Lessons learned from Fukushima Accident and Efforts of the Rebirth of Japan

--- industry’s perspective --Nuclear Operating Organizations Cooperation Forum Vienna, September 18, 2012 Takuya HATTORI JAIF

Investigation Reports about Fukushima Accident

The Gov. of Japan (Jul.2012) The National Diet of Japan (Jul.2012) Rebuild. JN. Initiative Found. (Feb.2012) TEPCO (Jun.2012) Gov. Report to IAEA (Jun./Sep.2011) NISA Report (Feb.2012) USNRC (Jul.2011) JANTI (Oct.2011) INPO (Nov.2011, Aug.2012) ASME (Jun.2012) AESJ (2013)

Investigation Committee, established by the Government of Japan chaired by Dr. Hatamura
Recommendations of the Final Report (July 2012) Basic stance for safety measures and disaster preparedness Safety measures regarding nuclear power generation Nuclear disaster response systems Damage prevention and mitigation Harmonization with international practices Review relevant organizations (nuclear safety regulatory bodies) Continued investigation of accident causes and damage

Independent Investigation Commission, established by the National Diet of Japan chaired by Dr. Kurokawa
Recommendations of the Official Report (July 2012) Monitoring of the nuclear regulatory body by the National Diet Reform the crisis management system Government responsibility for public health and welfare Monitoring the operators Criteria for the new regulatory body Reforming laws related to nuclear energy Develop a system of independent investigation commissions

Cause of the accident
--- my personal view ---

“The cause of the accident is not inevitable results of Nuclear Power technology itself, but inevitable results of management system.”
Institutional defect / Lack of imagination
insufficient robustness and preparations ; - design height of tsunami - prolonged SBO - loss of UHS - SA in multi-units - emergency preparedness etc.

It is a matter of Safety Culture --- “questioning attitude”

Lessons learned

--- my personal view ---

Robustness of design Emergency preparedness Management system Information release Safety culture “Recurrence of such severe situation could

be prevented when it is well prepared in advance reflecting lessons learned”


Efforts for the Rebirth of Japan (1)
Ensure the Nuclear Safety
2011 - Emergency safety measures - Severe accident measures Source: Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan - Shutdown of Hamaoka NPPs by Gov. request - Comprehensive safety assessments (Stress Tests) - Resumption of seismic back check 2012 - Direction of countermeasures (30 items to be reflected in future regulatory activities) - Decision of restarting of NPPs (new standards)

Efforts for the Rebirth of Japan (2)

Reform of Nuclear Regulatory Organizations
Establishment of new-regulatory bodies ; “Nuclear Regulation Authority” (as an independent commission ) and supporting agency “Nuclear Regulation Agency” (as the TSO) - Integration of nuclear regulation functions (nuclear safety, security, safeguards, radiation monitoring and radioisotopes regulation) - Review and reinforcement of nuclear safety regulations - Separate nuclear regulation function and nuclear promotion function

Nuclear Regulation Agency (TSO)

Source: Cabinet Secretariat, Government of Japan

Efforts for the Rebirth of Japan (3)

Independent efforts by NPP operators
to further enhance nuclear safety, reaching the highest level of excellence :
- Establishment of a new organization with high technical expertise - Continuous improvement of individual facilities and those operation - Development of technical competency of NPP Personnel - Establishment of nuclear emergency response organization in FY2015

Current Status of the Nuclear Power Plants in Japan (as of August 31, 2012)
: In operation (2 unit, 2.36GWe) : Outage for the periodic inspection (35 units, 30.61GWe) : Shutdown due to tsunami  andand the government request (13 units, 13.18 GWe) TOTAL : 50 units, 46.15 GWe
▲× ×××▲ × ▲▲ ▲ ▲▲ ×


Progress of Safety Assessments (Stress Tests) × Results of Primary Assessment (Stress Tests)  not yet submitted to NISA by Operators  ▲ Results of Primary Assessment  under Review by NISA 〇 Review Completed by NISA ◎ Restart operation
▲ ▲▲ ▲

▲▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ◎◎ ▲ ▲▲ ▲

× × ××××


▲▲ 〇



Efforts for the Rebirth of Japan (4)
Transition of Evacuation areas

August 2011 Evacuation Areas Restricted Area Deliberate Evacuation Area

April 2012
as of Aug.2012

Evacuees (persons) Appx.58,000 Appx.48,000 August 2012 Area 1: Areas to which evacuation orders are ready to be lifted Area 2: Areas in which residents are not permitted to live Area 3: Areas where it is expected that residents will face difficulties in returning for a long time 11
Source: Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, etc

Rearrangement of the areas of evacuation(2012.3) -- Annual integral dose Area 1: < 20mSv/y Area 2: > 20mSv/y Area 3: > 50mSv/y where the cumulative dose is expected to be > 20mSv/y within 5 years

Efforts for the Rebirth of Japan (5)

Source: Ministry of the Environment



Efforts for the Rebirth of Japan (6)

Source: Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry


Efforts for the Rebirth of Japan (7)
Mid-and-long-Term Roadmap towards the Decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Units 1-4, TEPCO

Source: Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)


Key Pillars towards Nuclear Future (1)
Recovery of Public Trust and Confidence
- Openness & Transparency is the most crucial - Information release should be accurate, candid, speedy, timely and understandable manner - Communication on released information with the general public for mutual understanding and confidence building - Establishment of independent regulatory body with high technical competency

Key Pillars towards Nuclear Future (2)
- Finding solution to various challenges in the process of

Human Resource Development
restoration of Fukushima

- Decommissioning of damaged reactors safely - Enhancing the safety of world nuclear power system based

on the lessons learned from Fukushima accident

- Responding to high expectations for Japan’s nuclear

technology from many countries even after the Fukushima Accident Development of advanced reactor with inherent safety

- Sharing long term vision (international cooperation) :

Key Pillars towards Nuclear Future (3)
“Without recovery of Fukushima, there is no future for nuclear power in Japan”
We have to overcome Fukushima accident by gathering all the possible wisdom and expertise from the world :

Cooperation with International Community

- Sharing the lessons learned and enhance safety of world nuclear installations - Focusing on reassurance of public confidence and trust - Improving literacy on radiation - Promoting R&D on decommissioning of Fukushima as an international project

Key Pillars towards Nuclear Future (4)
Cooperation with IAEA, WANO, and INPO etc.
- Constantly keeping the national regulatory guides and qualities newest and harmonizing with international practices Source: TEPCO (the IAEA safety standards) - Making the IAEA standards more effective and useful by providing Japan’s lessons learned on nuclear safety to prevent similar accidents never happening again - Better use of efficient programs to drive continuous performance improvement - Contribution to realizing high level safety based on world cutting-edge experience and expertise

Never, ever again anywhere in the world

Thank you for your attention !
t-hattori@jaif.or.jp www.jaif.or.jp/english


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