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TEKSTOVI ZA PREVOD UNIT ONE The study of exceptional learners involves the study of differences and similarities.

Exceptional learners are different from the average in some special abilities or disabilities. However, they can also be similar in their characteristics, needs and way of learning. Reasons for optimism include scientific advances in determining the cause of some disabilities, their prevention or correction, as well as the improvements in educational methodology. It is very important to recognize both the abilities and the disabilities of exceptional learners. There is an important distinction between a disability and a handicap. A disability is an inability to do something, while a handicap is a limitation that is imposed on someone. Another important distinction is that between inability and disability. A disability is an inability to do something that most people of typical age, and with typical opportunity or instruction, can do.

UNIT TWO Exceptional learners are those who require special education to reach their full potential. About 10 percent of the student population is identified as exceptional for special education purposes. Some categories of disability are considered high-incidence because they are found relatively frequently, while some are considered low-incidence because they occur relatively rarely. Special education means specially designed instruction that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student. It may include special materials, teaching techniques, or equipment and/or facilities. Depending on the students exceptionality, special education may range from the least restrictive environment to twenty-four-hour residential schools

UNIT THREE The term intellectual disabilities is now used by many to refer to persons who were in the past referred to as mentally retarded. Today, professionals consider social and practical intelligence in addition to IQ in defining intellectual disability. Most school systems classify intellectual disabilities as mild (IQ of about 50 to 70), moderate (IQ of about 35 to 50), severe (IQ of about 20 to 35), and profound (IQ below about 20). A common way of categorizing causes of intellectual disabilities is according to the time at which the cause occurs: prenatal (before birth), perinatal (at the time of birth), and postnatal (after birth). Major areas of problems for people with intellectual disabilities are attention, memory, language, self-regulation, motivation and social development. Although special classes for these students tend to be the norm, more and more students with intellectual disabilities are being placed in more integrated settings depending on the level of severity.

UNIT FOUR Learning disabilities is a general term that refers to a group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities. It is by far the largest category of special education. A child with learning disabilities is now often referred to as having central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction rather than brain injury. There is strong evidence that many cases of learning disabilities are inherited. Teratogens and medical factors can also result in learning disabilities. Academic problems are the hallmark of learning disabilities. Most common are reading disabilities. Other academic problems include writing disabilities, spoken language disabilities and math disabilities. Apart from academic problems, some students with learning disabilities experience perceptual, motor, and general coordination problems. Many students with learning disabilities have problems with attention, memory and social-emotional problems. There are four major instructional approaches appropriate for students with learning disabilities: cognitive training, content enhancement, direct instruction and peer tutoring.

UNIT FIVE Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a condition characterized by severe problems of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity. It also involves problems in adaptive behavior, relationship with peers, and substance abuse problems. Learning disabilities and emotional-behavioral problems often co-exist with ADHD. Possible causes of ADHD include neurological abnormalities, abnormal levels of two neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, heredity, exposure to toxins, abuse of alcohol and tobacco, as well as medical factors such as complications at birth and low birth weight. The majority of students with ADHD today are in general education classrooms.

UNIT SIX The term emotional or behavioral disorder refers to behavior that goes to an extreme, a problem that is chronic, and behavior that is unacceptable because of social or cultural expectations. Researchers have identified two pervasive dimensions of disordered behavior: externalizing (aggressive behavior toward others) and internalizing (anxious, withdrawn behavior and depression). Also, comorbidity the co-occurrence of two or more conditions in the same individual is not unusual. Causes of emotional or behavioral disorders are multiple and complex. Major causal factors include biology, family, school, and culture. Teacher judgment plays the most significant role in identifying students with emotional or behavioral disorders. For educational purposes, a balance between behavioral control and academic instruction is required. It is also very important to integrate other services these children might need (e.g. psychotherapy or counseling , training related to employment, etc.).

UNIT SEVEN Communication disorders are impairments in the ability to use speech or language to communicate. Speech disorders are impairments in the production and use of oral language. They include phonological disorders, articulation disorders, voice disorders, fluency disorders, and motor-speech disorders. Language disorders include problems in comprehension and expression. The problems may involve the form (phonology, morphology, syntax), content (semantics), or use of language (pragmatics). Language disorders may be primary or secondary. A primary language disorder has no known cause. A secondary language disorder is caused by another condition. Helping children overcome speech and language is the joint responsibility of the classroom teacher, the speech language pathologist, and parents.

UNIT EIGHT The most common way of classifying hearing impairment is the division between deaf and hard of hearing. Terms used frequently by educators regarding the age of onset of hearing impairment are: congenitally deaf (those who are born deaf) adventitiously deaf (those who become deaf at some time after their birth) prelingual deafness (deafness that occurs at birth or early in life before speech and language develop) postlingual deafness (deafness that occurs after the development of speech and language)

The most severe hearing impairments are associated with the inner ear. Impairments of the inner ear can be hereditary or acquired. Genetic or hereditary factors are a leading cause of deafness in children. In identifying hearing impairments there are four general types of tests: screening tests, pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and specialized tests for very young children. Nowadays, most educational programs use a total communication approach which is a combination of oral and manual techniques.

UNIT NINE According to the educational definition, blindness is needing to use braille or aural methods, and low vision is being able to read print (enlarged or magnified). The most common visual problems (myopia - nearsightedness, hyperopia farsightedness and astigmatism - blurred vision) are the result of errors of refraction. Among most serious impairments are those caused by glaucoma, cataracts, and diabetes. These conditions occur primarily in adults. Some conditions affect primarily children, such as cortical visual impairment, retinitis pigmentosa, and retinopathy of prematurity. Students with visual impairment have to rely on other senses to acquire information. The student with little or no sight will require special modifications in four major areas: (1) braille, (2) use of remaining sight, (3) listening skills, and (4) orientation and mobility training.

UNIT TEN Autism Spectrum Disorders involve problems with communication skills, social interactions, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. The most prevalent are autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism is characterized by extreme social withdrawal and impairment in communication. It is usually evident before the age of three. Asperger syndrome is a milder form of autism without significant impairments in language and cognition. However, it involves problems in the other areas, especially social interaction. Scientists have established that the causes may be neurological and genetic. The greatest areas of needed instruction are communication skills for those with autism and social skills for those with Asperger syndrome.

UNIT ELEVEN Low-incidence, multiple and severe disabilities are those that occur relatively infrequently and require extensive support in more than one major life activity. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is brain damage caused by trauma after a period of normal neurological development, resulting from two categories of head injury: open or closed. The possible effects of TBI include a long list of learning and psychosocial problems. Deaf-blindness involves significant impairments in both hearing and seeing. Causes of deaf-blindness can be grouped into three categories: (1) genetic/chromosomal syndromes, (2) prenatal causes, and (3) postnatal causes. The major educational needs of students who are deaf-blind are communication and orientation and mobility. Both, but especially communication are required for social interaction. Two important principles should be kept in mind when addressing the needs of students who are deaf-blind: direct teaching and structured routines.

UNIT TWELVE Physical disabilities are physical limitations or health problems that interfere with school attendance or learning to such an extent that special services, training, equipment, materials, or facilities are required. Some physical disabilities are mild and transitory; others are profound and progressive. Some are chronic diseases, while some are episodic. Major categories of physical disabilities are neuromotor impairments, orthopedic or musculoskeletal disorders. Many individuals with physical disabilities use prosthetics, orthotics, and other adaptive devices to help them function better on a daily basis. Many people with physical disabilities can learn to do many or all the things that most nondisabled people do. For students with physical disabilities, education should be as normal as possible and it should equip the student for daily living as well as employment or further education.

UNIT THIRTEEN Giftedness refers to superior abilities in specific areas of performance, which may be exhibited under some circumstances but not others. There may be different kinds of giftedness, such as analytic, synthetic and practical. The main factors that contribute to giftedness are really much the same as those that contribute to any type of behavior, whether typical or exceptional: 1. Genetic and other biological factors, such as neurological functioning and nutrition. 2. Social factors, such as family, school, the peer group, and community. The plans for educating students with special gifts and talents include enrichment (additional experiences provided to students without placing them in a higher grade) or acceleration (placing the students ahead of their age peers).

UNIT FOURTEEN The trend of integrating people with disabilities into the larger society began many decades ago and is stronger than ever. A key principle behind integration is normalization, which means that every individual, even the most disabled, should have an educational and living environment as close to normal as possible. The most controversial issue about integrating students with disabilities into school is that of full inclusion whereby all students with disabilities are placed in their neighborhood schools in general education classrooms. Most educators are in favor of some degree of integration through different forms of cooperation between general and special education. Many educators and social scientists point out the importance o early intervention services for infants and toddlers identified as having disabilities, as well as the importance of services that help older students with disabilities with transition from adolescence to adulthood and from school to work.

UNIT FIFTEEN Special education teachers work with children and youths who have a variety of disabilities. Most special education teachers instruct students at the preschool, elementary, and secondary school level, although some work with infants and toddlers. Special education teachers help to develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for each student receiving special education. Preparing special education students for daily life after graduation also is an important aspect of the job. As schools become more inclusive, special education teachers and general education teachers increasingly work together in general education classrooms in adapting curriculum materials and teaching techniques to meet the needs of students with disabilities. Other occupations involved with the identification, evaluation, and development of students with disabilities include: audiologists, counselors, psychologists, occupational therapists, social workers, physical therapists, speech-language pathologists and assistive technology practitioners or specialists.