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(June-July, 2012)


Submitted by

SAHIL CHOPRA Registration Number : 10901966 Programme Name : BTECH-CSE CourseCode : CSE443

Under the Guidance of

Industry coordinator : Mr.Neeraj Tondon APTECH JALANDHAR

CSE Discipline School of Technology and Sciences Lovely Professional University, Phagwara


I hereby declare that I have completed my six weeks summer training at APTECH JALANDHAR from 1st JUNE 2012 to 15th JULY 2012 under the guidance of Mr.NEERAJ TONDON. I have worked with full dedication during these six weeks of training and my learning outcomes fulfill the requirements of training for the award of degree of Btech-CSE, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara.

Name of Student:Sahil CHOPRA Registration no:10901966



The report is about the introduction of CORE JAVA, the success of this depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of my training coordinator, Mr. NEERAJ TONDON. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this report. I thank them enough for their tremendous support and help. I feel motivated and encouraged every time I interacted with them. Without their encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized . I am grateful for their constant support and help.

I owe a great many thanks to great many people who helped and supported me during my completion of term paper.I would also thank my Institution and my faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well wishers.


Summer Training Certificate

Table of Contents 1. Organization Overview 2 . Introduction on JAVA 3. Your first Program in Java 4. Integrated development Environment 5. Your first graphical interface application (GUI) 6. Statement 7. Working with Strings 8. Type Coversion 9. Jar files-Java Archieve 10. Reason for choosing this training 11. Learning outcomes from training 12. Bibliography

1. Organisation Overview :

1.1 About APTECH :-

APTECH commenced its education and training business in 1986 and has globally trained over 6.4 million students. Aptech is an ISO 9001:2000 organization and the first IT Training and Education company to get this certification for Education Support Services in 1993. Aptech has presence in more than 40+ emerging countries through its two main streams of businesses Individual training and Enterprise Business. As a leader in career education, it has over 1305 centres of learning across the world. Under Individual Training, Aptech offers career and professional training through its Aptech Computer Education, Arena Animation & Maya Academy of Advanced Cinematics (both in Animation & Multimedia), Aptech Hardware & Networking Academy, Aptech Aviation & Hospitality Academy and Aptech English Learning Academy brands. Enterprise business includes Content Development (Aptech Learning Services), Training and Assessment Solutions for Corporates & Institutions (Aptech Training Solutions, Aptech Assessment & Testing Solutions). Aptech is associated with "Project Saraswati" for IT Literacy and "Project Srishti" for Multimedia Training. Under these two projects, Aptech provides free-of-cost training to underprivileged children at various Aptech and Arena centres. Aptechs N-Power Hardware & Networking training brand, meanwhile, conducts training for deaf children. Arena organizes Graphic Designing and Personality Development programs for underprivileged children. Aptech Computer Education, the flagship brand of Aptech Ltd., has entered into an alliance with Middlesex University to provide advance entry to students doing Aptech Certified Computer Professional (ACCP) course in the final year of B.Sc. (Honors) at their London, Dubai or Mauritius Campus.


SCF 8, New JAWAHAR NAGAR MARKET Ph.: 0181-2244149, 2242408

1.3 APTECH Infotech is specialised in :- \

Java Technologies : J2EE,EJB,JSP,J2ME,Servlet,Struts,Spring,Hibernate,Tapestry,Web Services,XML.SOAP. Microsoft Technologies : .Net Framework,,VB.Net,,Web Services,SQL Services,DOT NET (DNN). Databases : Oracle 10g,Microsoft sql server,Db2,MySQL. PHP Technologies : PHP ,Java script,joomla,Cake PHP. Operating System : Windows 7,Windows 8,XP,Linux,Solaris. Mobile Technologies : MS Windows Mobile,J2ME,iphone,Google Android.

1.4 About the External Guide :-

APTECH has a team with expertise in diverse domains of Mobile app development in iPhone, Mobile app development in Android, Mobile app development in Symbian, MultiCore Processor programming, Emerging Embedded systems ARM cortext A8, JAVA app development, .NET programming and many more. Our motto is to deliver Quality and Excellence. APTECH team has a global exposure of IT industry. Their team has been giving technical trainings and consultancy to companies located in USA. Experts travelled worldwide and have vast exposure. Their Students placed in Infosys, RBS , Sanyo, Aricent and many more MNCs Alumni .They have IT industry experts with more than 13 years of experience . APTECH is a Software Development Company.. Specialist in 6 weeks/6 months training for engineers/MCA students. Aurtorised training partner of ORACLE,MICROSOFT,RED HAT and SUN MICROSYSTEMS. APTECHs Industrial training programs are designed according to the industry needs . Original Certificate and courseware directly from parent companies lke of ORACLE,MICROSOFT,RED HAT and SUN MICROSYSTEMS etc. More than 50 qualified and certified trainers with experience in software development. Guest lecturers by Industry Experts. Industrial Training Certificate from Software Development Company. World class infrastructurewith licensed softwares. Classroom training includes Audio-Visual aid,Wi-Fi labs. Interview Preparation and Personality development program. Dedicated placement cell with 100% placements. Seminars on advanced technologies for ORACLE,MICROSOFT,RED HAT and SUN MICROSYSTEMS etc.


2.1 HISTORY :- Java is a programming language originally developed by James

Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since merged into Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and fewer low-level facilities. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. Java is a general-purpose, concurrent,classbased, object-oriented language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another. Java is as of 2012 one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 10 million users.

Major release versions of Java, along with their release dates: JDK 1.0 (January 23, 1996) JDK 1.1 (February 19, 1997) J2SE 1.2 (December 8, 1998) J2SE 1.3 (May 8, 2000) J2SE 1.4 (February 6, 2002) J2SE 5.0 (September 30, 2004) Java SE 6 (December 11, 2006) Java SE 7 (July 28, 2011)

One characteristic of Java is portability, which means that computer programs written in the Java language must run similarly on any hardware/operating-system platform. This is achieved by

compiling the Java language code to an intermediate representation called Java bytecode, instead of directly to platform-specific machine code. Java bytecode instructions are analogous to machine code, but are intended to be interpreted by a virtual machine (VM) written specifically for the host hardware. End-users commonly use a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed on their own machine for standalone Java applications, or in a Web browser for Java applets. Standardized libraries provide a generic way to access host-specific features such as graphics, threading, and networking. A major benefit of using bytecode is porting. However, the overhead of interpretation means that interpreted programs almost always run more slowly than programs compiled to native executables would. Just-in-Time (JIT) compilers were introduced from an early stage that compile bytecodes to machine code during runtime.

2.2 Overview :The Java programming language consists of a Java compiler, the Java virtual machine, and the Java class libraries. The Java virtual machine (JVM) is a software implementation of a computer that executes programs like a real machine. The Java compiler translates Java coding into so-called byte-code. The Java virtual machine interprets this byte-code and runs the program. The Java virtual machine is written specifically for a specific operating system. The Java runtime environment (JRE) consists of the JVM and the Java class libraries.

2.3. Characteristics of Java :The target of Java is to write a program once and then run this program on multiple operating systems. Java has the following properties:

Platform independent: Java programs use the Java virtual machine as abstraction and do not access the operating system directly. This makes Java programs highly portable. A Java program which is standard complaint and follows certain rules can run unmodified all several platforms, e.g. Windows or Linux.

Object-orientated programming language: Except the primitive data types, all elements in Java are objects.

Strongly-typed programming language: Java is strongly-typed, e.g. the types of the used variables must be pre-defined and conversion to other objects is relatively strict, e.g. must be done in most cases by the programmer.

Interpreted and compiled language: Java source code is transfered into bytecode which does not depend on the target platform. This byte-code will be interpreted by the Java Virtual machine (JVM). The JVM contains a so called Hotspot-Compiler which translates critical byte-code into native code.

Automatic memory management: Java manages the memory allocation and deallocation for creating new objects. The program does not have direct access to the memory. The so-called garbage collector deletes automatically object to which no active pointer exists.

The Java syntax is similar to C++. Java is case sensitive, e.g. the variables myValue and myvalue will be treated as different variables.

2.4. Development with Java

The programmer writes Java source code in an text editor which supports plain text. Normally the programmer uses an IDE (integrated development environment) for programming. An IDE support the programmer in the task of writing code, e.g. it provides auto-formatting of the source code, highlighting of the important keywords, etc. At some point the programmer (or the IDE) calls the Java compiler (javac). The Java compiler creates platform independent code which is called bytecode. This byte-code is stored in ".class" files.

Bytecode can be executed by the Java runtime environment. The Java runtime environment (JRE) is a program which knows how to run the bytecode on the operating system. The JRE translates the bytecode into native code and executes it, e.g. the native code for Linux is different then the native code for Windows. By default, the compiler puts each class file in the same directory as its source file. You can specify a separate destination directory with d.

Classpath:The classpath is the connection between the Java compiler and Java interpreter. It defines where the compiler and interpreter look for .class files to load. The classpath in Java defines which Java class are available for your Java program. For example if you want to use an external Java library you have to add this library to your classpath to use it in your program.

3. Your first Java program :3.1. Write source code

The following Java program is developed under Microsoft Windows. The process on other operating system should be similar but will not be covered here. Select a directory which should contain your code. I will use the directory c:\temp\java which will be called javadir. Open a text editor which supports plain text, e.g. notepad under Windows and write the following source code. You can start notepad via Start->Run-> notepad and pressing enter.
// The smallest Java program possible
public class HelloWorld {

public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println("Hello World"); } }

Save the source code in your directory "javadir" under the name "".The name of a Java source file must always equals the class name (within the source code) and end with .java. In our case the filename must be because the class is called HelloWorld.

3.2. Compile and run your Java program

Switch to the command line, e.g. under Windows Start-> Run -> cmd. Switch to the "javadir" directory with the command cd javadir, for example in my case cd c:\temp\java. Use the command dir to see that the source file is in the directory.

Check the content of the directory with the command "dir". The directory contains now a file "HelloWorld.class". If you see this file you have successfully compiled your first Java source code into byte-code. Run -> cmd. Switch to the directory jardir. To run your program type in the command line:

java HelloWorld

The system should write "Hello World" on the command line.

3.3. Using the classpath

You can use the classpath to run the program from another place in your directory. Switch to the command line, e.g. under Windows Start-> Run -> cmd. Switch to any directory you want. Type:

java HelloWorld

If you are not in the directory in which the compiled class is stored then the system should result an error message Exception in thread "main" java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: test/TestClass To use the class type the following command. Replace "mydirectory" with the directory which contains the test directory. You should again see the "HelloWorld" output.
java -classpath "mydirectory" HelloWorld

4. Integrated Development Environment :The previous chapter explained how to create and compile a Java program on the command line. A Java Integrated Development Environment (IDE) provides lots of ease of use functionality for creating java programs. There are other very powerful IDE's available, for example the Eclipse IDE. . For an introduction on how to use the Eclipse IDE. In the following I will say "Create a Java project SomeName". This will refer to creating an Eclipse Java project. If you are using a different IDE please follow the required steps in this IDE.

5. Your first graphical user interface application(GUI)

Using Eclipse create a new Java project "JavaIntroductionUI". Create the following class in package ui.
package ui;

import java.awt.BorderLayout; import java.awt.GridLayout; import java.awt.event.ActionEvent; import java.awt.event.ActionListener;

import javax.swing.JButton; import javax.swing.JCheckBox; import javax.swing.JFrame; import javax.swing.JLabel; import javax.swing.JOptionPane; import javax.swing.JPanel; import javax.swing.JTextField;

public class MyFirstUI extends JFrame {

private JCheckBox checkbox; private JTextField firstName; private JTextField lastName;

public MyFirstUI() {

// Lets make it look nice // This you can ignore / delete if you do not like it // try {

// for (LookAndFeelInfo info : UIManager.getInstalledLookAndFeels()) { // if ("Nimbus".equals(info.getName())) { // UIManager.setLookAndFeel(info.getClassName()); // break; // } // } // } catch (Exception e) { // e.printStackTrace(); // }

setTitle("My First UI");

// We create a panel which will hold the UI components

JPanel pane = new JPanel(new BorderLayout());

// We always have two UI elements (columns) and we have three rows

int numberOfRows = 3; int numberOfColumns = 2; pane.setLayout(new GridLayout(numberOfRows, numberOfColumns));

// create and attach buttons // create a label and add it to the main window
JLabel firstNamelabel = new JLabel(" Firstname: "); pane.add(firstNamelabel);

firstName = new JTextField(); pane.add(firstName);

JLabel lastNamelabel = new JLabel(" Lastname: "); pane.add(lastNamelabel); lastName = new JTextField(); pane.add(lastName);

JButton sayHello = new JButton("Say something"); pane.add(sayHello);

checkbox = new JCheckBox("Nice"); pane.add(checkbox);

// Add the pane to the main window


// Pack will make the size of window fitting to the compoents // You could also use for example setSize(300, 400);

// Set a tooltip for the button

sayHello .setToolTipText("This button will say something really nice of something bad");

// sayHello need to do something

sayHello.addActionListener(new MyActionListener()); }

private class MyActionListener implements ActionListener { public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { if (!checkbox.isSelected()) { JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, "I do not like you, " + firstName.getText() + " " + lastName.getText() + "!"); } else { JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, "How are you, " + firstName.getText() + " " + lastName.getText() + "?"); } }

} }

Create also the following class in package test and start this class.
package test;

import ui.MyFirstUI;

public class MainTester { public static void main(String[] args) { MyFirstUI view = new MyFirstUI(); view.setVisible(true); } }

You should see the following. A mesage dialog should be seen if you press the button.

6. Statements :The following describes certain aspects of the software.

6.1. Boolean Operations

Use == to compare two primitives or to see if two references refers to the same object. Use the equals() method to see if two different objects are equal. && and || are both Short Circuit Methods which means that they terminate once the result of an evaluation is already clear. Example (true || ....) is always true while (false && ...) always false is. Usage: (var !=null && var.method1()..) ensures that var is not null before doing the real check. Table 1. Boolean




Is equal, in case of objects the system checks if the reference variable point to the same object, is will not compare the content of the objects!




is not equal, similar to the "=="


Checks if string a equals b


Checks if string a equals b while ignoring lower cases

If (value ? false : true) {}

Return true if value is not true.


6.2. Switch Statement

The switch statement can be used to handle several alternatives if they are based on the same constant value.
switch (expression) { case constant1: command; break; // Will prevent that the other cases or also executed case constant2: command; break; ... default: }


switch (cat.getLevel()) { case 0: return true; case 1:

if (cat.getLevel() == 1) { if (cat.getName().equalsIgnoreCase(req.getCategory())) { return true; } } case 2: if (cat.getName().equalsIgnoreCase(req.getSubCategory())) { return true; } }

7. Working with Strings :The following lists the most common string operations. Table 2.




return true if text1 is equal to "Testing". The test is case sensitive.


return true if text1 is equal to "Testing". The test is not case sensitive. For example it would also be true for "testing"

StringBuffer str1 = new StringBuffer();

Define a new String with a variable length.




Return the character at position 1. (Strings starting with 0)


Removes the first characters.

str.substring(1, 5);

Gets the substring from the second to the fifths character.


Find / Search for String Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified string.


Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified string. StringBuffer does not support this method. Hence first convert the StringBuffer to String via method toString.

str. endsWith(String)

Returns true if str ends with String


Returns true if str starts with String


Removes spaces


Replaces all occurrences of str1 by str2


Concatenates str1 at the end of str.



str.toLowerCase() str.toUpperCase()

Converts string to lower- or uppercase

str1 + str2

Concatenate str1 and str2

String[] zeug = myString.split("-"); String[] zeug = myString.split("\\.");

Spits myString at / into Strings. Attention: the split string is a regular expression, so if you using special characters which have a meaning in regular expressions you need to quote them. In the second example the . is used and must be quoted by two backslashes.

8. Type Conversion
If you use variables of different types Java requires for certain types an explicit conversion. The following gives examples for this conversion.

8.1. Conversion to String

Use the following to convert from other types to Strings
// Convert from int to String
String s1 = String.valueOf (10); // "10" String s2 =

// Convert from double to String

String.valueOf (Math.PI); // "3.141592653589793"

// Convert from boolean to String

String s3 = String.valueOf (1 < 2); // "true"

// Convert from date to String

String s4 = String.valueOf (new Date()); // "Tue Jun 03 14:40:38 CEST 2003"

8.2. Conversion from String to Number

// Conversion from String to int
int i = Integer.parseInt(String);

// Conversion from float to int

float f = Float.parseFloat(String);

// Conversion from double to int

double d = Double.parseDouble(String);

The conversion from string to number is independent from the Locale settings, e.g. it is always using the English notification for number. In this notification a correct number format is "8.20". The German number "8,20" would result in an error. To convert from a German number you have to use the NumberFormat class. The challenges is that if the value is for example 98.00 then the NumberFormat class would create a Long which cannot be casted to Double. Hence the following complex conversion class.
private Double convertStringToDouble(String s) {

Locale l = new Locale("de", "DE"); Locale.setDefault(l); NumberFormat nf = NumberFormat.getInstance(); Double result = 0.0; try {

if (Class.forName("java.lang.Long").isInstance(nf.parse(s))) { result = Double.parseDouble(String.valueOf(nf.parse(s))); } else { result = (Double) nf.parse(new String(s)); } } catch (ClassNotFoundException e1) { e1.printStackTrace(); } catch (ParseException e1) { e1.printStackTrace(); } return result; }

8.3. Double to int

int i = (int) double;

8.4. SQL Date conversions

Use the following to convert a Date to a SQL date
package test;

import java.text.DateFormat; import java.text.ParseException; import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;

public class ConvertDateToSQLDate {

private void convertDateToSQL(){ SimpleDateFormat template = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"); java.util.Date enddate = new java.util.Date("10/31/99"); java.sql.Date sqlDate = java.sql.Date.valueOf(template.format(enddate));

} public static void main(String[] args) { ConvertDateToSQLDate date = new ConvertDateToSQLDate(); date.convertDateToSQL(); }

9. JAR files - Java Archive

9.1. What is a jar
A JAR file is a Java Archive based on the pkzip file format. A jar files can contain java classes and other resources (icons, property files) and can be executable. JAR files are the deployment format for Java. You can distribute your program in a jar file or you can use exiting java code via jars by putting them into your classpath.

9.2. Executable jar

An executable JAR means the end-user does not have to pull the class files out before running the program. This is done via a manifest.txt file which tells the JVM which class has the main() method. The content of the manifest.txt file:
Manifest-Version: 1.0 Main-Class: MyApp Class-Path: . lib/jcommon-1.0.6.jar lib/itext-1.4.6.jar "Empty Line"

An empty line is required otherwise the jar won't be executable. Space after a new line is also required To create one executable JAR file run on the command line
jar -cvmf mainfest.txt app1.jar *.class

10. Classes :The following can be used as a reference for certain task which you have to do.

10.1. Working with classes

While programming Java you have to create several classes, methods, instance variables. The following uses the package test. Table 3.

What to do

How to do it

Create a new class calledMyNewClass.

package test;

public class MyNewClass {

Create a new attribute (instance variable) "var1" in

package test;

MyNewClass with type String

public class MyNewClass { private String var1; }

Create a Constructor for "MyNewClass which has a String

package test;

parameter and assigns the value of it to the "var1" instance variable.

public class MyNewClass {

What to do

How to do it

private String var1;

public MyNewClass(String para1) { var1 = para1;

// or this.var1= para1;
} }

Create a new method "doSomeThing" in class which do not

package test;

return a value and has no parameters

public class MyNewClass { private String var1;

public MyNewClass(String para1) { var1 = para1;

// or this.var1= para1;

public void doSomeThing() {

What to do

How to do it

Create a new method "doSomeThing2" in class which do not

package test;

return a value and has two parameters, a int and a Person

public class MyNewClass { private String var1;

public MyNewClass(String para1) { var1 = para1;

// or this.var1= para1;

public void doSomeThing() {

public void doSomeThing2(int a, Person person) {

What to do

How to do it

Create a new method "doSomeThing2" in class which do return

package test;

an int value and has three parameters, two Strings and a Person
public class MyNewClass { private String var1;

public MyNewClass(String para1) { var1 = para1;

// or this.var1= para1;

public void doSomeThing() {

public void doSomeThing2(int a, Person person) {

public int doSomeThing3(String a, String b, Person person) { return 5; // Any value will do for this example

What to do

How to do it

Create a class "MyOtherClass" with two instance variables. One

package test;

will store a String, the other will store a Dog. Create getter and setter for these variables.
public class MyOtherClass { String myvalue; Dog dog;

public String getMyvalue() { return myvalue; }

public void setMyvalue(String myvalue) { this.myvalue = myvalue; }

public Dog getDog() { return dog; }

What to do

How to do it

public void setDog(Dog dog) { = dog; } }

10.2. Working with local variable

A local variable must always be declared in a method. Table 4.

What to do

How to do it

Declare a (local) variable of type string.

String variable1;

Declare a (local) variable of type string and assign "Test" to it.

String variable2 = "Test";

Declare a (local) variable of type Person

Person person;

Declare a (local) variable of type Person, create a new Object and assign the variable to this object.

Person person = new Person();

What to do

How to do it

Declare a array of type String

String array[];

Declare a array of type Person and create an array for this variable which can hold 5 Persons.

Person array[]= new Person[5];

Assign 5 to the int variable var1 (which was already declared);

var1 = 5;

Assign the existing variable pers2 to the exiting variable pers1;

pers1 = pers2;

Declare a ArrayList variable which can hold objects of type Person

ArrayList<Person> persons;

Create a new ArrayList with objects of type Person and assign it to the existing variable persons

persons = new ArrayList<Person>();

Declare a ArrayList variable which can hold objects of type Person and create a new Object for it.

ArrayList<Person> persons = new ArrayList<Person>();

Reason for choosing this training:I have choosed Java language as my training because it will help me in several ways .I haven choosen my college course in Java and by having little bit knowledge in this subject will help me in next semester. During learning this I came to understand much more basic concepts of C/C++.As Java is combination of C/C++ 25% each and rest in JAVA. Java is used now-a-day so much in every field whether it is in mobile application ,games,offices,android etc..So it has many benifts of learning this language.

Learning Outcome from training :General learning outcomes:

An understanding of the principles and practice of object oriented analysis and design in the construction of robust, maintainable programs which satisfy their requirements;

A competence to design, write, compile, test and execute straightforward programs using a high level language;

An appreciation of the principles of object oriented programming; An awareness of the need for a professional approach to design and the importance of good documentation to the finished programs.

Specific learning outcomes:

Be able to implement, compile, test and run Java programmes, comprising more than one class, to address a particular software problem.

Understand how to include arithmetic operators and constants in a Java program. Be able to make use of members of classes found in the Java API (such as the Math class). Demonstrate the ability to employ various types of selection constructs in a Java program. Be able to employ a hierarchy of Java classes to provide a solution to a given set of requirements.

Demonstrate the ability to employ repetition constructs in a Java program.

Books : The Complete Reference Java2 fifth edition (by:- Herbert Schildt) JAVA BOOK BY BALAGURUSWAMY