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SYSTEMIC METAPHOR & SYSTEM METHODOLOGY

IIE 311 Pemodelan System Semester Ganjil 2012/2013

Romy Loice

Reference
Flood,R.L.AndJackson,1991,M.C.,CreativeProblem Solving:TotalSystemIntervention,JohnWiley&Son, Chichester p Chapter1.4 1.13 Chapter2

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Systemic Metaphors
Systemicmetaphorsemployedasfiltersforlookingat problemsituation. Therearefivemetaphorstoconsider,i.e:
Machinemetaphor Organicmetaphor Neurocybernetic metaphor Culturalmetaphor Political metaphor

Thesemetaphorscapturetheinsightofalmostall managementandorganisation theory.

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Machine Metaphor (closed system ( closed system view)


Typifiedbytheoriesofbureaucracy(Weber) andscientificmanagement(Taylor). Amachineisrecognizedasatechnical apparatusthathasseveral(oftenstandardizes eachwithadefinitefunction. Muchemphasisisplacedontheefficiencyof theparts.

Weber theory of tripartite authority


threeidealtypesoflegitimatepoliticalleadership, dominationandauthority: 1. charismaticauthority(familialandreligious), 2. traditionalauthority(patriarchs,patrimonalism,feudalism) and 3. legal authority (modern law and state, bureaucracy). legalauthority(modernlawandstate,bureaucracy). Thesethreetypesareidealpuretypesandrarelyappearin theirpureform.
(takenfromwikipedia:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tripartite_classification_of_authority_)

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Themachineoperatesinaroutineand repetitivefashionandperforms predeterminedsetsofactivities,seekingthe rationalandefficientmeansofreachingpreset goalsandobjectives. l d bj i

recall the delivery firms


pickupanddeliveryfirms,likecourierservices,pickup
anddropoff goodsata numberofplaces. Thelocationsofthesepickupsanddropoffsmaydifferdailyor p p p y y evenhourly,withnewlocationsaddedtothelistoflocationsto visit.Thevehicleusedmayhavealimitedcarryingcapacity.The lengthof timedriverscanbeontheroadinoneshiftmaybe subjecttolegalrestrictions.

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When and Why Using Machine View


Whenthetasktobeperformedisstraightforward. Forrepetitiveproductionofasingleproduct. Whenthehumanpartsfitintothedesignandare preparedtofollowmachinelikecommands. Inastableenvironment. Examples:thearmedforcesandlargefranchises suchasfastfoodchains.

Machine view breaks down in practice


Itreducestheadaptabilityoftheorganization(i.e machinelikeorganizationinvulnerableinavolatile environment). Itrequiresmindlesscontributionthatisdifficultto maintainwithmindfulparts(i.e itwilleither dehumanizeorwillleadtoconflictingaimsbetween machineandminds).

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Organic Metaphor or (open system view) ( i )


Camefromhumanrelationstheory. Issuesofmotivation(Maslow),leadershipstyle (McGregor),participation,democracy,andvarious jobenrichmentstrategiesemergedoutofthisview. Theorganicmetaphorincorporatesideasdrawnfrom studyingphenomenafromseverallevelofresolution, fromthecell,tothesingleorganism,toecology,and thoughtsaboutevolution.

Theidea:theorganismororganizationasanopen system,i.e asystemasacomplexnetworkof elements,andrelationshipsthatinteractforming, highlyorganizedfeedbackloops,existinginan environmentfromwhichitdrawsinputandtowhich p itdispensesoutput.

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Maslow Theory

aga again.. the delivery firms d y


Thepickupanddeliveryfirmsaddsomefactorstoconsider: Certainofthe customersmayspecifyagiventimeperiodor timewindowduringwhichthevisit mustoccur. Traffic densityonvariouscityarterialroads mayvary. y y y y Theconsequent changeintraveltimesbetweenlocations duringtheday. Differentmodesoftransportationfordeliveringdifferentsize andshapesofgoods.

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When or why using organic view


Whenthereisanopenrelationshipwithachanging environment Whenthereareneedstobesatisfiedinorderto promotesurvival To promote responsiveness and change Topromoteresponsivenessandchange Whentheenvironmentitselfiscomplex,containinga varietyofcompetitorsandsoon. Examples:mostindustrialfirmsintodaysturbulent environment.

Organic view breaks down in practice


Itneglectstorecognizethattheorganizationsare sociallyconstructedphenomenawhichmustbe understoodfromthepointofviewofthepeople withinthem Itemphasizesharmoniousrelationsbetweenthe parts,wheninorganizationstheyareoften t h i i ti th ft conflictual and/orcoercive. Itseeschangeasbeinggeneratedexternally,asthe systemadaptstoitsenvironment,anddoesnot provideforproactivedevelopment.

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Neurocybernetic Metaphor (viable ( i bl system view) t i )


Themetaphoremphasizesactivelearningand controlratherthanthepassiveadaptabilitythat characterizestheopensystemview. Theviewlookstothebrainaswelltriedandtested controlsystemthatdependsuponanabilityto control system that depends upon an ability to communicateandlearn. Standardcyberneticmodelhasatransformation process,aninformationsystem,acontrolunitandan activatingunit(thatbringsaboutchanges).

example
intelligenttransportsystem(logistics) SmartTransesolutiontechnology http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vkejk71wjCM&feature=related

www.smarttrans.com.au

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When or why using neurocybernetic view i


Itpromotesselfenquiryandselfcriticismand thereforethepossibilityofdynamicgoalseeking basedonlearning Whenthereisahighdegreeofuncertainty Itencouragescreativity Examples:autonomousworkgroups,innovative industrialfirms,consultancyfirmsandR&Dwork.

Neurocybernetic view breaks down in practice


Ittendstoforgetthatthepurposesofthepartsmay notalwaysbethesameasthepurposesofthewhole Adoptingrecommendationsbasedonthismetaphor wouldrequiremostorganizationstoundergo significantchangesthatwouldthreatenthosethat i ifi t h th t ld th t th th t arefavoured bythestatusquo;sotheywillbe resisted. Itneglectstorecognizethatorganizationsaresocially constructedphenomena.

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Culture Metaphor
Aculturereferstovarioussharedcharacteristicsat alllevelsof organizations:societal,corporate,group,etc. national:language,religion,history,andamutual senseofbelonging. sense of belonging firm:reality,asociallyconstructedreality(of valuesandbeliefs),

recall the mission statement construction


Itseemsthatintodaysworldnoorganizationisviewedasresponsible andsuccessorientedwithouthavingaformalmissionstatement. Nowmostorganizationsprominentlyexhibitamissionstatementof whattheyareallabout.Itisproudlyshownasaframeddocumentin theCEOsoffice&ontheorganizationswebsite. Producingameaningfulmissionstatementisaratherdifficultproject. Ithastoberelevantforthepurposeoftheorganization,setachievable It has to be relevant for the purpose of the organization set achievable goalsthatcanbemeasuredand,mostimportantly,gettheactive cooperationofitsmembers. Thetroubleisthateveninanapriorilikemindedgroupofpeople therewillbeconflicts anddifferencesinpreferenceabouttheaims theywouldliketheorganizationtopursueandtheirvisionforits future,aswellashowtheyseetheirownroleinthatscheme.

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UnlesstheCEOcansimplyimposeherorhiswillinadictatorial manner,comingtoameetingofmindsthatsatisfiesthethree propertiesofrelevant,achievable,andmeasurable,andsecures theactivecooperationofeverybody,amissionstatementhastobe acompromise. Itisusuallyobtainedbyalengthyprocess,startingoutwith canvassingtheviewsofsomeorallmembers,combiningsimilar ones,eliminatingthosethataresubordinatetoothers,restating themsuchthattheirachievementlevelcanbemeasuredina meaningfulway,andfinallyreducingthenumbertoanessential few.Thisprocesswillinvolvemanymeetingsandnegotiation.

When and why using cultural view


Whenitshowsthatrationalaspectsof organizationallifeareonlyrationalintermsofthe installedcultureandthatthereareothervalues withwhichanyofficialculturecanbecontrasted. Ithighlightsthefactthatthecohesiongeneratedby sharedsocialandorganizationalpracticescanboth inhibitandencourageorganizationaldevelopment andthishastoberecognizedandmanaged

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Itoffersanewperspectiveonorganizationalchange (i.e insteadoffocusingexclusivelyontechnologyand structure,aculturalperspectivewouldalso emphasizechangingtheperceptionsandvaluesof employees). p y ) Examples:hightechnologyJapanesefirm, competitiveindividualisminAmericancompanies.

Cultural view breaks down in practice


Itmayleadtoexplicitideologicalcontrolthatwill generatefeelingsofmanipulation,resentment,and mistrust. Cultureissomethingthattakestimetoevolveand cannotbesweptintoestablishedgroupsovernight. Whenpoliticalinfightingcharacterizes organizationallife. Itdoesnottellmanagershowtostructurecomplex organization.

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Political Metaphor
Themetaphorappliedtoproblemsituationslooksat relationshipsbetweenindividualsandgroupsas competitiveandinvolvingthepursuitofpower Therearethreecontrastingviewonthecharacterof anypoliticalsituation,i.e:unitary,pluralist,and any political situation, i.e: unitary, pluralist, and coercive. Themetaphorfocusesonissuesofinterests,conflict andpower.

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Ithighlightsallorganizationalactivityasinterest basedandemphasizesthekeyroleofpowerin determiningpoliticaloutcomes,thusitplacespower atthecentreofallorganizationalanalysis. It encourages recognition of the organizational actor Itencouragesrecognitionoftheorganizationalactor aspoliticalforbothmotivationalandstructural reasons.

When or why using political view

Political view breaks down in practice


Whenexplicitrecognitionofthepoliticsofthe situationleadstofurtherpoliticizationandgenerates mistrust. Itmayoveremphasizetheneedtohandlepolitical issuesattheexpenseofotherfactorswhichare issues at the expense of other factors which are essentialtoorganizationalhealth.

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group assignment
Findanarticle. AnalysethearticleanddetermineWHATmetaphorisusedin thearticle. Hints:thatmightbeseveralmetaphorsusedbydifferent actorsinthearticle.However,youneedtochooseoneof themwhichisthecentraloftheissue. th hi h i th t l f th i Topresenton25stSeptember

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Matur seKelangkong

Matur Nuwun Danke D k

Kheili Mamnun

Grazie Xie Xie

MerciBien

ThankYou
Arigatoo Gracias Syukron Hatur Nuhun

Terima Kasih

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