context of the example we're considering, the question might be worded: in this study, is there a relationship between the WWW site and knowledge of course material? There are several conclusions or inferences we might draw to answer such a question. We could, for example, conclude that there is a relationship. We might conclude that there is a positive relationship. We might infer that there is no relationship. We can assess the conclusion validity of each of these conclusions or inferences. Internal Validity: Assuming that there is a relationship in this study, is the relationship a causal one? Just because we find that use of the WWW site and knowledge are correlated, we can't necessarily assume that WWW site use causes the knowledge. Both could, for example, be caused by the same factor. For instance, it may be that wealthier students who have greater resources would be more likely to use have access to a WWW site and would excel on objective tests. When we want to make a claim that our program or treatment caused the outcomes in our study, we can consider the internal validity of our causal claim. Construct Validity: Assuming that there is a causal relationship in this study, can we claim that the program reflected well our construct of the program and that our measure reflected well our idea of the construct of the measure? In simpler terms, did we implement the program we intended to implement and did we measure the outcome we wanted to measure? In yet other terms, did we operationalize well the ideas of the cause and the effect? When our research is over, we would like to be able to conclude that we did a credible job of operationalizing our constructs -- we can assess the construct validity of this conclusion. External Validity: Assuming that there is a causal relationship in this study between the constructs of the cause and the effect, can we generalize this effect to other persons, places or times? We are likely to make some claims that our research findings have implications for other groups and individuals in other settings and at other times. When we do, we can examine the external validity of these claims.

Notice how the question that each validity type addresses presupposes an affirmative answer to the previous one. This is what we mean when we say that the validity types build on one another. The figure shows the idea of cumulativeness as a staircase, along with the key question for each validity type. For any inference or conclusion, there are always possible threats to validity -reasons the conclusion or inference might be wrong. Ideally, one tries to reduce the plausibility of the most likely threats to validity, thereby leaving as most plausible the conclusion reached in the study. For instance, imagine a study examining whether there is a relationship between the amount of training in a specific technology and subsequent rates of use of that technology. Because the interest is in a relationship, it is considered an issue of conclusion validity. Assume that the study is completed and no significant correlation between amount of training and adoption rates is found. On this basis it is concluded that there is no relationship between the two. How could this conclusion be wrong -- that is, what are the "threats to validity"? For one, it's possible that there isn't sufficient statistical power to detect a relationship even if it exists. Perhaps the sample size is too small or the measure of amount of training is unreliable. Or maybe assumptions of the correlational test are violated given the variables used. Perhaps there were random irrelevancies in the study setting or random heterogeneity in the respondents that increased the variability in the data and made it harder to see the relationship of interest. The inference that there is no relationship will be stronger -- have greater conclusion validity -- if one can show that these alternative explanations are not credible. The distributions might be examined to see if they conform with assumptions of the statistical test, or analyses conducted to determine whether there is sufficient statistical power. The theory of validity, and the many lists of specific threats, provide a useful scheme for assessing the quality of research conclusions. The theory is general in scope and applicability, well-articulated in its philosophical suppositions, and virtually impossible to explain adequately in a few minutes. As a framework for judging the quality of evaluations it is indispensable and well worth understanding.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: ETHICAL GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH 1. Four well-known moral principles constitute the basis for ethics in research. They are: (i) The Principle of Non-maleficence: Research must not cause harm to the participants in particular and to people in general. (ii) The Principle of Beneficence: Research should also make a positive contribution towards the welfare of people. (iii) The Principle of Autonomy: Research must respect and protect the rights and dignity of participants. (iv) The Principle of Justice: The benefits and risks of research should be fairly distributed among people. 2. Ten general ethical principles, presently relevant for research in India, are as follows: (i) Essentiality: For undertaking research it is necessary to make all possible efforts to get and give adequate consideration to existing literature/knowledge and its relevance, and the alternatives available on the subject/issue under the study. (ii) Maximisation of public interest and of social justice: Research is a social activity, carried out for the benefit of society. It should be undertaken with the motive of maximisation of public interest and social justice. (iii) Knowledge, ability and commitment to do research: Sincere commitment to research in general and to the relevant subject in particular, and readiness to acquire adequate knowledge, ability and skill for undertaking particular research are essential prerequisites for good and ethical research. (iv) Respect and protection of autonomy, rights and dignity of participants: Research involving participation of individual(s) must not only respect, but also protect the autonomy, the rights and the dignity of participants. The participation of individual(s) must be voluntary and based on informed consent. (v) Privacy, anonymity and confidentiality: All information and records provided by

participants or obtained directly or indirectly on/about the participants are confidential. For revealing or sharing any information that may identify participants, permission of the participants is essential. (vi) Precaution and risk minimisation: All research carries some risk to the participants and to society. Taking adequate precautions and minimising and mitigating risks is, therefore, essential. (vii) Non-exploitation: Research must not unnecessarily consume the time of participants or make them incur undue loss of resources and income. It should not expose them to risks due to participation in the research. The relationship within the research team, including student and junior members, should be based on the principle of non-exploitation. Contribution of each member of the research team should be properly acknowledged and recognised. (viii) Public domain: All persons and organisations connected to research should make adequate efforts to make public in appropriate manner and form, and at appropriate time, information on the research undertaken, and the relevant results and implications of completed research. (ix) Accountability and transparency: The conduct of research must be fair, honest and transparent. It is desirable that institutions and researchers are amenable to social and financial review of their research by an appropriate and responsible social body. They should also make appropriate arrangements for the preservation of research records for a reasonable period of time. (x) Totality of responsibility: The responsibility for due observance of all principles of ethics and guidelines devolves on all those directly or indirectly connected with the research. They include institution(s) where the research is conducted, researcher(s), sponsors/funders and those who publish material generated from research.


In psychological research, our task involves making measurements that describe, usually quantitatively, how individuals or groups react in a particular situation. The specific procedures used in making these measurements must be indicated, both for those carrying out the research project initially and, later, for those reading about the results. If you think about the types of questions which interest psychologists, you will begin to understand why very precise, detailed descriptions of measurement techniques are necessary. Psychologists often study characteristics of individuals and actions that cannot be measured by instruments. How happy is someone? How persistent? How angry? In conducting research on these and other abstract concepts, researchers use operational definitions. An operational definition is different from one you find in a dictionary. It explains, for a given concept in a specific research situation, how that concept is to be measured. Take the example of someones level of happiness. We might, in a research project, have an operational definition of happiness based on the individuals score on a ten-item questionnaire about their happiness level. Alternatively, our operational definition might rely on observations of the percentage of time, in a tenminute interval, that the subject was smiling. In either case, we have provided a description of an observable procedure that we followed in measuring an abstract characteristic of an individual. Operational definitions are important communication tools in psychological research. First, because there often are several people involved in the collection of data in a research project, operational definitions help them focus on the same information, the same features of a behavioral event. Thus, measurements made using good operational definitions are more likely to be reliable. Second, operational definitions assist other researchers in following the same procedures used in the original study, as they attempt to replicate or build upon the first research. Of course, there are sometimes problems associated with the use of operational definitions. Because they are specific to one or a few research projects, each psychologist is free to create their own operational definition of a concept, if they dont like those used by others. This becomes a problem if, using very different measurement approaches for the same concept, researchers ultimately draw quite

different conclusions. These conclusions may not reflect any genuine differences in the concept of interest, but may just be a result of the measurement procedures. A second potential problem arises if an operational definition doesnt connect to the underlying concept in a logical way. Suppose a psychologist creates an operational definition of happiness which relies on a count of the number of jokes someone tells in a certain time period. The researcher claims that the happier a person is, the more jokes they tell. We might legitimately argue against such an operational definition, citing the many happy people we know who, in spite of being happy, dont tell jokes often. In this case, we are pointing to other kinds of evidence to suggest that frequency of joke telling isnt a very good operational definition of happiness. In spite of possible problems, the use of operational definitions is generally a useful strategy in conducting psychological research. Good operational definitions can make the research process more efficient and also can improve the accuracy of communication about the research to others.

MEASUREMENT: Measurement is the process observing and recording the observations that are collected as part of a research effort. There are four major levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Another issue is on the reliability of measurement. There are different types of measures that researchers use. Survey research includes the design and implementation of interviews and questionnaires. Scaling involves consideration of the major methods of developing and implementing a scale. Qualitative research provides an overview of the broad range of non-numerical measurement approaches.

CASUALITY: Causal knowledge deals with dependencies between events or, more precisely, with how effects depend on causal conditions. Such knowledge enables people to predict effects from the observation of relevant factors and to explain effects by diagnosing possible causes. The concept of causality is thus one of the core concepts that helps both laypersons and scientists to discover and understand the mechanisms of how the world works. From a psychological point of view, we are especially concerned with how people conceptualize the link between causes and effects, how they induce causal relations from observations, and how they use such relations for predicting and diagnosing events. The nature of the causal relation A cause temporally precedes an effect and sufficiently determines its occurrence. Each effect has its causes, and without causes there is no effect. Causes are often complex events. Being engaged in causal reasoning, people thus have to integrate all relevant causal factors


DEFINITION Walizer and Weiner(1978) define it as any systematic procedure devised to examine

the content of recorded information Kerlingers (2000) definition is fairly typical. Content Analysis is the method of studying and analyzing communication in a systematic, objective and quantitative manner for the purpose of measuring variables. Kerlingers definition involves three concepts that require elaboration. First content analysis is systematic: this means that the content to be analyzed is selected according to explicit and consistently applied rules. Second, content analysis is objective: the researchers personal idiosyncrasies and biases should not enter into the findings. Third, content analysis is quantitative: The goal of content analysis is the accurate representation of a body of messages. Quantification is important in fulfilling the objectives, because it aids researchers in the quest for precision.

USES OF CONTENT ANALYSIS Describing communication content: Here content analysis is used in the traditional and descriptive manner, to identify what exists.One of the advantages of content analysis is its potential to identify trends over long periods of time. These descriptive studies also can be used to study societal change. For example changing public opinion on various controversial issues could be gauged with a longitudinal study of letters to the editor or newspaper editorials.

Testing Hypotheses of message characteristics A number of analyses attempt to relate certain characteristics of the source of a given

body of message content to the characteristics of the messages that are produced. Comparing media content to the real world Many content analysis are reality checks in which in which the portrayal of certain group, phenomenon, trait, or characteristic is assessed against a standard taken from real life. The congruence of the media presentation and the actual situation is then assessed. Assessing the image of particular groups in society Ever growing numbers of content analysis have focused on exploring the media image of certain minority or otherwise notable groups. In many instances, these studies are conducted to assess changes in media policy towards these groups, to make inferences about the medias responsiveness to demands for better coverage, or to document social trends. Establishing a starting point for studies of media effects The use of content analysis as a starting point for subsequent studies is relatively new. The best known example is cultivation analysis, in which the dominant message and themes in media content are documented by systematic procedures and a separate study of the audience is conducted to see whether these messages are fostering similar attitudes among heavy media users. Agenda setting: an analysis of relevant media content is necessary in order to determine the importance of new topics. Subsequent audience research looks at the correspondence between the medias agenda and audiences agenda.


Content analysis cannot serve as the sole basis for claims about media effects or for making statements about the effects of content on an audience. Also the findings of a particular content analysis are limited to the framework of the categories and the definitions used in that analysis. Another potential limitation of content analysis is a lack of messages relevant to the research. Finally content analysis if frequently time consuming and expensive.

STEPS IN CONTENT ANALYSIS Formulating a research question: content analysis should be guided by well formulated research questions or hypotheses. A basic review of literature is a required step Defining the universe: to define the universe is to specify the boundaries of the body of content to be considered which requires an appropriate operational definition of the relevant population. For example if researchers are interested in analyzing the content of popular songs, they must define what is meant by popular songs. Selecting an appropriate sample from the population: once the universe is defined, a sample is selected. This process typically consists of two stages. The first stage is usually to take a sampling of content sources. Once the sources have been identified, the second step is to select the data. In many studies, the time period from which the issues are to be selected are determined by the goal of the project. For example, if the

goal is to access the nature of news coverage of the 200 election campaign, the sampling period is well defined by the actual duration of the story. Another technique for sampling edition dates is by week of the month and by day of the week. A sampling rule that not more than two days of the week can be chosen is one way to ensure a balanced distribution across the month. Selecting a unit of analysis: the next step is to select a unit of analysis, which is the smallest element of a content analysis but at the same time one of the most important. In written content, the unit analysis can be a single word or symbol, a theme or an entire article or story. In television and film analysis it can be the characters, acts or entire programs. Construct the categories of content to be analyzed: at the heart of any content analysis is the category system used to classify media content. A category system is mutually exclusive if a unit of analysis can be placed in one and only one category. For example, suppose researchers attempt to describe the ethnic make-up of primetime television characters using the following category system: AfricanAmerican, Jewish, white, Native American and others. The categorization system should also be reliable, that is, different codes should agree in the great majority of instances about the proper category for each unit of analysis

Establish a quantification system: Quantification in content analysis can involve all four of the levels of data measurement- nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Train coders and content a pilot study: placing a unit of analysis into a content category is called coding. Next, a pilot study is done to check inter-coder reliability Code the content according to established definitions: standardized sheets are usually used to ease coding. These sheets allow coders to classify the data, by placing check marks or slashes in predetermined spaced. This enables researchers to quickly sort the information into categories. When a computer is used in tabulating data, the data are usually transferred directly to a spreadsheet or data file. Analyze the collected data: the descriptive statistics such as percentages, means,

modes and medians are appropriate for content analysis. If hypotheses tests are planned, then common inferential statistics(where results are generalized to the population) are acceptable. The chi-square test is the most commonly used because content analysis data tend to be nominal in form; however if the data meet the requirements of interval or ratio levels, then a t-test or ANOVA may be appropriate. Draw conclusions and search for indications: once the content analysis is complete, the results need to be interpreted and understood clearly. Suppose, for example, that a content analysis of childrens television programs reveals that 30% of the commercials are for snacks and candy. What is the researcher to conclude? Clearly the investigator needs some benchmark for comparison; 30 % may indeed be a huge figure when compared to commercials for other products or for those shown during adult programs.

RELIABILTY The concept of reliability is crucial to content analysis. If a content analysis is to be objective, its measures and procedures should be measurable. A study is reliable when repeated measurement of the same material results in similar decisions and conclusions. Inter coder reliability refers to levels of agreement among the independent coders who code the same content using the same coding instrument. If the results fail to achieve reliability, something is amiss with the coders, the coding

instructions, or some combination of these. To achieve acceptable levels of reliability, the following steps are recommended: Define category boundaries with maximum detail: a group of vague and ambiguously defined categories makes reliability very difficult to achieve. Coders should receive examples of units of analysis and a brief explanation of each to fully understand the procedure. Train the coders: before the data are collected, training sessions in using the coding instrument and the category system must be conducted. These sessions help estimate methodological problems. Conduct a pilot study: researchers must select a sub-sample of the content universe under consideration and let independent coders categorize it. Here poorly defined categories can be detected and

REFERENCES Bittner, R. John (Sixth edition) MASS COMMUNICATION: The Research Process-

Applied Research (Chapter 18, Pg. 444) Sharma, K.R. (National Publishing House) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: An Introduction to Social Sciences Research, The Process of Research (Chapter 1 & Chapter 2, Page 1/27) Birn, Robin & Forsyth, Patrick; MARKET RESEARCH: The State of The Art Communications, Advertising, Media and the Internet. (Pg. 53) Stempel, Guido H. & Weaver, David H. & Wilhoit, C. Cleveland; MASS COMMUNICATION RESEARCH AND THEORY, Broadcast Research by Kristin Mc Grath; Newspaper Research by Hugh M. Culbertson; Applied Public Relations Research by Jon Bowers- (Chapter 3/4/5- Pg. no. 30/53/76) Media research:cross sectional analysis(pg 1-3) Author Uma Joshi