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# VMFL001: Flow Between Rotating and Stationary Concentric Cylinders

Overview
Reference Solver Physics/Models Input Files F. M. White,Viscous Fluid Flow McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, NY, , 1991, Section 3-2.3. FLUENT, CFX Laminar flow, rotating wall rot_conc_cyl.cas for FLUENT rotating_cylinder.def for CFX

Test Case
Steady laminar flow between two concentric cylinders is modeled. The flow is induced by rotation of the inner cylinder with a constant angular velocity, while the outer cylinder is held stationary. Due to periodicity only a section of the domain needs to be modeled. In the present simulation a 180 segment (half of the domain shown in Figure 1 (p. 5)) is modeled. The sketch is not to scale.

## Material Properties Density = 1 kg/m3 Viscosity = 0.002 kg/m-s

Geometry Radius of the Inner Cylinder = 17.8 mm Radius of the outer Cylinder = 46.8 mm

## Analysis Assumptions and Modeling Notes

The flow is steady. The tangential velocity at various sections can be calculated using analytical equations for laminar flow. These values are used for comparison with simulation results.

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VMFL001

## Results Comparison for FLUENT

Table 1 Comparison of Tangential Velocity in the Annulus at Various Radial Locations
Tangential Velocity at r = 20 mm r = 25 mm r = 30 mm r = 35 mm Target Calculation, m/s 0.01514 0.01059 0.00727 0.00466 FLUENT, m/s 0.01512 0.01055 0.00720 0.00456 Ratio 0.999 0.996 0.990 0.979

## Results Comparison for CFX

Table 2 Comparison of Tangential Velocity in the Annulus at Various Radial Locations
Location r = 20 mm r = 25 mm r = 30 mm r = 35mm Target Calculation, m/s 0.015139 0.010589 0.007274 0.004664 CFX, m/s 0.0150 0.01053 0.007188 0.004551 Ratio 0.991 0.998 0.988 0.976

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## VMFL002: Laminar Flow Through a Pipe with Uniform Heat Flux

Overview
Reference 1. 2. F. M. White, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1979 F. P. Incropera, D. P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, 1981

## FLUENT Laminar flow with heat transfer laminar-pipe-hotflow.cas

Test Case
Laminar flow of Mercury through a circular pipe is modeled, with uniform heat flux across the wall. A fully developed laminar velocity profile is prescribed at the inlet. The resulting pressure drop and exit temperature are compared with analytical calculations for Laminar flow. Only half of the 2D domain is modeled due to symmetry.

## Figure 1 Flow Domain

Material Properties Fluid: Mercury Density = 13529 kg/m3 Viscosity = 0.001523 kg/m-s Specific Heat = 139.3 J/kg-K Thermal Conductivity = 8.54 W/m-K

## Geometry Length of the pipe = 0.1 m Radius of the pipe = 0.0025 m

Boundary Conditions Fully developed velocity profile at inlet. Inlet temperature = 300 K Heat Flux across wall = 5000 W/m2

## Analysis Assumptions and Modeling Notes

The flow is steady and incompressible. Pressure drop can be calculated from the theoretical expression for laminar flow given in Ref. 1. Correlations for temperature calculations are given in Ref. 2.

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VMFL002

Results Comparison
Table 1 Comparison of Pressure Drop and Outlet Temperature
Target Calculation Pressure Drop Centerline Temperature at the Outlet 0.9976 Pa 340.39 K FLUENT 0.9990 Pa 340.56 K Ratio 1.001 1.000

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## VMFL003: Pressure Drop in Turbulent Flow through a Pipe

Overview
Reference Solver Physics/Models Input File R. C. Binder, Fluid Mechanics, 3rd Edition, 3rd Printing, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1956, pg. 118, article 8-6. FLUENT Turbulent flow, standard k- Model turb_pipe_flow.cas

Test Case
Air flows through a horizontal pipe with smooth walls. The flow Reynolds number is 1.37 X 104. Only half of the axisymmetrical domain is modeled.

## Material Properties Density = 1.225 kg/m3

Viscosity = 1.7883 e-5 kg/m-s

## Analysis Assumptions and Modeling Notes

The flow is steady. Pressure drop can be calculated from analytical formula using friction factor f which can be determined for the given Reynolds number from Moody chart. The calculated pressure drop is compared with the simulation results (pressure difference between inlet and outlet).

Results Comparison
Table 1 Comparison of Pressure Drop in the Pipe
Target Calculation FLUENT Ratio

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## VMFL003 Pressure Drop 21489 Pa 21480 Pa 1.000

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## VMFL004: Plain Couette Flow with Pressure Gradient

Overview
Reference Solver Physics/Models Input Files Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics (5th Edition), Munon,Young, Okiishi FLUENT, CFX Laminar flow, moving wall, periodic boundaries couette_flow.cas for FLUENT Couette_Flow.def for CFX

Test Case
Viscous flow between two parallel plates is modeled. The top plate moves with a uniform velocity while the lower plate is fixed. A pressure gradient is imposed in a direction parallel to the plates.

## Geometry Length of the domain = 1.5 m Width of the domain = 1 m

Boundary Conditions Velocity of the moving wall = 3 m/s in X-direction For FLUENT, pressure gradient across periodic boundaries = 12 Pa/m For CFX, pressure gradient across periodic boundaries = 12 Pa/m (pressure change = 18 Pa)

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VMFL004

## Analysis Assumptions and Modeling Notes

The flow is steady and laminar. Periodic conditions with specified pressure drop are applied across the flux boundaries.

## Results Comparison for FLUENT

Figure 2 Comparison of X-Velocity (m/s) at a Section Where X = 0.75 m

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VMFL004

## Results Comparison for CFX

Figure 3 Comparison of X-Velocity (m/s) at a Section Where X = 0.75 m

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## VMFL005: Poiseuille Flow in a Pipe

Overview
Reference Solver Physics/Models Input File S. W.Yuan, Foundations of Fluid Mechanics, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, 1976, sec. 8.36. FLUENT Steady laminar flow poiseuille-flow.cas

Test Case
Fully developed laminar flow in a circular tube is modeled. Reynolds number based on the tube diameter is 500. Only half of the axisymmetric domain is modeled.

## Geometry Length of the pipe = 0.1 m Radius of the pipe = 0.00125 m

Boundary Conditions Fully developed laminar velocity profile at inlet with an average velocity of 2.15 m/s

## Analysis Assumptions and Modeling Notes

The flow is steady. A fully developed laminar velocity profile is prescribed at the inlet. Hagen-Poiseuille equation is used to determine the pressure drop analytically.

Results Comparison
Table 1 Comparison of Pressure Drop in the Pipe
Target Calculation Pressure Drop 10. 24 Pa FLUENT 10.22 Pa Ratio 0.998

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