CHAPTER I DESIGN OF BERTHS

DEFINITION OF BERTHS TYPE OF BERTHS DESIGN CRITERIA
QUAY WALL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS

DESIGN LOADS

BERTH Definition
Berth is the length of the quay required for berthing of design ship and safe handling of cargo Lb = LOA of Design ship + 30 m min. Where LOA is the over length of the ship

Container Berth

Container Quay .

Bulk Carrier .

Passenger Berth .

LNG Berth .

Tanker (Single Point Mooring) .

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General Cargo .

DESIGN CRITERIA Design Loads Type of Cargo Type of Handling System Life Time of The Berth Standards .

Type Of Loads Vertical Loads  Surcharge Loads 4.0 ton/m2 for multi-purpose terminal ton/m2 multi-  Handling System loads Crane Loads (for container terminal) Built conveyer system Portal Cranes Loader and Un-loader system Un- .0 ton/m2 for container terminal ton/m2 6.0 ton/m2 for general cargo ton/m2 6.

Horizontal Loads  Earth Pressure Water Pressure Difference Side Pressure due to surcharge Berthing Forces Mooring Forces     Seismic Loads .

2 F h = M * g * 0 .Earthquake Loads (Seismic) Static equivalent load method according to EAU 1990 Factor for lateral forces is given as kh = 0.2 .

Earth Pressure Hs Hs Hs Hs Hs .

Passive Earth Pressure .

Crane Loads .

Quay Wall Construction System Gravity System    Block type Caisson type Counter fort system Anchor Sheet Pile Cellular Cofferdam type Diaphragm Wall system Wall System    .

Deep Foundation System  Jetty quays Deck on pile  ‡ Composite system ‡ Sheet piles + Piles ‡ Diaphragm wall + Piles .

BLOCK TYPE .

Deck on Piles .

Jetty on Pile .

Diaphragm Wall .

Composite System .

Mooring Forces The forces acting on a moored vessel are both environmental and operational. currents and tides. over- . changes in the vessel trim. freeboard or draught and mooring line over-tension. Operational forces include those caused by passing ships. Environmental forces are caused by natural phenomena such as wind. waves.

Shows an Optimized Mooring Arrangement .

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Wind and Current Forces .

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As the clearance under the keel decreases. the forces due to currents increase.The depth of the water under the keel greatly affects current forces. The magnitude of current force can be three times as great on vessels with very small underkeel clearances than for vessels in deepwater. .

Vessel Motion .

ib/ft v = wind velocity (55 to 78 mile/hour) (55 The current force = W / 2g 2 W = weight / ft3 of water.00256 v2 ib/ft2. g= gravitational acceleration = 32.Design of Bollord Forces due to wind Fw = wind pressure * exposed area of ship (ton) Wind pressure = 0. ft/sec2 The current velocity ranges from 1 to 4 ft/sec. .2ft/sec2 32.

Aex2 F B d D Aex1 LBP .

Ship characteristics are as given: . =237m 225 m.000 tons & LOA =237m . D = 11.Dwt = 40. ms. 11.70m. LBP 40. 13. Vc = 1. Where Vs = 30 knots . 32.0 m /sec.2 m . /sec.70m. .0 m. d = 13.. B = 32.9 ms.EXAMPLE 1 It is required to find the pull forces under the effect of both wind and current effect on a ship berthing on container quay ( closed structure). F = 6.

Current direction Wind direction Wind direction Current direction Bollard Wind direction .

ship empty (Cross direction) Aex2 32.70 = 2632.75 m2 11.5 m2 1552.5 m2 11. 376. ship full (Cross direction) Aex2 32. Cf1 Aex1 Cf1 = Aex1/ L2 empty < 0.50 Cf1 Cf1 = 1. Aex2 = 32.2 .9 = 1552.Solution ship empty (Longitudinal direction) Aex1 Aex1 = 225 x 11. Aex2 = 32.2 x 11.18 m2 222. ship full (Longitudinal direction) Aex1 Aex1 = 225 x 6.7 = 376.9 = 222. 2632.2 x 6.

70 from tables Wind force calculations Pw = 0.432 m/sec. Cf2 = Aex2/ (B)2 =376. 15.5144 = 15.96 from tables S2 S3 = 1. Cf2 Cf2 = 0.0 for normal condition S2 = coefficient depends on the shape of vessel .0 . take S2 = 0.2)2 = 0.363 (32.75 / (32.Cf2 Aex2 (B)2 376.066 Vs2 Vs = 30 x 0. Vs¶ = Vs x S1 x S2 x S3 S1 S2 S3 S1 = coefficient due to location & exposed for wind ~ 1.

432 x 1.815) 14.0 x 0.8 tons.815)2 = 14.0 = 15.96 x 1.82 tons Fw2 Fw2 (min) = Cf2 x Pw x Aex2 (full) Cf2 Aex2 = 2. Fw1 Fw1(min) = Cf1 x Pw x Aex1 (full) Cf1 Aex1 = 27 tons.Vs¶ = 15. Pw = 0.066 x (14.815 m/sec. 14. tons.25 tons . 45.490 Kg / m2 (14. 14. Fw1 Fw1(max) = Cf1 x Pw x Aex1 (empty) Cf1 Aex1  = 45. Fw2 Fw2 (max) = Cf2 x Pw x Aex2 (empty) Cf2 Aex2 = 3.

Fc1 Fc1 (max) = 80.6x Bx Dx [1 + D/d]3 x Pc Fc1 Fc1 (min) = 12. Fc1 Fc1 = 0.Current calculation Current force calculations Pc = current intensity = 52 Vc2 Kg/m2 Vc = 1. Pc = 52 Kg/m2 Current parallel to the quay. 80.0 m /sec.6 tons.4 tons 12. .

2. . closed structure Force on the berth F final1 = 45.85 tons 82.25 = 82.8 tons final1 45.Forces on Berth Case (I) Current is normal to the berth. Case (II) Current is parallel to the berth Ffinal 2 = Fc1 max + Fw2 (min) = 80.6 + Fc1 Fw2 80.

125. ms.0 41ms. . DWT = 100. LBP = 280 ms.10 m/sec. approach velocity = 0.000 tons & Mass 100.000 tons.Design of Fenders Example It is required to calculate the energy absorbed a grain ship with the following specifications. B ship = 41ms. draft = 15. displacement = 125. 15.

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m.39 x 1.0 x 125. 34. The absorbed energy Ef Ef = 0.73 (2 15/ 41) Ce = K2 / (K2 + R2) = (56)2 / ( 562 + 702 ) = 0.35 K J = 34.000 x (0. m.10)2 x 1.Solution ::Cm = 1 + (2x15/ 41) = 1.8 for solid quays. (0 10) 0.5 x 125.5 x M x V2 x Cm x Ce x Cs x Cc Ef = 0.8 = 337.39 (56) Cs = 1. 337.73 x 0.0 for soft fenders Cc = 0. .39 ton .

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