Training of Trainers Manual

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Training of Trainers Manual

Training of Trainers Manual

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Training of Trainers Manual

Acknowledgments

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he Uganda Network for AIDS Service Organization (UNASO) wishes to acknowledge the following people and organizations for their support in developing this training manual.

The Uganda AIDS/HIV Integrated Model District Programme (AIM) for their financial, technical and logistical support. Ms. Emily Katarikawe and Michelle Bordeu from AIM’s Training and Capacity Building department for their technical support, putting together this mannual, pretesting and finalization.

Some of the content and exercises were adapted from the Training of trainer’s materials developed by World Education’s READ project in Namibia and the Uganda Management Institute in Uganda.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Preface
ganda Network of AIDS Service Organizations (UNASO) is non-profit organization that works to coordinate HIV/AIDS Service Organizations in Uganda so that prevention, quality care and support services are available to all. It is a nationwide network of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), community based organizations (CBOs), faith based organizations, groups of people living with HIV/AIDS (PWAs) and other local communities involved in the response to HIV/AIDS in Uganda. The coordination role of UNASO is carried out through networking, information sharing and generation, capacity building in terms of training for NGOs/CBOs and community groups; advocacy and lobbying;

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UNASO’s broad goal is “ To strengthen that capacity of ASOs for competent HIV/AIDS service delivery in line with the national framework. To do this UNASP is mandated to: Promote continuous and sustainable coordination of and cooperation between the ASOs through common resource mobilization, information and experience sharing and expertise. Promote effective and efficient implementations of Common HIV/AIDS standards and guidelines by ASOs Strengthen organizational Development (OD) of ASOs and district networks for effective, competent and quality HIV/AIDS service delivery. Increase the level of advocacy and lobbying for common interests of HIV/AIDS service organizations and beneficiaries To build the internal capacity of UNASO secretariat for effective and sustainable programme design and implementation Capacity building for Civil society organizations involves building their capacities to design and implement effective sustainable programs, this implies that training in different skills and technical areas is a key component of the strategy.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Rationale and Purpose of the Generic Training of Trainers Workshop
The goal of the ToT is to give civil society organizations skills necessary to teach service providers in the community about the specific knowledge areas. Therefore, the purpose of the Generic Training of Trainers Course is to establish a core team of trainers within the district networks, who have relevant skills in planning, designing and supporting the training function in the districts. As capacity building needs at district level become critical, the need for trained trainers, who have working knowledge of designing training programs, is very important. Therefore the district network members need to be prepared to manage this function. This generic Training of Trainers’ course is a five day participatory course. Its major goals are to provide participants with the opportunity to acquire and practice skills in facilitating training programs and to enhance their abilities to design training session plans. Participants will learn about the experiential learning cycle, adult learning techniques, how to design a training program, how to conduct a training needs assessment, and the supervision of service providers. Although participants are not expected to be experts in all forms of training, they will be able to make important and critical input in the design of training materials and to conduct training in their specific technical fields.

Target audience for the TOT Materials:
The primary audience are members organizations of UNASO, their service providers and coordinators for various HIV/AIDS prevention care and support programmes who will use the knowledge and skills acquired to develop training materials and to conduct and evaluate adult training programmes. These materials can however be used by staff of other development agencies responsible for training activities in their organizations. Examples of the participants include medical doctors, clinicians, health educators, programme and field officers from government, NGOs, CBOs and FBOs, and any other persons charged with training responsibility. This audience could be a combination of people who had never participated in such training and those with prior experience.

Workshop Goal and Objectives Goal: To provide participants with the opportunity to acquire and practice skills in Facilitating
training programmes and to enhance their abilities to design session plans.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Objectives: By the end of the workshop participants will be able to:
1. 2. Discuss various adult learning theories and how they relate to training; Review theories of communication and group dynamics and consider how they relate to training; 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Describe at least 15 different non-formal training techniques; Discuss issues related to planning and scheduling a training programme; Develop coherent goals and objectives for a training session; Design and draft session plans; Practice facilitating a training session(s); Give and receive effective feedback; Discuss carrying out a training needs assessment; Participate in formative and summative evaluation during the training; Discuss the supervision of service providers.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session Titles
Session 1A: Session 1B: Session 2: Session 3: Session 4A: Session 4B: Session 5A: Session 5B: Introduction to the Training of Trainers (TOT) Workshop Introduction to Training Analysis and Self Assessment Adult Learning Theory for Non formal Education (NFE) and Training Overview of Non formal Training Techniques Adult Communication and Learning Group Dynamics (Human Behavior) Planning a Training Programme Considerations in Designing and Scheduling a Training Programme

Session 6 A: Writing and Analyzing Goals and Objectives Session 6B: Session 7A: Session 7B: Developing Session Design Summaries Giving And Receiving Feedback Preparation for Practice Training

Session 7C: Practice Training Session 7D: Sharing Practice Training Feedback and Modification Plans Session 8A: Session 9A: Session 10: Evaluating a Training Programme Introduction to Needs Assessment Supervision for Service Providers

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 1A: Introduction to the Training of Trainers (TOT) Workshop
Goal:
To welcome participants to the TOT and give an overview of the workshop.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. Been welcomed to the workshop; 2. Introduced each other and their organizations and identified individual and group expectations of the workshop; 3. Reviewed the objectives of the workshop; 4. Agreed on group norms for use during the workshop; 5. Discussed logistical concerns; 6. Reviewed the purpose, functions and composition of workshop/steering committee and selected representatives for each day.

Duration:

1 hr 20 minutes Activity Materials

Time & Techniques 10 min Introduction

District official and key facilitators welcome participants to the workshop. ( assumption- TOT will be in one of the UNASO network districts and the host official will be asked to give opening remarks) An introductory icebreaker is carried out with participants. Invite participants to take a name card from the table (making sure that it is not their own and not from their district) and tell them to join a circle of participants. Ask each participant to look around and try to guess whose name card they are holding. They may have two guesses after which (if they miss), they can ask the group to help them identify the person on the card. Ask participants to take their name cards, to place them in front of the seat where they choose to sit on the first day, and to introduce themselves.

General workshop materials (for each participant)

15 min, the TOT begins initial icebreaker/ team building exercise

Name cards (folded desk card markers with participants names – first name larger and organizations written on them)

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Training of Trainers Manual

Time & Techniques 10 min individual brainstorming

Activity

Materials

After the introductions, ask participants to take a marker and a card/piece of paper and to write the answer to the question: ‘What do you think or hope you might get out of this workshop? Invite participants to post their responses on the wall and works with participants to categorize them.

Markers and cards

10 min Discussion

Help group to compare expectations to actual objectives of the ToT and show how they match. Discuss what can /cannot be achieved during the workshop. Participants discuss and agree upon group norms for the workshop Logistical coordinator shares logistical information with participants. Facilitator reviews the daily time schedule of the workshop and discusses session time preferences with participants Discussion Review the purpose, functions and composition of the steering committee and participants select 3-4 representatives for the day (trying to maintain relevant balancesgender, geographic, etc) Participants may add other roles

Handout 1A. 1: Workshop overview and objectives

15 min Brainstorm/ lecturrete

Flipchart/markers to record norms

20 min Brainstorm/

FC: purpose, composition of steering committee – as brainstormed by participants

Note to Facilitator
Purpose and Functions of Steering Committee The purpose of the committee is to help facilitators run the workshop. The roles of the committee are to: Receive and present concerns of participants to facilitators Give energizers during sessions Wrap up previous day’s events Meet with facilitators at the end of the day Composition of the committee For any day, each district should have one representative.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 1B: Introduction to Training Analysis and Self Assessment
Goal:
To increase the awareness of participants concerning the design of training sessions and provide an opportunity for participants to assess their individual skills and knowledge as trainers.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. Identified components of an introductory training session; 2. Discussed and analyzed each component 3. Identified their current knowledge and skills as trainers

Duration:

40 minutes

Time & Technique

Activity

Materials

20 min Ask participants to review what they did in the previous brainstorming/ session. Record responses on flipchart after agreement Discussion is reached and hand out copies of the session plan for participants to share and review. Participants then discuss the purpose of each step in the session.

Flipchart and markers Handout: Session plan session 1A Handout 1B.1 Handout 1B.2

20 Min Individual Self Assessment

Ask participants to use the pre-ToT self evaluation at the beginning of this workshop, and explain that this will help the facilitators to plan the training and help them to gauge participant improvement. When participants complete the forms, collect them. Trainer’s Note: Answer questions clearly but briefly, point out that if participants don’t know what a word means, perhaps they “do not know it yet, at least by that name”. When collecting the forms, check to make sure that participants have completed all columns..

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 2: Adult Learning Theory for Non-Formal Education (NFE) and Training
Goal:
To acquaint trainers with adult learning theory and its application to training situations.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. 2. 3. 4. Discussed and reconstructed in detail at least one adult learning theory Discussed its application to training Shared their understanding with other participants Described at least 5 adult learning theories

Duration:
Time & Technique 40 min Brainstorm/ Discussion

2 1/2 hrs Activity Materials

Ask participants to define training. Encourage participants to shout out definitions until they have generated something like: Opportunities for people to learn specific things in a short period of time. In fishbowl, facilitator teaches participants on any subject of her/his choice, taking care to follow the adult learning cycle. Ask participants, “How different is this from formal schooling?” Classify responses into the following categories: Purpose, Timing, Content, Delivery System, Control (see attachment/handout). Share the handouts with participants and review the remaining characteristics.

Flipchart Markers Handout 2.2 Comparison of NFE to FE

25 min Lecturette

Ask participants to think of an experience when they had to change behavior or break a bad habit, and what stages they went through to do so. Refer to the basic three circle model. Outer: Do, Practice, Action, Information (Psychomotor) Middle: Think, Knowledge, Understand; Reflect, (Cognitive) Center: Feel, Attitude, Internalize, (Affective)

Prepared Flipchart: Three circles (see Notes/ Handout to build chart-start only with “Do Think Feel,” and then add the others as you lecture)

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Training of Trainers Manual

Time & Technique 10 min Small group formation

Activity

Materials

Break participants into three groups, assign each group a topic, and give them the packet and task that goes along with their topic 1. Andragogy 2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 3. The Experiential Learning Cycle (co-facilitators join each group to explain the task, to provide “answer check handouts” when task is complete, and to help groups to discuss the application to training and plan for presenting/sharing what they have learned and discussed with the large group).

Packets of materials for each group with matching cards & handouts (with cofacilitators) for each topic Andragogy, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and the Experiential Learning Cycle

40 minutes Small Group Matching Cards

Join each group to explain the task to the group: take the cards provided and organize them, so they are in an order that makes sense. When the group is satisfied with their “answer”, provide “answer check handouts” and then help groups to discuss the application of their theory to training adults. Small groups then plan a 10 minutes presentation of what they have learned and discussed for the large group in an active, participatory and interesting manner (i.e. they cannot just lecture).

Packets of materials as above along with extra materials for each group to be able to develop materials as needed

30 minutes presentation/ Peer Training

Small groups present their theory to the large group (10-15 min each) and discuss its importance and application to training adults. Comment and help to clarify points brought up by each group

As needed

5 minutes Conclusion/ Summary

Solicit participants’ observations of the session and lessons learned

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 3: Overview of Non formal Training Techniques
Goal:
To provide participants with an overview of 20 non-formal education techniques.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. Discussed in depth and explained to others 5 different non-formal training techniques. 2. Reviewed descriptions of 20 different non-formal education techniques 3. Experienced at least 6 different training techniques.

Duration:

2 ½ hrs

Time & Technique 15 Mins Jigsaw Introduction

Activity

Materials

Explain that the purpose of the session is to get a brief overview of a wide range of non-formal training techniques, and that they will use one technique (called the jigsaw technique) to do this. Then, hand out cards and ask participants, “What is on the card?” (a number and a letter). Have participants hold up cards referring to their number and stand to be divided into first groups. Explain that the purpose of the first group is to read through and become “experts” in the 5 techniques they have been assigned. They should keep their cards as the second part of the jigsaw will place them in groups according to letter, where they will share what they have learned with people from other groups. Note: If there are more participants make more cards so that everybody belongs to a group.

Jigsaw cards, example if 20 participants, form 4 groups lf 5 -> 4 groups of 5 (cards: GP1: 1A, 1B,1C,1D,1E GP2: 2A,2B,2C,2D,2E GP3: 3A,3B,3C,3D,3E GP4: 4A,4B,4C,4D,4E.

60 min Jigsaw

Part 1 Participants break into first (number based) groups and read over, discuss and react to the set of 5 non formal techniques. They then design a symbol or picture to represent each technique discussed. Each participant copies these pictures. They then prepare an interesting presentation of the techniques for the other participants (their next group) – trying to use one of the techniques to explain as many of the others as possible

Partial sets of handouts 3 to each group on training techniques (one for each member, plus enough for them to share with next group)

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Training of Trainers Manual

Time & Technique

Activity

Materials

Explain the task and encourage groups to think of interesting ways to share their techniques with their next group. Facilitator also explains detailed twist of critical incident and problem dramas (or socio-dramas) to groups with case studies and drama)

55 min Jigsaw Part II

Participants reform groups by moving into letter groups. Each group member has 10 – 12 minutes to present their topics to the other participants

20 min Large group Discussion

Lead a discussion of the experience and answer any questions participants might have about techniques and their uses. Highlight similarities between techniques, and review how critical incidents and picture dramas or problem dramas (also called socio-dramas) are similar to, and different from, case studies and drama (length and involvement which have been used in training so far.

Flipchart/ markers (?)

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 4A: Adult Communication and Learning
Goal:
To review selected theories of communication and consider how they relate to training.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. Discussed two models of communication and how they relate to the learning process; 2. Demonstrated and identified (through enacting a role play), different examples of parent/child and adult/adult interactions; 3. Discussed the danger a parent/child communication poses for the learning process.

Duration:
Time & Technique 10 min Ice breaker

2hours

Activity

Materials

Big Fish/Little Fish – Break participants into two groups, and co-facilitators lead participants in game of “big fish/ little fish”. Co-facilitators form circles of participants and stand in center. As they face the participant they must say “big fish” and hold up their hands in the opposite gesture. The facing participant must respond with the opposite words (“little fish”) and gesture (hands far apart). Move around the circle randomly changing frequently from “big fish| to “little fish”. As a participant gives the wrong answer, verbally or in gesture, she/he must take one step back from the circle.

5 min Lecturette

Explain that there are many different issues associated with communication, just as big fish/small fish shows the confusion that occurs when we don’t communicate properly.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Time & Technique 20 min Fishbowl/ Role Play Preparation

Activity

Materials

Break participants into the two groups as follows: Group 1 (Volunteers): Review and prepare to perform the role plays on transactional analysis. Group 2: Study the role play observation sheet based on transactional analysis, and prepare to identify the different roles when the role plays are presented back to the big group. Ask for 6 volunteers. A co-facilitator goes with this group, hands out the role play, and has participants quickly decide who should play each role. Hand out Role Play Observation Sheets (Handout 4A.2) to the remaining participants, and explain to participants that they will watch three role plays. For each, they are to observe carefully and determine which person is playing which of the roles shown. Facilitator’s Note: In-depth questions as to why the roles are titled like they are (Adapted Child, etc.) should be referred to the discussion after the role play.

Handout 4A. 1: Roles 4A.2: Role Play Observation Sheets

20 min Fishbowl/ Role Play

Volunteers quickly present 3 role plays while other participants observe using their observation sheets to identify players.

15 min Discussion/ Lecturette

Ask participants to describe what they saw in the role play and to identify who was playing which roles Facilitator’s Note: If the roles are not clearly seen by participants, ask actors to repeat the role plays. Then, distribute handout 4A.3 on Transactional Analysis and talks participants through it, referencing the role play as appropriate

Handout 4A.3: Transactional Analysis

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 4B Group Dynamics (Human Behavior)
Goal:
To help participants to understand how human behavior affects group harmony and interactions.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. Identified behaviors and characteristics associated with at least 4 animals 2. Compared animal behavior with human behavior 3. Discussed how this understanding of group dynamics applies to facilitating a training.

Duration:

2 hrs

Time & Technique 20 minutes Brainstorming

Activity

Materials

Introduce the session by asking participants what is meant by the terms: behavior, human behavior and group dynamics. The Co- facilitator lists the responses. The facilitator relates the responses to the following definitions: Behavior – reaction, feedback given to a situation Group dynamics- how individuals with divergent ideas and characteristics interact in an environment for a common purpose Human behavior refers to: How human beings behave How human beings carry themselves The different characteristics of human beings.

Flip charts Markers Masking tape

Explain to participants that they are going to participate in an activity to discuss the behavior of animals and to compare Introduction/ them with human behavior. Then hold up picture (of an Small group Elephant), and ask participants, “What types of behaviors (good or bad) are associated with an elephant?” formation After a few examples, ask if participants have ever had an elephant in a group to which they have belonged. How did they know? 20 minutes Break participants into 4 groups and explain that each is to take the picture provided and discuss it. They should be ready to record their findings on flipchart grid like the one shown and to present their findings to the large group within 15 minutes.

Animal picture ( elephant) Flip chart; sample response grid.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Time & Technique 20 mins Small Group

Activity

Materials

Introduce another communication model (Johari’s Window) Ask a volunteer to post cards on the wall in a way that makes sense. (Other participants may be given chance to try) Divide participants into 4 groups and allocate each group an aspect of the Window. Group 1 takes Open Group 2 takes Blind Group 3 takes Hidden Group 4 - Unknown Groups answer questions: 1. How does the relationship of the two people in your part of the window affect communication in a training program? 2. How do you interpret the communication relationship in your part of the Window?

Johari’s Window cards Blue tack/ Masking tape

20 min Presentation/ Discussion

Ask groups to present. Facilitator’s Note: The name Johari comes from the first name of the two theorist’s who developed this model.

10 min Summary/ Brainstorm

Summarize all group reports, emphasizing the major points. Then ask participants to brainstorm responses to the question: “Which type of communication is most productive/useful in a training situation? Why?” Facilitator’s Note: Close session as participants identify Adult-Adult and Open Communication as the most productive.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Time & Technique 20 Minutes Discussion in small groups

Activity

Materials

Participants form groups of 4-5 and analyze one of the pictures provided (lion, ostrich, monkey and donkey). They then write their responses on the flipchart grid provided. Co – facilitators rotate among groups answering questions, clarifying tasks as necessary, and giving participants a 5-minute warning.

Animal Pictures (Lion, monkey, Donkey, tortoise, Ostrich) Flip chart grids, markers and masking tape.

30 minutes Presentation /discussion

Ask the small groups to reconvene and to start reporting their analysis of the different animals and human behavior. Each group is allowed 5 minutes for presentation. Allow discussion on different groups analysis.

20 minutes Discussion/ pictures

Ask participants the following questions: Have you ever seen such behavior in groups you’ve worked with? How can each of these behaviors be used to an advantage in a group? Hand out paper and markers and ask participants to think about their own behavior in a group and to draw a picture of the animal that best represents their own behavior (they may choose from any animals they know, provided they can describe how its behavior relates to them.) Invite each participant in turn to share their pictures and explain their animal choice.

10 minutes Discussion/ closure

Conclude by asking participants : “What have you learned in this session that will help you to facilitate a group?” Summarize the objectives for the session.

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Training of Trainers Manual

ANIMALS

Elephant

Ostrich

Donkey

Lion

Monkey

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Training of Trainers Manual

CHART ANALYSIS ON ANIMAL BEHAVIOR COMPARED TO HUMAN BEHAVIOR

NAME OF ANIMAL

TYPE OF BEHAVIOR/ CHARACTERISTICS GOOD/POSITIVE

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

HUMAN BEHAVIOR

BAD/NEGATIVE

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 5A: Planning a Training Programme
Goal:
To identify steps and categorize considerations involved in planning a training programme.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. Identified issues or considerations in planning a training program 2. Defined and discussed the eight steps of planning a training program 3. Matched the planning considerations identified to the appropriate planning steps. Duration: Time & Technique 20 minutes Brainstorm 1 ½ hrs Activity Materials

Ask participants, “What do you need to think about to properly plan for a training program?” Write the responses on flipchart and solicit more, until you are sure that there are some to match each of the 8 questions shown below.

Flip chart and markers

15 minutes Discussion/ Lecturrete

Show flipchart with the 8 planning steps, forming them in a stair pattern to show how they support planning for training. Steps should include: Who Why When Where What for What How How much Explain the words in the planning steps and give the longer form of the questions.

Prepared Flipchart: with 8 steps of planning( and room to write key points of definitions) and markers

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 5B: Considerations in Designing and Scheduling a Training Programme
Goal:
To discuss issues relating to scheduling and implementing training.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have :
1. 2. 3. 4. Duration: Time & Technique 15 minutes Brainstorm Discussed important considerations in scheduling a training programme; Reviewed the components of a training schedule(activities, timeframe etc); Practiced how to lay out a schedule for a training programme; Identified various elements to consider in setting the climate for training.

2hours Activity Materials

Ask participants: What is a training schedule? What goes into a training schedule? Responses should include : Activities/session titles Time(including breaks/meals) Sequence of topics/sessions Person responsible Participants break into four small groups, while facilitator hands out a scenario for a 1-day workshop in Nile district for 15 CBO field workers on “Community Needs Assessment” and explains that their task will be to take the information provided and devise a schedule for the training programme Note: Case study in on Handout 5B.1 Small groups report back and share their schedule. Participant compare, and discuss differences in group schedule choices. Note: While many answers are possible, participants should avoid cutting sessions with breaks or lunch. This session should help participants go through the experiential cycle (KAP)

Flip chart and markers

40 minutes Case study/ exercise

30 min Presentation /Discussion

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Training of Trainers Manual

Time & Technique 15 minutes Small group/ formation (in dyads or triads

Activity

Materials

Ask participants to form 8 groups, and assign each one planning step. Participants then match the appropriate considerations brainstormed earlier to their assigned planning steps.

Handout 5A.1

30 minutes Ask each dyad/triad in turn to report back on what they Presentation/ found for one of the key planning steps. They continue until Discussion all 8 have been discussed.

10 minutes Summary

Summarize key points and distribute handout 5A.2

Handout 5A.2

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Training of Trainers Manual

Time & Technique 10 minutes individual sharing

Activity Participants divide into pairs after facilitator asks: Can you remember a training situation in which you felt uncomfortable? What made you uncomfortable and how did it affect your learning? Ask for volunteers to share responses with whole group.

Materials

20 minutes

Lead participants through a discussion of climate setting.

5B.2 Discussion notes

5 minutes Summary/ conclusion

Review the session objectives with participants and highlight the need for flexibility, attention to sequencing issues, and how to schedule should be closely related to the goals and objectives of a training program.

Flip chart and markers.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 6A: Writing and Analyzing Goals and Objectives
Goal:
To become oriented to the basic format for a session plan and to develop skills in writing and analyzing goals and objectives.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. 2. 3. 4. Discussed the purpose and parts of a session plan. Defined the terms session goals and objectives. Identified 5 basic criteria for a good objective. Practiced writing and analyzing objectives.

Duration:
Time & Technique

1 ¼ hours Activity Materials Handout 6B.1: Session Plan Format

10 min Ask participants, “What is a session plan, and what training design Introduction questions does it answer?” (What for, what and how). Hand out Discussion model session plan format. Point out that, as trainers, they should know how to write a session plan and will practice this in the next session. Focus group on goals and objectives, for now.

15min Ask participants to define a goal and an objective and to describe Flip chart brainstorm/ how an objective is different from a goal. Encourage participants and Discussion to identify the summary word used to remind them of a good markers objective (SMART), and asks a participant(s) to identify what each letter of the word stands for, and how it is important to evaluating objectives. S – Specific (Content) M – Measurable (observable behavior) A – Appropriate (Achievable) R – Realistic (Relevant) T – Time bound Ask participants to consider how this relates specifically to learning objectives. 20 min small groups Participants are divided into 5 small groups. Provide each group with an example of an objective. Participants analyze whether the objectives are SMART and if not they re-word them. Note: Sample objectives are on Handout 6A Cards with different objectives for each group.

30 min Presentation / discussion

The small groups share with the large group how they changed Handout an objective to be more SMART. (session 6) Ask for some words that make objectives SMART (action words). Summarize and clarify the key points of the session.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 6B: Developing Session Design Summaries
Goal:
To generate and organize topics and content and to write session plans.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. 2. 3. 4. Selected training topics for their practice session. Developed initial titles, goals and objectives for session plans; identified tentative techniques to use; Reviewed draft objectives and adjusted them based on peer evaluation and comparison; 5. Discussed additional/alternate techniques that might be used in their sessions.

Duration:
Time & Technique 20 min Card Sorting/ Small Group Formation

2 hours Activity Ask each participant to think about a topic on which they would like to write a session plan. Encourage participants to consider choosing a session topic that may use to train others in the future, for their work. Participants write their topic of choice on cards and come forward to post them on the wall. Help participants to identify themes and to form small groups for writing support and peer editing. Facilitator’s Note: Small Groups should, if at all possible, have an even number of participants (preferably 4-6) for ease with peer editing. Materials Cards, Markers, Blue tack/ Masking tape

1 hour Individual Writing/Peer Editing/ Small Group

Hand out blank session plans and task sheets and describe what to do in small groups. Participants work individually, in pairs and within their content groups to: -

Handout 6B.1: Blank Session Plan and develop session goals and objectives; handout generate initial session designs including techniques, 6B.2: Task approximate times, and support materials. Sheet Compare, discuss and analyze designs Identify key questions or points they would like to discuss in plenary.

Discuss the techniques that participants have chosen to use in their session plans. Each participant describes the techniques planned and identifies where they will need help in developing support materials. Encourage them to try techniques that they have never used before. 40 min Presentation/ Discussion Ask volunteers to share their lesson plans with large group and use the discussion to assess understanding of the session topic.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 7A: Giving and Receiving Feedback
Goal:
To explore how to effectively give feedback.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. 2. 3. 4. Defined feedback Recognized examples of effective feedback and ineffective feedback Identified instances where feedback could be effectively used Designed and performed a brief prepared role play showing how feedback should be given

Duration:

2hrs

Preparation: Trainer may wish to pre-identify participants to play the 4 roles in the role play the day before or during break and let each read and think through the roles (note : see Handout 7A.2 Roles) Also re-arrange chairs into a semi-circle for the fishbowl/role play.

Time & Technique 15 minutes Discussion

Activity

Materials

Preparation and group formation

Ask participants to define the term “feedback”, and record their responses on the flipchart. Process responses to come up with definition. Then invite the pre- identified role players to leave the room and practice their role play. Hand out observation sheets to other participants and explain that they are to observe the role play and try to find examples from the observation sheet. Participants are encouraged to check each item off and tomake notes on the exact wording as heard in the role play

Handout 7A.1: feedback observation sheets

20 minutes Role play / Fish bowl

Participants act out a role play while others observe and record observations.

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Training of Trainers Manual

Time & Technique 30 minutes Large group discussion

Activity

Materials

Ask participants the following questions: 1. What did you see happening in the role play? 2. What examples of ineffective feedback did you see? 3. Were you able to see examples of effective feedback? After some of the questions have been answered by fishbowl observers, ask actors form the role play to read aloud their roles to participants. Explain that in a minute, volunteers will form 3 groups of 4 people. Each group will try to redesign the role play to provide as many examples of positive feedback as possible. Volunteer groups present their redesigned role plays. Others observe and provide feedback.

Flip chart & markers

Small group formation

Handout 7A. 2

35 minutes Role play presentation/ Discussion

Additional observation sheets

20 minutes Brainstorm/ discussion

Finally, ask participants to think about the order in which people should be asked to give feedback, for it to have the greatest value; who should give it first? Record answers, and through discussion, come up with guidelines for order of providing feedback (first presenter, then observer.. then trainer.) Hand out and review Handout 7A:3 -Guidelines for giving and receiving feedback

Handout 7A.3 Flipchart , markers

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 7B: Preparation for Practice Training
Goal:
To give participants an opportunity to prepare their sessions and support materials for presentation.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have
1. 2. 3. 4. written a complete session plan prepared the necessary support materials consulted with workshop facilitators on the design plan prepared to present a session of their own design.

Duration:
Time & Technique

2 hrs 30 min Activity Materials Flip charts for consultative appointment with individual workshop facilitators with times marked out for the last hours of the session. All basic training materials needed by participants to develop support materials for their presentation

30 minutes Remind the participants about the process they started Introduction/ on in session 6B. Review the objectives and explain what instructions should happen in the session. Then point out the signup sheets posted around the room and ask participants to sign up for a time with one of the facilitators towards the end of the session. Mention that all facilitators will be available to assist throughout the session, but that this time will also be for a check in and direct discussion of individual plans. (note: if participants want earlier times, facilitator should be flexible. Point out where all support materials for training aids have been laid out for participant use and encourage participants to ask for other aids and to work with others as they need to. Note: Participants should ask for training aids that can be got in the training area.

11/2 hrs Individual writing / consultation 30 minutes Discussion

Participants prepare detailed session plans and support materials and meet with workshop facilitators to review, As needed and edit and receive feedback on session plans. designed by Each session plan should be limited to 10 minutes participants

Call participants back together, so they can discuss how Flip chart markers they might best schedule their presentation and feedback to allow all participants to present their sessions. A schedule of presentations is prepared and participants choose their presentation times.

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Session 7C: Practice Training
Goal:
To give participants an opportunity to present and receive feedback on sessions they have designed, while practicing new training techniques and /or using newly developed support materials.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. Presented a session of their own design 2. Received feedback on training approaches and suggested modifications to their session plan.

Duration:

3 hrs 30 min

Time & Technique 15 minutes Introductions /instructions

Activity

Materials

Explain what should happen in the practice training sessions. Each participant should present their session within scheduled time (10 minutes) allowing at least 5 minutes for feedback Afterwards, they should use their guidelines for giving and receiving feedback, as well as the developed procedures, and allow about 5 minutes per person to be able to receive feedback. Ask participants to look at Handout 7A. 3, and remind them that these are the things that they should use as a guide during the feedback portions of their sessions.

Reference handout 7A.3 Giving and receiving feedback

3hrs 15min Practice Training

Participants present sessions and receive feedback. Note The presentation schedule and format should be set the day before and adjusted the actual day as necessary. Make sure that participants are not merely describing the session to others, but that they are actually simulating presentation of a session they have designed.

As needed and supplied by participant facilitator

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Session 7D: Sharing Practice Training Feedback and Modification Plans
Goal:
To give participants an opportunity to review the topics covered and to share the highlights of each groups’ practice training experience.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. Reviewed the titles, goals, and objectives of each session 2. Related the aspects of others sessions that they found to be most memorable, enjoyable or innovative 3. Identified aspects of their own session plan that they now plan to change.

Duration:

1hr

Time & Technique 20 minutes Introduction/ Instructions

Activity

Materials

Introduce session with goals and objectives and explain why and how the session was developed (through steering committee input to bring participants back together). Then explain the order of presentation, and how it will follow the schedule. Each session is allotted 10 minutes.

Flip chart with session goals and objectives

40 minutes

Presentation/ Discussion practice training.

Participants take turns, in alternating order of the group presentation schedules, presenting the title, goals and objectives of their sessions. Presentations are followed by group feedback.

As needed and supplied by participantfacilitators.

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Session 8: Evaluating a Training Programme
Goal:
To provide participants with an overview of the various aspects of evaluating a training programme

Objectives: By the end of session participants will have:
1. Reviewed the reasons for evaluating a training programme 2. Discussed various types of evaluation 3. Identified the different aspects of a training to be evaluated and techniques to be used 4. Determined how to use the information collected in the evaluation process.

Duration:
Time & Technique 30 minutes Story telling /critical incident

21/2 minutes Activity Materials

Note to facilitator: Tailor the story to fit the crops grown in the region. Relate critical incident through storytelling about the maize farmer who notices his neighbour’s maize garden doing well, while his is failing. He visits his friend to ask why this is true. The friend asks what the farmer has been doing to his field. The farmer says that he has planted and weeded the maize and left it for some time, only to see it failing. The friend takes him to a part of his garden that looks very similar to that of the farmer and explains how an agricultural extension agent had encouraged him to try a new seed and new fertilizer to check his field regularly for pests, especially in one part of the garden, and to do the rest as he would normally. Together they looked at the two fields and talked about the differences they saw. What do you think the two farmers talked about, what do they learn? Ask participants to define evaluation. Record responses and process them to come up with a working definition. The field is your training program

Discussion

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Time & Technique 30 minutes Brainstorm

Activity

Materials

Ask participants: why is it important to evaluate a training program? When we come back, we will add to our list.

30 minutes Small groups (brainstorm /discussion)

Break participants into 3 groups, and assign each group one of the following tasks to complete. Each group must prepare to report to the large group: Group 1: Types and characteristics of evaluation Group 2: Methods of evaluation Group 3: What to evaluate in a training program

40 minutes Presentation/ discussion

Groups report their discussions, sharing the information with other participants. Each group takes 10-12 minutes.

Handout 8A.1: Types and purposes of evaluation

15 minutes Consensus discussion

Highlight groups 3’s responses and ask participants to select 4-5 things they would like to evaluate about this training

Flip chart and markers

5 minutes Wrap up

Review reasons for evaluating and match these against how to use information collected.

Flipchart & markers

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Session 9: Introduction to Needs Assessment
Goal:
To orient participants to issues related to designing and conducting training needs assessment.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. Defined training needs assessment 2. Identified reasons for doing training needs assessment; 3. Discussed who should be consulted when conducting a training needs assessment 4. Discussed how to apply at least three techniques for conducting a training needs assessment

Duration:
Time & Technique 15 minutes Discussion Icebreaker/ Dyads

2 hr 30min Activity Materials

Introduce topic and ask participants to define a training needs assessment. Record responses and process to come up with a definition. Note: Write cards from Attachment 9A Give each participant a card on which either a training need is expressed or a matching response is written. Ask participants to go around and look for the matching part of their puzzle card by checking the cards of the rest of the participants. Each need stated has a matching training response. Explain that when each participant finds their matching half of their puzzle card, the person holding it will be their partner. Once the participants find their partners, tell the partner-pairs that they must not speak to each other. They may only speak to the facilitator to ask questions about the task. Then hand out slips of paper, and ask the participants to list the three things they think their partner is most interested in learning (what they need the most to help them become a better trainer?) and rank it in order of importance for their partner.

Matching Puzzle Cards with expressed needs and training responses

Slips of paper

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Time & Technique

Activity

Materials

20 min Aska pair to read aloud, one by one, the list describing Presentation/ each others’ imagined interest/needs. Invite discussion on the following questions after Discussion everyone reads aloud: 1. Did anyone identify the major interests of his/her partner correctly or almost correctly? If so, how do you think this was possible? 2. Why do you think some of you did not identify the interests of your partners Do you think you would have identified the major interests of your partners more correctly if you talked to them before writing the list? 3. If you had been allowed to talk to them, what would you have been doing? Allow time for discussion, and highlight the difference between perceived needs (what others guess to be true) and actual needs. Finally, ask participants to mention which communication theory this exercise reminds them of (Response -Johari’s Window)

Prepared flipchart with questions on it.

10 min Brainstorm/ Discussion

Ask participants: “Who should you talk to before designing or running a training course?” (participants/learners, trainers, others who are concerned with participants – employers)

Flipchart and markers

20 min Small Groups

Have participants form 3 groups to discuss the following questions for each group of “whos” identified (learners, trainers/facilitators, and others): 1. Why we should consult them? 2. What they should be asked? 3. When they should be asked? (Note: 1 group on participants/learners, 1 for trainers and 1 group for others.

Prepared flipchart with questions

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Time & Technique

Activity

Materials

Groups briefly report out on their findings. 30min Presentation Make sure that, at a minimum, the following points /Discussion should come out as issues to consider about the learners: - What does the learner want to know? - How much does the learner already know? - Why does the learner want to learn? - How does the learner learn best? - How much time can the learner spend? - What are the best time for learners? - What is the language and literacy levels of learners?

Flipchart and Markers

20min Brainstorm/ Discussion

Ask participants, “Why is it important to conduct a training needs assessment?” Expected responses might be: - To determine people’s needs and to what extent they are aware of their needs - If the people are not aware of the perceived problems, to determine whether these problems are real - to determine ways and means of solving the identified problems - to determine the people’s responses as well as organizing their ideas and suggestions for solving their problems and meeting their needs.

Flipchart and Markers

20 min Discussion

Point out to participants that one of the key questions they must consider when planning and needs assessment is How they will do it. Ask participants the techniques/methods they can use to conduct a needs assessment. Record responses, and ask participants to explain how technique can be used.

15 min Summary/ Conclusion

Wrap up report by highlighting key points and pointing out that there are many ways to do needs assessment (even more techniques than what they have covered could be used).

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Session 10: Supervision of Service Providers
Goal:
To acquaint trainers with basic knowledge and skills necessary in supervising service providers.

Objectives: By the end of the session participants will have:
1. Defined supervision and discussed major components of supervision 2. Discussed at least three ways service providers can receive support.

Duration:
Time & Technique

1hr 30 mins Activity Materials

Ask participants to define supervision 20min Discussion Ask participants to give experiences they have had with their supervisors. Good and bad aspects should come out 20 min Brainstorming / discussion Cluster responses into three major component of supervision Management & administration Education and Teaching Support and enabling Note: These components are related to each other and often overlap. Ask participants the purpose of each component, what they think their responsibilities as supervisors are, and then present the three circle model of supervision. Present flip chart with the service provider circle (nurse) and lead a brainstorm to discuss what is within the parameters of the circle List all the responsibilities mentioned. Then ask participants to think of other issues clients may bring to the nurse other than the primary responsibilities. A second list is then made. Ask participants to think of the possible options a nurse may take in dealing with the issues on the second list. Responses to include: Refer to other services Provide support themselves Take time to lead discussion on how each of the options above affects the individual service provider, her/his work and the clients.

Flip chart and markers

Session 10 Handout1&2

Prepared flipchart of Handout 10.3

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Time & Technique 30min Small group and plenary discussion

Activity

Materials

Divide participants into two groups: 1. How do you know that a supervisee is not performing effectively? 2. What can you do as a supervisor to help a supervisee remain focused?

20min Lecturette Physical continuum.

Wrap up session by emphasizing the importance of supervisor follow-up and regular support. Evaluate the session using the physical continuum.

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Session 1A Handout

Overall Workshop Goal and Objectives
Goal:
To provide participants with the opportunity to acquire and practice skills in facilitating training programmes and to enhance their abilities to design session plans.

Objectives: By the end of the workshop participants will be able to:
1. 2. Discuss various adult learning theories and how they relate to training; Review theories of communication and group dynamics and consider how they relate to training; 3. Describe at least 15 different non-formal training techniques; 4. Discuss issues related to planning and scheduling a training programme; 5. Develop coherent goals and objectives for a training session; 6. Design and draft session plans; 7. Practice facilitating a training session(s); 8. Give and receive effective feedback; 9. Discuss carrying out a training needs assessment. 10. Participate in formative and summative evaluation during the training 11. Discuss the supervision of service providers.

Session Titles
Session 1A: Session 1B: Session 2: Session 3: Session 4A: Session 4B: Session 5A: Session 5B: Session 6A: Session 6B: Session 7A: Session 7B: Session 7C: Session 7D: Session 8A: Session 9A: Session 10: Introduction to the Training of Trainers Workshop Introduction to Training Analysis and Self Assessment Adult Learning Theory for Non formal Education (NFE) and Training Overview of Non formal Training Techniques Adult Communication and Learning Group Dynamics (Human Behavior) Planning a Training Programme Considerations in Designing and Scheduling a Training Programme: Writing and analyzing Goals and Objectives Developing Session Design Summaries Giving and Receiving Feedback Preparation For Practice Training Practice Training Sharing Practice Training Feedback and Modification Plans Evaluating a Training Programme Introduction to Needs Assessment Supervision of Service Providers.

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Session 1B Handout 1

Purpose of elements in the introductory session
Welcome remarks: Make participants and facilitators feel at ease Make participants and facilitators feel accepted and welcomed Give overview of the workshop Introductions: Ask participants and facilitators to introduce themselves, so everyone knows everyone else. Make interactions easy, so participants feel they are no longer strangers Help participants/ facilitators become familiar with their environment. Sharing Expectations: Help facilitators target (identify) issues that need immediate attention Discuss unexpected issues that arise, so that facilitators and participants understand one another and are on the same page Mold the workshop; allow facilitators and participants to redesign the workshop to address their expectations. Goals & objectives Direct the training Help participants and facilitators to evaluate the training themselves Solidify a routine for conducting sessions Leveling objectives and expectations: Match goals and objectives and agree on material to be covered in the workshop or training Individuals will assess whether their expectations are met during and after the workshop Norms: Help to set a productive and orderly environment Selection of role bearers (host team, time keeper etc) Brings shared leadership Helps to keep focus Guides participants Logistical issues: Clear some doubts and fears

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Session 1B Handout 2

TRAINER’S PRE ToT WORKSHOP SELF ASSESSMENT
Name …………………………………………………………. Date ………………… This form was developed so that trainers/facilitators know in what areas you would like the most assistance during the workshop. Check/Tick in the column that most accurately describes your level of ability or understanding.

Part 1: Knowledge of Adult Learning Theory:
Learning Theories 1 I have never heard of this before 2 I have heard of this before and would know it if explained 3 I know this theory 4 I know this theory and how it is applied and can explain it to others

1. Andragogy 2. Adult motivation (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs) 3. Nonformal Education 4. Experiential Learning Cycle 5. KAP (Knowledge, Attitude & Practice) 6. Conscientisation 7. Adult to Adult Communication and Relationships (transactional analysis) 8. Johari’s Window

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Part II: Training and Materials Development Skills
Training and Materials Development Skills 1 I have never heard of this before 2 I have heard of this before and would know it if explained 3 I know this theory 4 I know this theory and how it is applied and can explain it to others

1. Designing a Training Needs Assessment 2. Conducting a Needs Assessment 3. Analysing Training designs 4. Writing objectives 5. Designing and Writing Session Plans 6. Writing Training Support Materials 7. Facilitating a Session (Using a Session Plan)

8. Designing and using evaluation in a training

Part III
Participatory Non formal Training techniques 1 I have never heard of this before 2 I have heard of this before and would know it if explained 3 I know this technique and have used it before 4 I could teach this technique to others.

1. Brainstorming 2. Case studies/critical incidents 3. Demonstration

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Part III
Participatory Non formal Training techniques 1 I have never heard of this before 2 I have heard of this before and would know it if explained 3 I know this technique and have used it before 4 I could teach this technique to others.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Drama or skit Field trips Film shows Fishbowl Games Ice breakers/ energisers

10. Jigsaw 11. The Kitchen concept 12. Lecturretes 13. Role plays ( socio drama/problem drama) 14. Panel discussions 15. Peer training 16. Pictures 17. Simulations 18. Song and dances 19. Small groups 20. Buzz sessions

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Session 2 Handout 1

What is training?
Training is an opportunity to learn “specific things” in a short period of time. The specific things can be knowledge and skills that are driven towards changing attitudes.

Lecturette Notes: Introduction to Adult Learning Theory
There are a number of different theories that help to explain how adults learn. It is important to know of some of these and to keep them in mind as you design training session and programmes. The purpose of this session is to begin to explore some of these adult learning theories and to learn how they can inform our practice as trainers of adults.

The theory of KAP – Knowledge, Attitude and Practice and its relationship to learning and development.
Á change in Practice (doing) is preceded by a change in Knowledge (information), but only when accompanied by a change in Attitude (feeling). In training, we try to make sure that we not only “do” and “think” about something, but that we try also to discuss our “feelings” about it. In this way we can get into the inner-most circle and begin to spiral out again to ensure that the knowledge and attitudes addressed in a training help participants to act in a different and more informed way (manner?).

DO

THINK
3. Practice

FEEL
2. Attitude

1. Knowledge

2. Internalize

1. Understand/Reflect
KEY: 3. Action COMMON TERMS KAP – Knowledge, Attitude, Practice (Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotorformal education curriculum terms)
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Session 2 Handout 2

Freire’s Model of Critical Consciousness (Adapted)
Lecturette Notes Paul Freire’s Critical Consciousness
Another important theory of adult learning was developed by an adult educator in Brazil, named Paulo Freire. The centerpiece of Freire’s theory is critical consciousness, and it has been applied in many places throughout Africa, especially in relation to literacy. Freire believes that in order to truly learn, an adult must take his or her situation, internalize and analyze it, make it his/ her own (through “naming the world”), and take action on it. Learning is a political act where learners come to see themselves as “actors in the world”. Empowerment of the adult learner becomes the end goal.

General Remarks
Now we can explore other adult learning theories and see how they can be applied to training adults. As we do so, we will be able to relate them to this circle. While they have different names and slightly different ways of understanding each of these, many adult learning theories touch on how we act, think, and feel. A COMPARISON OF FORMAL EDUCATION PURPOSES 1. Long-term and general 2. Credential-based (diploma oriented) 1. Short-term and specific 2. Not credential-base TIMING 1. Long cycle 2. Preparatory (provides the basics for future participation in society and economy) 3. Full-time 1. Short cycle 2. Recurrent (depends on the immediate learning needs in the individual’s roles and stage of life) 3. Part-time NONFORMAL EDUCATION

CONTENT 1. Subject-centered & standardized (a well defined package of cognitive knowledge [knowing] with limited emphasis on psychomotor [doing] or affective [feeling] considerations and designed to cover needs across large groups of learners.) 2. Academic 3. Clientele determined by entry requirements (tests) 1. Problem-centered & Individualized (task or skill oreinted, discrete units which may be related to the individual participants’ or small groups’ learning goals.)

2. Practice 3. Entry requirements determined by the clientele

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DELIVERY SYSTEM 1. Institution-based (highly visible and expensive) 2. Isolated (from socio-economic environment) 3. Rigidly structured 4. Teacher-centered 5. Resource-intensive 1. Environment-based (minimal local facilities with low cost) 2. Community-related 3. Flexibly structured 4. Learner-centered 5. Resource saving

CONTROL 1. Externally controlled (curricula and standards are externally determined) 2. Hierarchical (internal control is based on role-defined relations among teachers and between teachers and learners) 1. Self-governing (autonomy at programme and local levels, with an emphasis on local initiative, self-help and innovation) 2. Democratic (substantial control is vested in participants and local community)

(Adjusted adaptation of Tim Simkins as found in Mullinix, Giollespie, McCurry and Graybill, Nonformal Education Manual, 1989.) Malcom Knowles, in his book The Modern Practice of Adult Education, identifies the following for distinctions between andragogy (the science of teaching adults) and pedagogy (the science of teaching children). 1. Self-Concept. In pedagogy, the child is dependent upon those around him/her, and the adult acts autonomously in relation to others. Adults are capable of being selfdirected, of being able to identify and articulate what they want to learn in dialogue with the teacher. In pedagogy, the teacher is in a direct relationship with the student; in adult education, on other hand, the teacher is in a helping relationship with the student. Experience: Pedagogy is often seen as the one-way transfer of information from teacher to student. Since the adult learner has a wealth of experience and wisdom, the teacher becomes a facilitator in a mutual learning environment. The distances created between teacher and student in pedagogy is replaced by a community of learners and facilitators. Readiness to learn. In traditional pedagogy, the teacher decides what the students need to learn and the curriculum is developed without initial input from the learner. Adult education is more learner-centered, and the learner is more actively involved in deciding what will be taught. Orientation to learning. Children have been conditioned to have a subject- centered orientation to learning, whereas adults tend to have a problem or process-centered orientation. Children are able to focus attention on future rewards, while adults are primarily concerned with their present situations and are interested in solving problems they experience on a daily basis.

2.

3.

4.

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The chart below summarizes some key considerations for the adult educator Distinctions between Child and Adult Learning Approaches

Key Ideas The learner The educator Primary information source Motivation Time factors

Child Generally dependent Identified and defines problems Educator External Future

Adult Self-directed Facilitates learner solving own problems Self, experience Internal present

Adult Learner Motivation
Abraham Maslow is a renowned theorist in the field of humanistic psychology and is often cited when discussing the dynamics of human motivation. Maslow suggests that human needs stem from a hierarchy that can be visualized as a stack of dependent layers; one level cannot be fully attained until the lower level need is met. To further complicate the model, an individual’s position in the hierarchy may change from hour to hour, day to day or year to year.

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Session 2 Handout 3

MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Attributes
Development to fullest potential; strong sense of individuality Need for SelfActualization Respect and like for self and others Ego-self Esteem Needs Membership, acceptance, belonging, feeling loved and wanted Love Needs Protection from physical or psychological threat, need for order and structure

Security Needs

Food, water, shelter, clothing etc.

Survival Needs

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Application of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to training
For a trainer to have a successful training s/he must attend to the diverse needs of the participants, as spelled out by Abraham Maslow. In the planning and introductory session of any training programme, trainers must make sure that participants’ survival needs are taken care of; this is done by ensuring that participants will have acceptable meals and their accommodations are comfortable, by guaranteeing safety of their property, and ensuring decent travel arrangements. Logistical support, in terms of out-of-pocket allowance, transport refunds, and basic first-aid should be arranged. Similarly the participants’ Security Needs should be assured; venues must be in locations and environments that are secure, so that they can rest comfortably and sleep well without fear of being attacked. It would defeat the purpose of any training if the selected venues are in areas where there is armed conflict. Love Needs of each and every participant are very critical to the success of a training. It is only when individuals feel a sense of belonging, understanding, and acceptance that they can successfully participate in a training. It is therefore the duty of the trainer to make sure that the introductory session creates that motivation and mutual respect, so that individuals can participate in the training without fearing any form of conduct that may humiliate them. When you cater for all the above as a trainer, then individual participants feel that their selfesteem needs have been met. They will bond with other participants, they will respect each other, and they will form a “training environment culture” that will make their learning experience enjoyable. Once participants are comfortable, they will develop to their full potential and will work together and support each other to realize the training goals.

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Session 2 Handout 4

THE EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING CYCLE
Adult Learning – Process and Styles An adult educator, named David Kolb, developed a model which integrates an experiential learning process with learning styles and provides a comprehensive theoretical guide for the adult educator. This model begins by describing four key steps in the leaning cycle and provides a clear method to consider when designing programs for adults. The four steps that make up the adult learning process are: 1. Concrete Experience (Do It): The learner is involved in a concrete experience that is provided in training. The learner explores a new situation firsthand. The learner learns by demonstration, explanation, and lecture. Reflection and Observation (Think About It) The learner maintains concrete involvement, but distances him/herself, becoming reflective observer (takes a step back to observe and reflect on what the situation means to him/her.) Learning takes place through question-and-answer periods, discussion, or individual reflection and work. Abstract Conceptualization (Think About How to Apply It): Based on reflection, the learner analyzes the situation and forms theories, generalizing about the particular, the hypothetical, and the general. Interaction with peers and the trainer helps the learner to analyze situations. Active Experimentation (Try It Out): The learner formulates a plan or a strategy to apply the newly attained information on him/herself.

2.

3.

4.

This experiential learning cycle can be represented as follows:

CONCRETE EXPERIENCE

REFLECTION & OBSERVATION

ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION

ABRSTRACT CONCEPTUALIZATION

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Learners who feel most comfortable immersing themselves in an experience may be the ones who most need to draw back occasionally and conceptualize their experience (and vice versa). People have a tendency, even in childhood, to gravitate towards one style or another. By the time they are adults, they have firmly established their preferred way of learning and may not wish to move through this process in a stage-by-stage manner. The job of the non-formal trainer is to design programs that address each stage in the experiential learning cycle. Designing a simulation of practical experience without allowing time to reflect, discuss, and process the experience will not give learners the chance to bring the learning into their daily lives and experiences, and the learning will be incomplete.

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Session 3 Handout

NON FORMAL TRAINING TECHNIQUES
Group: Techniques 1 – 5 1. Brainstorming – This technique encourages active and imaginative input from participants and taps into the knowledge and expertise of the participants. The facilitator’s role is to encourage all participants to say the first thing that comes to their minds and to keep ideas flowing quickly. Brainstorming is used to help focus or clarify activities or to generate information that can help jumpstart a topic. Process – The facilitator asks a question on a topic to be investigated. The participants are asked to draw upon personal experience and opinions and to respond with as many ideas as possible. As participants put forward their ideas, every idea is recorded on the board. Thereafter the group analyzes the information collected. Advantages – It promotes creativity finding solutions to problems. It is particularly effective in opening sessions to establish goals, objectives and norms for training programs. 2. Case Study – This technique encourages participants to analyze situations that they might encounter and to determine how they would respond. A case study is a story written to provide a detailed description of an event and is followed by questions for participants to discuss. The story can range from a paragraph to several pages in length. Stories of people with similar problems in other villages make ideal subjects for case-study analysis. The case study should be designed in such a way that the story is relevant to participants, and they have enough time to read, think about and discuss the story. Process – The facilitator hands out a case study that describes a relevant situation or problem to be addressed. Participants read the case study. Participants are either broken up into small discussion groups or stay in the large group to discuss the story. The instructor facilitates questioning and approaches to alternative solutions. Advantages – It encourages participants to explore ideas and to identify alternative behaviours, solutions to situations, and problems they might experience. A Critical Incident is a variation on a case study. It is short, - seldom longer than a couple of paragraphs - describes a critical situation, and ends with a single question. A critical incident activity addresses, but does not try to solve, a problem. As it is short and problem-oriented, it need not always be handed to participants in written form. 3. Demonstration – This technique is used to allow participants to watch how something should be done. A demonstration brings to life some information that has been presented in a lecture, discussion, or explanation. For example, a discussion of how to apply fertilizer may not be nearly as effective as a direct demonstration, which participants can both watch and try for themselves.

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Process – The facilitator should explain the purpose of the demonstration. Facilitator demonstrates the procedures or new behavior. Participants are encouraged to ask questions and engage in discussion. Participants practice what has been demonstrated. Advantages – Participant’s active involvement in trying the demonstrated activity indicates if they understand the information and makes this information more difficult to forget. 4. Drama – When people come together and act out parts, they are often able to say more than they might in a normal discussion. Drama can be an interesting, entertaining, and, most of all, effective way to get people to discuss and solve problems. As dramas (plays or skits) identify the specific ideas/messages presented by actors (i.e. they have scripts) they are best used when key messages or complex information needs to be shared. Process – Once a problem has been identified, participants can come together and write or act out a play for the class or the community. The drama they depict should present the main ingredients of the problem, but no solution. After (or even during) the play, they can ask the audience (people watching) for advice on what to do. Following the play, actors and audience discuss the problem and come up with solutions. Problems might be as simple and local as people coming late, or as complicated as the different sanitation and nutrition problems that affect village health and development. Advantages – All facilitators will have to do is to encourage a small group of participants to try this technique with the whole class. It is usually considered such fun that given the opportunity and a bit of encouragement, participants will begin to do these on their own. Trainers may even consider using this as a way to have participants help to present new material from a lesson. 5. Field trips – This technique allows participants to see how something is done firsthand. Facilitator finds a place outside a class in which participants will begin to do these on their own. Process – Participants should be briefed on field trip, location time and purpose of the trip. Participants and the facilitator should make up a list of questions, or observations that participants can use during the field trip. Following the field trip, participants should discuss and analyze what they have seen. Advantages – Field trips expose participants to how information discussed in classes can be applied in real life.

Group 2: Techniques 6 – 10 6. Film shows – Film shows and videos can be specially arranged for participants. Process - Trainers should select films according to participants’ interests and topics under consideration. Participants should be introduced to the film, and viewing should generally be followed by a discussion of the film and the information it contained.

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Advantages – Film shows are generally quite entertaining and easily capture the interest of participants. If well done, films can capture in a short amount of time, information that might take months to cover. A film can capture in moving pictures and words images make a stronger impact on participants than an instructor could in lecture. 7. Fish Bowl – This technique provides a physical structure that allows participants on the ‘outside’ to see something being done on the ‘inside’. Participants may observe a role play of an actual situation, such as a discussion or a planning meeting. Process – Trainer helps break participants into two or more groups. A small group performs some action or activity in the center of a large group. The outer group of participants is asked to observe and analyze the interactions of the inner group. Advantages – As with fish placed in a bowl of water, participants can see what is happening and discuss what they see. A fish bowl focuses on the outer group’s observation and feedback about the information supplied by the inner group. 8. Games – Games are structured activities that: 1) have a certain number of players, 2) working in a special situation, 3) to accomplish a task, 4) according to certain rules. Process – Trainers can easily invent games that help participants to learn information or practice skills learned, as way of review. If you do decide to develop a game, make sure that it has all of the components described above. As you develop a game, here are some tips to remember: a)To be good and useful, a game must be well thought out, so set a side some time to develop and test the game. b)If you decide to award points, do so for right answers, but do not take away points for wrong answers – this can discourage adults from participating; c)Try to involve participants in developing the games, (e.g. let them come up with the questions); d)Have participants working in teams so that quick learners play alongside slower learners and no one individual ever wins. Advantages - Games are generally fun and effective ways for participants to learn new skills or practice skills that they have recently learned. Good games can be challenging and effective ways to involve even the most hesitant of learners. 9. Ice Breakers/Energizers – This technique is used to introduce participants to each other or to help them to relax, wake up, or recapture their wondering interest. As its name implies, the ice breaker warms the learning environment to the point that the ‘ice’ keeping participants from interacting with each other is broken up. Process – This technique is usually short and has no specific form. It is how it is used that makes it an ice breaker. A joke, short game, or physical activity of some sort can all be ice breakers. For example, to begin a class with new participants you might randomly pair off participants. Have participants work in pairs and find out as much about each other in five minutes as possible. Each participant then introduces his/her partner to the rest of the group. Other examples of ice breakers include: having participants draw a picture which describes something about themselves,

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and then explain it to the group; solve a puzzle together; or take a “blind walk” in which one person (whose eyes are closed) is led by a partner’s verbal instructions. Advantages – An ice breaker actively involves all participants in an active role. Ice breakers should be fun and should create an initial bond between facilitator and participants. 10. Jigsaw technique – This technique is used to help participants master pieces of information that, when put together, cover a complete topic. Process – To do this, the large group is divided into small groups, which are each assigned different aspects of the chosen topic to learn. Each group spends time working together until every member of their group has mastered the topic assigned well enough to teach it to others. One member of each of the original groups now serves as an “expert” for a second group. The second groups are formed by assigning one representative from each of the first study groups to the second group. The second group stays together until each member has had a chance to teach his or her subject to the group. The entire group meets together briefly to reflect on the process. Advantages – The jigsaw technique provides an opportunity for people to learn a topic and then immediately afterwards, teach it to others. This technique encourages cooperation rather than competition. It is an effective way to give individuals training experience and to bolster participant confidence in their own knowledge and teaching skills.

Group 3: Techniques 11 – 15 11. The Kitchen Concept – When this technique was used and developed in Nigeria, it was given this title. It involves local community resource people sharing knowledge with learners about something they have experienced. It is a variation on a field trip or guest speakers, but with a particularly effective twist. Process – For example, if learners in a literacy class are studying about keeping livestock, it may actually be useful to hear from someone in their own community, who has been successful at it. An extension agent may still come and follow up with more information, but the neighbor, who actually does what is being discussed, will make the biggest impression on learners, because they will show the practicality of the lessons. In some circumstances, learners may be able to go on-site to visit the speaker and to watch the task put into action. In some cases, people in the literacy class may have skills they can share with other learners. Advantages - As has often been said of adult learners, trainers or educators should both appreciate and use their knowledge and experience. The kitchen concept puts this idea into practice. 12. Lecturettes – Lecturettes are short forms of lecture which are used to highlight key points of content. They differ from traditional lectures in that they often incorporate participants interactions and, at times, give the impression of a discussion. They

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are useful as introductions to topics and experiential activities. Lecturettes seldom last longer than 15 minutes. Process – Review or read through the information that you want to present. Write out an outline of the key points that you want to cover. Consider what visual aids could help your presentation and prepare them in advance, if possible. Identify points where you can involve participants through questioning, discussion, or other activities. Practice and time your lecturette to make sure that you have not prepared either too little or too much for the time allotted. As you present your lecturette (or any lecture) keep an eye on the participants, and make sure that you are holding their attention. If people start to drift off, you may want to do an energizer or another activity that will awaken them. A lecturette is only effective if you are able to keep participants listening, involved, and aware of the points you are trying to share. Advantages – Lecturettes can provide detailed and specific information in a short amount of time. 13. Role plays – This technique encourages participants to explore solutions to situations or problems under discussion. It is a small, often unrehearsed drama where participants are given roles that they are supposed to act out. There is no ‘script’ that participant-actors must follow, but there is a description of the situation, the roles, suggested actions, or opinions to express. Process – Roles may be set up by the facilitator, or participants may make up their own roles. The description of a role play can be given orally or in a handout. Participants act out role play. Facilitator facilitates discussion and analysis of participants’ reactions. ‘Actors’ are given a chance to describe their roles and actions to compare with what participants observed. Participants then discuss how the role play relates to their own lives and situations they encounter. Advantages – Discussion following the role play can focus on the role, opinions, and actions of the characters, and thus avoid criticism of the participants themselves. Role play is entertaining as well as educational, and it improves participants’ skills of expression and observation. 14. Panel Discussions – This technique allows participants to gather information on several new topics at a time from visiting ‘experts’ or ‘authorities’ in that field. It encourages critical and informed participant questioning and interaction between guest speakers and participants in exploring a given topic. Process – ‘Experts’ or ‘authorities’ are identified. The trainer (or pre-designated participant) acts as a moderator (facilitator) of the panel discussion by asking initial basic questions of panel members and/or encouraging participants to ask questions of their own. Advantages – This can be a good opportunity to invite guest speakers (up to 3 or 4 at one time) into the training setting. It offers participants a different format for information transfer and changes the focus of attention from the trainers to the panel. Also, it can give participants contact references for future work in the field. If you design your sessions in such a way that the participants become the ‘resident experts’ on a given topic, then they can experience a distinct feeling of involvement and accomplishment.

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15.

Peer Training – This technique allows participants with expertise in a certain field to help in the training process and gives participants an opportunity to participate in hands-on training. Process – Trainer solicits participant assistance in training, asks for areas of participant expertise, and/or assigns participants topics to be researched, prepared and presented. Participants may also work together with the trainer to conduct a training session. During the presentation, other participants are encouraged to participate actively (as in any other session), provided that they respect their fellow participant as the ‘trainer’ and lead facilitator of learning during that session. Advantages – Peer training can help participants to network for future cooperation, collaboration and support. It takes the role of “expert” away from the trainer and gives the authority and control of learning to the participants. Note: Though rewarding, the preparation for peer training activities can be especially time consuming.

16.

Pictures – Many training activities can benefit from incorporating a creative component into participants’ expression of ideas. Drawing pictures (encourages participants to express their opinions and feelings symbolically. Process – Trainer identifies a focus for the drawing, breaks participants into groups, and gives them a time frame in which to complete the drawing. Trainer explains that the quality of technical expertise of the drawing is not important; as long as participants can explain the ideas in their drawing to the group, it need not be even recognizable. Participants should think of the drawing as shorthand notes that record their discussion. Trainer calls participants back together and asks them to post, share, and explain their drawings to the large group. Trainer keeps comments and discussions light-hearted and down-plays negative criticism. Advantages – If this is done well, it helps trainer/participants to overcome their aversion to drawing. It can be a light-hearted and enjoyable activity that can target effective (feeling) dimensions of participant response. Since future trainers/ instructors should be willing to make additional support materials, they should also have practice drawing in a non-threatening situation. (Note: there is usually hesitation to participate in this activity. Placing participants in groups allows them to choose an artist to render their ideas or to work together to draw them. If trainers are careful to encourage and to help participants get over their initial hesitation, this activity can be quite rewarding).

17.

Simulations – This technique is used to involve participants directly in an experience. A simulation is a model of reality created so that participants can see the effect of certain actions on a given situation. This can be done through a carefully prepared board game or an expanded fishbowl/role play activity which involves all participants. Process – Identify a situation that you want participants to experience. Consider the main issues that you want them to understand. Think of a number of actions that could be taken to respond to these issues and possible outcomes of such actions. Use these as guidelines to prepare a board game or extended role play activity that will actively involve the participants in the situation you have identified.

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Try the simulation out to see if participants are truly experiencing the essence of the situation as you had hoped. Adjust your simulation accordingly. Advantages – By simplifying and simulating real life situations, participants can discover the relationships between various forces and the effect of different actions on those forces. They can learn how to act in certain situations. It can be a very good mechanism for introducing (development activities, etc.) and developing problem-solving skills. 18. Songs and Dances – Song and dance is a vital part of our traditional culture and has been an entertaining learning tool. Words from songs carry messages that can stay with learners for years, and dances are an activity that can add an element of fun and action to a literacy class. An instructor can easily encourage learners to create songs and dances that capture a message, key sentence, or even a method of doing something. These songs can then be shared with other learners. A class may even have an informal competition to see who can come up with the best song and dance. Small groups – It is often necessary to break a large training group into small groups in order to facilitate discussion, problem-solving, or team activities and tasks. Process - A specific task is assigned to smaller groups (the task may be the same, or it may be a different task for each individual group). The purpose of the task is clearly stated and a time limit is imposed. Guidelines for presentation are clearly defined, and all group members share responsibility. Following these instructions, the task is carried out. The small groups come back together, and results are presented to the whole group. Advantages – A smaller group yields a greater chance of individual participation. With more small groups, you improve your chances of coming up with interesting information and more solutions to problems. 20. Buzz session – This is a special type of small group activity that is used when participants need to discuss a topic, express opinions, and come to some sort of consensus. Process – As with any small group, the main activity and/or questions are introduced in a large group. The facilitator then divides the participants into smaller groups of 3 or 4 each. Each participant then shares his or her view in the small group and it is recorded. Participants’ views are then consolidated within small groups and shared with the large group. Advantages – It gives each person a chance to “talk through” a topic. Buzz sessions allow participants to become more actively involved in describing their opinions in small groups before bringing those ideas to the larger group. This activity also helps to build participants’ self-confidence.

19.

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FORMING SMALL GROUPS
There are many different ways to break participants into small groups, most of these are quite simple and straight-forward. The most important thing to remember is that you should continually change the way you do this. Since small groups are used quite a bit during the training, the more variety you can use in breaking people up, the more interesting you can make this process for the participants. Here are a few examples of different ways to break a large group into small groups: Count Off – Have participants count off, one after another, by number (1,2,3,…), letter (a, b, c, …), or any other grouping labels that you identify (supervisor, instructor, learner,…; ng’ombe, kuku, mbuzi,….; etc). Give them an example or help them to begin by explaining carefully how many groups they should form. Use cards – Prepare cards that can be passed out face down or selected by participants to help them form small groups. Write numbers, letters or group names on the cards or use different color cards. This technique provides varied and more random groupings than counting off does and is particularly necessary when forming groups for jigsaw, where each participant from the first part group must later be in different second groups. Use found objects – bottle caps (different types), sticks, stones, pencils, pens, beans, corn kernels, and many more small objects can be collected, placed in a basket, hat or small box and passed around. Make sure to count the number of objects carefully and evenly, so that there are sufficient objects for each participant, and so groups are even. Use team forming strategies – Ask for volunteers, elect, or otherwise identify individuals to serve as team leaders. Have these individuals choose other participants to join them. You may even choose to provide guidelines for each round of selection (someone you don’t know, someone wearing blue, someone tall, etc.), or have each new team member choose the next team member. Use areas/seating arrangements – Divide participants into small groups according to where they are seated. Unless you are able to keep participants changing seats, do not use this technique too often as you will end up with similar groups. Use personal characteristics of participants – Divide participants according to where they come from, their background and experience, sex, or other relevant characteristics. Use these characteristics to create small groups with similar participants or a balanced mixture, depending on the task and purpose of the small group.

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Session 4A Handout 1

Role Plays for Transactional Analysis
Parent/child /adult communication Child – Parent 1 Child 1: You are on your way to work, and your friend has come by to pick you up. You can’t find your watch, but you aren’t worried. You tell your friend to stay calm. You try to lighten things up by laughing and joking with him, asking: “After all, how can you expect me to know what time it is, if I can’t find my watch. After awhile, you get bothered by his constant nagging and just ignore him. Parent 1: You are on your way to work and have stopped by to pick up a friend who is looking for his watch (which you know to be important to him). You have hard time believing how irresponsible your friend is and warn that you will both be late for work because of this. You tell him to hurry up and scold him for not being ready.

Child – Parent 2: Child 2: You are on your way to work and your friend has come by to pick you up. You can’t find your watch. You tell your friend that you are really upset. You are sure you put your watch right on the table, so someone must have moved it. You believe that this is not your fault, people are always moving things around on you and making life more difficult. Parent 2: You are on your way to work and you have gone to pick up your friend who is looking for his watch. You feel sorry that he has misplaced his watch but remind him to be responsible and keep it in one place. You believe that nobody is moving things around but your friend is just careless.

Adult – Adult: Adult 1: You are on your way to work and your friend has come by to pick you up. You can’t find your watch. You tell this to your friend and apologize for holding everyone up. You explain that you really need the watch today as you have many meetings and activities. With your friend’s help, you find the watch a few minutes later and leave in time for work. Adult 2: You are on your way to work and have stopped by to pick up a friend who is looking for his /her watch (which you know to be important to him/her). You thank your friend for the apology, as you know the time is short, and help by asking where your friend last saw the watch, and if you could help look some place in particular. Together, you are able to locate the watch in a few minutes and leave in time for work.

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Session 4A Handout 2

Role Play Observation Sheet:
Critical Parent: Who?______________________________ Nurturing Parent Who?______________________________

o o o

Scolds Warns Criticises

o o o

Shows Concern Warns in loving way Admonishes tenderly

Adapted child Who?_____________________________

Natural child Who?_________________________________

o o o

Cries Complains Gives excuses

o o o

Plays Jokes Loses interest/ignores

Adult who?_________________________ ___________________________________

o

Thinking

o

Cool

o

Reasoning

o

Sensible

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Session 4A Handout 3

TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
Communication Among Adults Eric Berne used some ideas from psychologist, Sigmund Freud, to develop a way of examining how adults interact. He called this transactional analysis. Transaction - an exchange between two people; Analysis – a way of looking at or understanding something. This theory states that we have these ways of interacting, called ego states, within us. We have three basic ego states: the parent, the child and the adult. Our cactions can indicate to others which ego states we are in at a given time. Below are some of the actions that indicate which ego state someone is in.

PARENT (EGO STATE)
CRITICAL PARENTS Scolds Admonishes Criticizes Warns NURTURING PARENT Shows Concern Admonishes tenderly

Warns in a loving way

Child Ego State Adapted child Cries Complains Gives excuses Plays Jokes Loses interest/ignores Natural child

Adult ( Ego State)

Thinking Sensible

Cool

Reasoning

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To move someone from one ego state to an adult state can sometimes be a simple matter of recognizing (analyzing) the interaction (transaction), naming a transaction, and asking a sensible, rational question.

Application of the Transactional Analysis to Training
In any training, participants will exhibit different characteristics. Some may be critical, do not offer solutions, laugh at other participants’ presentations, and intimidate others; others talk on par with you, may want to dominate discussions, or excessively share personal experiences. All of this has the potential to derail the flow of the workshop and the experience for other participants. As a trainer, it is important that you find a way to handle them without hurting their self-esteem and continue to seek meaningful participation from every participant.

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Session 4A Handout 4

JOHARI’S WINDOW
Open: Both parties know each other at least Blind: The outside (extension agent) other at least.

JOHARI’S WINDOW 2

Johari’s Window and its relevance to training Interpretations 1. Both parties know each other at least superficially, and the relationship seems friendly. Positive aspects: Both participants and facilitators are potential learners Each of them knows the issue at hand There is an element of trust between the facilitator and participants. Participants and facilitators do not waste time, as they are aware of the issue. Negative aspects A lot of information may be lost as discussions may not be used. Relationship may lead one to take the other for granted. ie. One may think the other knows particular things, and does not talk about them. 2. The outsider sees problems and their solutions clearly, but the participant does not No interaction between facilitator and participants Facilitator understands the problem, but is not helping participants to see it Facilitator needs confidence to relate to participants 3. The participant has certain feelings, beliefs, values, and fears that are hidden from the facilitator. Facilitator may do things that are not pleasing, e.g. use of jargons, ridicule Participants may have negative attitudes toward the facilitator 4. Neither party knows the other party well Participants may fear participating in session Participants may spend a lot of time wondering about the facilitator Facilitator may have “stage fright” Facilitator may not be focused in delivering content

How do we, as trainers, use these interpretations to improve upon conducting training? Facilitator needs to create rapport with the participants. Facilitator needs to create an enabling environment so as to make participants see their problems and solve them. Facilitator needs a lot of patience Facilitator needs to employ a participatory training method, so the blind facilitator and participant can find a common problem. Facilitator should identify values, expectations, and fears of the participants at the start of the training.

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Johari’s Window

OPEN - Both parties know each other at least superficially and the relationship seems friendly,

BLIND - The outsider (extension agent) can see problems and their solutions clearly but the insider (villager) does not see them at all.

HIDDEN - The insider (villager) has certain feelings, beliefs, values, fears, etc. which only insiders are aware of. They are hidden from outsider’s view.

UNKNOWN - Neither party knows the other well. They may however get to know each other better in the future in the course of working together over a period of time.

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Session 4B Handout 1

Group Dynamics
Definitions:
Behavior: Human behavior: reaction, feedback given to a situation. the different characteristics of human beings

Group Dynamics: how individuals with divergent ideas and characteristics interact in an environment toward a common purpose Application of Group Dynamics to training adults We have seen that groups are made up of people with different characteristics. As a trainer, you have to harness the different characteristics to the advantage of the group by: assigning responsibilities according to the characteristics e.g. If someone is friendly and caring, s/he can take on welfare of other members finding a way to handle troublesome participants without offending them, e.g. encouraging someone not participating in group work to form/join a group involving the less interested or silent participants in discussions or soliciting their views on issues before turning to the more talkative participants.

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Session 5A Handout 1

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Session 5A Handout 2

PLANNING STEPS AND SAMPLE CONSDERATIONS:
1. WHO: a. b. c. Who will be involved in the training? Participants Facilitators Resource persons

2. WHY: Why have this training? a. Reason for holding the training programme b. The needs 3. WHEN: When and for how long is the training planned? a. Dates and time b. Duration 4. WHERE: Where will the training take place? a. Venue b. Accommodation c. Environment 5. WHAT FOR: What will the training accomplish and yield for the future? a. Goals and objectives b. KAP 6. WHAT : What will be covered during the training? a. Topics/content b. Support materials c. Curriculum 7. HOW : How will training be carried out? a. Curriculum and methodology b. Language c. Transport 8. HOW MUCH: How much will it cost? a. Financial Budget b. Size of group

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Session 5B Handout 1

Considerations in Designing and Scheduling a Training Program
What is a training schedule? Timetable A table showing what is to be covered, when, and for how long. What are the key elements of a time table? Session titles Time (including breaks/meals) Sequence of sessions Person responsible

Case Study: Training for CBOs in Nile District Field workers from 15 CBOs in Nile district are to be trained in the importance of conducting a training needs assessment. They will also have a practice session using at least 2 techniques of conducting a TNA in Bugo Sub County. This is a one day workshop. Content will cover definition of TNA, benefits and practices. 1. Develop a training schedule. 2. Be sure to take into consideration relevant theories that will guide the training schedule.

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Session 5B Handout 2

CLIMATE SETTING
The Physical Setting Trivial though it may seem, physical surroundings can have a significant effect on the work of the group. Below are just a few considerations to keep in mind: Is the environment comfortable? – When possible, the seats should be comfortable, the room should not be too hot or too cold, and noise level should be controlled. More importantly, the location should be at a place in which participants feel emotionally comfortable; not so formal that they feel out of place or so far away they have difficulty reaching it. Arrange chairs so that every one can see everyone else – Non formal educators often prefer sitting in a circle to sitting at tables, which seems too much like “school”. Furniture should be easy to move, so that people can work in small groups. Some groups may prefer sitting outside under a tree instead of being inside. If there are two facilitators, sit at different ends of the room so that attention is not directed to the facilitators in the centre. If it is not culturally appropriate for men and women to sit together, allow for homogeneous clusters. Think carefully about the actual location in which the training is being held – Will any group members feel uncomfortable in that setting? Will it allow certain people to feel more powerful because they are on the “home turf”? If possible, choose a neutral place. The emotional setting Trainer Jane Vella in her book, Learning to Listen, suggests that trainers/facilitators consider the following, especially during the early phases of a program: Find Out What Respect Means to Community Members. – The level of respect between the participants and the trainers is central to the quality of the process. Trainers should ask participants about situations where they have felt disrespect from outside trainers. Often they may speak from a deep emotional level, since being slighted, put down, or insulted can evoke powerful feelings. Vella feels there is a strong sense of fellowship which builds when individuals recognize that others in the group have had a similar experience. The group can examine these incidents to find out why they occurred. In a few cases, the person who was disrespectful may not have been aware of it at all. Visit People’s Homes as a Guest. – This encourages a relationship between equals. The local people are the hosts; the hierarchical teacher – student role can be broken before it “solidifies” in the classroom situation. As time passes, reciprocate, and have participants visit the facilitator’s home.

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Spend Time on Greetings and Introductions. – Use icebreakers as opening activities. Learn everyone’s name early, even if it requires extra time. During the early part of a session or workshop, use people’s names often. To help with memorization, write down the names according to where people are sitting, or use name tags (if everyone is literate). Share Experiences Early – Talking in small groups can be less intimidating, especially at the beginning. Questions can be simple at first: What do you like to be called? Tell us about your family. Why did you come to this program? What would you like to learn? Encourage Everybody to Participate – Make sure to structure the first activities so that everyone has a chance to talk. Other Considerations in Setting the Climate for NFE Group Work Allow Time for Mutual Planning – Allow people to add their own agenda items. Ask them to make a list in response to the question: “What do you hope to accomplish in this class before it is over?” Compare the group’s agenda to that of the trainers. Allowing the group to make adjustments based on their needs and interests can increase their self–esteem and improve motivation. Plan activities according to the time of day – Each day has its high energy and low energy times. These are dependent on climate, culture, local tradition, the growing season, and related agricultural work. Complex cognitive information may be best taught during high energy times (often at the beginning of the day) when people are fresh. Afternoons are best for interesting, action-oriented sessions. In the evening, when people may be tired, slide shows or dramas may a better choice. Go from Easy to Complex – Start out with easily achievable goals and move to those which are less familiar or more difficult. Plan Activities Based on the Group’s Learning Styles and Always Provide Variety – Vary the small groups in which people work, the kinds of activities, and, when possible, the setting. This may be as simple as rearranging seats or taking the group on a “field trip”. Be aware of the group’s own unique pace. Some groups will like to do things more slowly than other groups. Some people learn best by hearing information, others by seeing visual representations of the information, still others by kinetic activity (using hands). Vary the techniques used so that each part of the learning cycle is addressed. Remember that five sessions of a role play can be just as boring as five lecture sessions. The more variety you can provide, the more interesting the learning will be.

What lessons do we learn as trainers? Learning should be designed to begin from the simple to the more complex. Make the participants feel at home. Work on the emotional and environmental aspects.

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Session 6A Handout

Writing and Analyzing Goals and Objectives
Definitions:
Goal a broad expression of a desired state or situation to be achieved or realized over a given period of time.

Objective a set of specific tasks that are carried out to realize the desired goal within a short period of time. The SMART principle in writing objectives and its application to training Specific Content should be specific Measurable There should be Observable behavior at end of training Achievable Content should be Appropriate to the participants Realistic Content should be Relevant to the participants’ needs Time bound FILL THIS IN!

Some action words that make objectives SMART: Discuss Identify List Review Illustrate Practice Outline Demonstrate Explain State Match Relate When writing an objective, ask yourself what “action word” you will be using to help you measure the observable behavior. Analyze the given objectives using the SMART principle 1. By the end of 2 days, participants will have appreciated the importance of using a mosquito net. 2. By the end of the session, participants will have discussed in depth and explained to others 2 different ways of peeling an orange. 3. By the end of the session, participants will have defined supervision and discussed the major components of supervision. 4. To build 4 classrooms in 3 sub counties of Nile District. 5. By the end of the session, participants will have learned how to set up a vegetable garden. 6. Participants will understand everything that is taught in the session.

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Examples of Objectives:
SMART Objectives By the end of the session participants will have: 1. Identified 5 basic criteria for a good objective;

Specific = identified basic criteria for a good objective Measurable = identified 5 basic criteria (by participants) Achievable (or realistic) = this can be accomplished within a session Relevant (or appropriate) = trainers need to know how to write and evaluate good objectives Time bound = by the end of the session

Objectives that are not SMART
The participant will understand everything that is taught in the session Understand – is not measurable (you cannot observe if someone understands) everything taught – is neither Specific nor Achievable It is not particularly time bound – in the session does not fully describe the time limit for the objective, although it does imply when and could pass as acceptable. By the end of the hour session, the participant will be able to demonstrate how to conduct a training needs assessment. While this is time-bound, Specific, Relevant and Measurable, it is not Achievable (or Realistic) in that a needs assessment cannot be conducted in one hour; therefore, the participant cannot demonstrate how to do it. To provide participants with the opportunity to explore a range of adult learning theories. This is a goal, not an objective.

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Session 6B Handout 1

SESSION PLAN FORMAT
Session ______: Goal: Objectives:
1. 2. 3. 4. By the end of the session participants will have: ___________________________________

Duration:
Time & Technique Activity Materials

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Session 6B Handout 2

TASK SHEET
For Groups, Individuals and Pairs
The following activities should be carried out in your small group within the next hour and 15 minutes: 1. Go into your content-related groups, and let everyone briefly review their idea for their session. Choose partners for peer editing. (5-10 min) Individually develop goals and objectives for the session topic you have chosen. (15 min) Partners share draft goals and objectives, peer-edit them and discuss the type of techniques they might try and use for their session. (20 min) Individuals draft a summary of their session showing the techniques they propose to use, the time they think it will take, and the materials they will need to produce. (15 min) Small groups meet to listen to each person’s brief outline of their proposed session, provide feedback on choice of technique and encourage them to think about questions to pose to the large group (plenary) about key concerns they have about each session. (10 min)

2.

3.

4.

5.

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Session 7A Handout 1

FEEDBACK OBSERVATION SHEET
Definition:
Feedback is a way of helping another person to understand the impact of his/her behavior on others by providing observational information on how he/she affects others. Directions: Use the observation guide below to check off the kind of feedback you see. Make notes on comments that you thought were particularly helpful or useless.

USEFUL FEEDBACK Specific Descriptive Directed towards changeable behavior

USELESS FEEDBACK General Judgmental Directed towards behavior which cannot be changed

Solicited /asked for Well timed Rephrased by receiver ( for clarity)

Imposed Too late Unclear communication

Accurate as confirmed by others

Unconfirmed /no agreement by others

Takes into account sender and receiver needs

Takes into account only sender needs.

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Session 7A Handout 2

ROLES FOR ROLE PLAY
Role 1:
Chief Administrative officer Nile District (CAO)

You are Chief Administrative Officer for the Nile District. You enter the office to find your DHAC coordinator standing around talking with the secretary and driver. You are a bit annoyed, since you recently were informed that he had been rude to one of the district councilors and had refused to apologize. Several other people have made similar complaints about him lately. You are quite upset and feel that the time has come to confront him and to let him know what kind of problems he is causing for you and the entire office. Since you were not present when these events occurred, you only have vague information about what really went on.

Role 2.

DHAC Focal Person

You are the DHAC Focal Person of Nile District. You have just returned from really difficult, but rewarding meeting in the field; you feel like you are finally making headway with that donor you have been working to persuade to fund your activities for the past month. All you can really think about is how, by getting them to agree to fund some HIV/AIDS services, you will have mitigated the impact of HIV/AIDS in your district. You are so proud of this that you are telling the secretary and the driver about it when the coordinator walks in and starts asking you about something that happened a week ago that you don’t even remember.

Role 3:

Secretary:

You are the Secretary in the DHAC office. You have been talking to the DHAC Focal Person about his recent triumph when the CAO walks in and yelling at him about his interactions with others. You don’t really know what they are talking about. You feel uncomfortable and would like to leave, but they are in your office, and you have work to do.

Role 4:

Driver to the Office

You are the driver for the office of the CAO for Nile District. You’ve been talking to the DHAC Focal Person about his recent triumph, when the CAO comes in and starts telling the DHAC what’s wrong with him. You don’t really know what they are talking about. You feel uncomfortable and would like to leave, but you are waiting to carry an important letter the secretary is completing.

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Session 7A Handout 3

GIVING AND RECEIVING FEEDBACK
Feedback is information shared with another person, which can help them to work better with others. As a trainer there are many occasions when it is important to share information with an instructor about how he/she teaches. One such time will be during the practice teaching sessions. The following outlines some characteristics of effective feedback. You should make sure that you understand these and help other trainers to follow them as they provide feedback and constructive criticism to their peers during practice training.

What is feedback?
Feedback is communication to a person (or group) that provides information on how his or her actions affect others. It is a way of helping another person to understand the impact of his/her behavior on others with the goal of helping him/her to improve his/her communications skills and his/her interactions with others.

How to give feedback
Be specific rather than general – try and give precise examples of what you observed. To be told that one is talkative will probably not be as useful as to be told that “just now when we were deciding on the issue, you talked so much I stopped listening”. Share information rather than giving advice – If you offer comments and opportunities for the receiver to see for themselves what they did, this will be much more effective that telling them how they should act. Be descriptive rather than judgmental – If you describe your own reactions to another behavior, it leaves the individual free to use the information or not as he/she sees it fit. By avoiding judgmental language, you reduce the need for the individual to respond defensively. Direct your comments towards behavior which the receiver can modify – Frustration is only increased when a person is reminded of his/her shortcomings, over which he/she has no control. Consider the needs of both the receiver and the giver of the feedback- Feedback can be destructive when it serves only our own needs and fails to consider the needs of the person on the receiving end. Feedback should be solicited rather than imposed – If the receiver can ask for and be open to feedback, he/she is much more likely to listen to it. If the receiver is not ready to hear the feedback then it is unlikely that he /she will use it.

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RECEIVING FEEDBACK
Feedback provides us with an opportunity to learn how other people view our actions. It will be easier to receive useful feedback if we keep the following in mind: Ask clarifying questions in order to understand the feedback Help the person providing feedback use the criteria for giving useful feedback (e.g. If feedback is too general, ask for specific examples, so that you can understand the meaning) Avoid making it more difficult for someone to give you feedback. Remember, it is often as hard for someone to give feedback, as it is to receive it. If you react defensively or angrily, they may give up, and you will lose valuable information and insight. Avoid explanations of “why I did that” unless asked. While all feedback is not necessarily useful, if two people give you similar feedback, it may be time to consider adjusting your behavior accordingly.

Facilitating Feedback Sessions during Practice Training
Feedback, especially during practice teaching sessions is the best facilitated by: 1. First, allowing the participant who facilitated the first mini- presentation to be the first one to comment on what they did and improvements they might have made. 2. Next, participants /observers comments on what they observed according to the principles of constructive feedback shown above. 3. Finally, any outside person (key facilitator) may add to (but not repeat points that others have not brought up taking care to present them, also in a positive and constructive manner. (note: summarizing the main points at the end is occasionally appropriate but not always necessary).

Application of the session to the training and supervision situation
As trainers you will be supervising service providers and required to provide feedback to them. Through peer support you will receive/ give feedback from/ to other trainers. When you are conducting the training solicit feedback from trainees.

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Session 7B Handout

AS TRAINER PREPARES TO CONDUCT TRAINING POINTS TO REMEMBER
For a trainer to have a successful training session, s/he needs to: Make objectives follow the SMART rubric Make session title specific Manage your time efficiently Encourage participants’ participation Make use of teaching aids where necessary Plan closely with your co- facilitator and share roles Be conscious of your body language Avoid use of jargon Give participants an opportunity to practice new knowledge and skills Use simple and clear language Ensure that objectives relate to the session goal Organize teaching materials well Respect participants’ views Tailor content toward the set objectives Design methodology and delivery plan to be relevant, appropriate to participant’s needs, and limited to set t ime Be sincere in dealing with the learning needs of participants. Train on a topic you are comfortable with. Use appropriate energizers Adequately prepare logistics, finances, training materials, venues, facilitators etc.

Some of the challenges trainers may find during a training programme are: Giving and receiving feedback from/to participants Managing of time Managing group dynamics(difficult personalities) For technical subjects, explaining some words in simple and lay man’s language Maintaining focus of the session Conducting training for people of higher cadre/educational status than your own. Training people with stronger cultural, social, or religious values than your own, especially if you would like a change in attitude or behavior. Developing clear objectives, goals and session tittles. What can a trainer do to Avoid some of these challenges:

PREPARE, PREPARE, PREPARE!!!!!

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Session 8 Handout

TYPES/PURPOSE OF EVALUATION
Type and Key question cards FORMATIVE EVALUATION Key question: How can we change the programme now? SUMMATIVE EVALUATION Key question: What should the programme be like next time Purpose To determine actionoriented changes that can be made during the training programme To find out whether goals, objectives, expectations have been met; whether methods were used appropriately; to provide an opportunity for participants to give feedback and suggestions for future training programmes To determine the longterm impact of a training programme Timing May be done daily, weekly, or at the end of a particular topic or session Takes place at the end of training programme or programme phase

IMPACT EVALUATION Key question: What difference did the programme make ? How is the information being use by participants?

Takes place some time after the training programme has been completed.

Definition: Evaluation: An assessment of a set of activities to achieve specified program objectives. What would you evaluate in a training program?
Objectives and goals Attendance and participation of participants Organization of the training Content Time Facilitators Methodology

Why evaluate
Goals and objectives -To measure the achievement of the training program Facilitators -To assess the strengths/weaknesses of a training

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Attendance -To gauge the level of understanding among participants -To assess participants progress for purposes of feedback to facilitators -To award participants Organization -To determine whether the environment was conducive to learning. -To plan for future planning Content -To determine the relevancy of the training to participants -To plan contents for future training Time -To know whether the time allocated was appropriate Methodology -To know whether methods were appropriate for the training -For future redesigning of the training

EVALUATION TECHNIQUES There are many ways a trainer can evaluate a training programme. These techniques may be used to evaluate the learners’ objectives, a single session, or an entire training programme. Brainstorming Visual aids Group discussions Interviews Jigsaw Demonstrations Micro teaching Role playing (fishbowl) Open ended, close ended questions Supportive supervision Observation of participants’ participation Practicals Guided imagery Physical continuum Daily evaluation forms Video clips Questionnaires Post test tests When choosing or considering techniques for evaluating a training programme, the following issues must be taken into account: Tools (formal vs informal) Focus (programme content, facilitation skills, training facilities, logistics, achievement of objectives) Timing (how much time do you have) Utility (how will the evaluation results be used) Resources (how much money do you have to carry out the evaluation? who is trained to do it?)

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ATTACHMENT 9A

Sample Content for Matching Cards
Consideration No card/ reference only Knowledge Needed Card A: What the person says Card B: The implication for training

I want to open a savings account, but when I went to the bank they gave me this form to complete, and I don’t understand it. Before participants can apply for a loan, they need to be able to complete a business plan. Perhaps the most challenging for our staff is that we expect them to be able to talk to and counsel the youth about a variety of items

Include a session on banking to practice filling in forms in a credit and savings training

Knowledge Trainer

Add “creating a business plan” to the training

Knowledge – Employer

Include feedback and counseling sessions with practice and role plays. Include content on issues important to youth (assess these directly with youth and staff.) Include a report-writing section in the project implementation training, but do not bother to include the financial management sessions anticipated (unless strongly requested by the community)

Knowledge Donor

The only thing we really require from the community is a quarterly report on the project’s progress – we help them do the accounting when we visit.

Knowledge Resource

I have worked in this field for 20 years, and I have noticed that people really need to learn about ORT if they are to combat diarrhea I have already had a course on basic bookkeeping, but we never had enough time to practice so I am not always sure I am doing it right

Include demonstration and practice of preparing Oral Rehydration Therapy using local ingredients and materials in your health training Design the training beginning with a quick review of basic bookkeeping principles through practice exercises. Continue to include practical exercises, and check with participants throughout the training Make sure the training has things that are truly needed and of interest to participants (or they might drop out and cause problems)

Existing Knowledge

Learner Motivation

I am required to complete this training before I can continue with my work.

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Consideration No card/ reference only Learning Style

Card A: What the person says

Card B: The implication for training

Even though everyone says I figure things out very quickly, I never did well in school – I could never follow the lectures and would get nervous during the tests

Make sure to include a lot of hands on, experiential and exploration techniques in the training

Time – How Much

I am able to be away from my work and family for a week, maybe two. Any more time and things begin to fall apart.

Try to keep the training between 5 and 8 days long.

Time - When

I generally work in the fields each morning, other than that I am flexible.

Plan the training for afternoon or evening hours

Language and Literacy Level

I can speak Kiswahili and some English, but I never really learned to read

Plan to conduct the training in Kiswahili translated materials, and avoid using techniques that require reading or writing in your design

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Training of Trainers Manual

Session 9 Handout

Session 9: Introduction to Training Needs Assessment
Definition of training needs assessment:
An assessment done to identify the problems/needs/interests of an individual /group /community, that can be strengthened or built through training. A training needs assessment is the first step in the performance improvement process. A need is a gap between “what is” and “what ought to be”. The needs assessment serves to identify the gaps and considers if the problem can be solved by training. The assessment is part of a planning process focused on identifying and solving performance problems.

Why do we carry out a TNA?
A training needs assessment helps trainers and supervisors identify knowledge gaps of the service providers. Carrying out a TNA helps trainers to define the content to be covered in a training. Once the content has been defined, the trainer sets the goals and objectives of the training. Carrying out a TNA helps to identify people that can benefit from a particular training. Without a TNA trainers may find themselves carrying out a training where participants may have nothing new to learn. This is a waste of money and time. The needs assessment process is an important first step in the development of a training program.

Who do we consult when carrying out a TNA?
A needs assessment provides an opportunity to consult a variety of people. The information collected, ideas generated, and the conversations that take place can help organizers to prepare a relevant training. Some of the people that can be talked to in a TNA include: Participants Facilitators Supervisors and employers of participants/others

How is the training gap identified?
Check on the actual performance of the serviceproviders against the existing standards or set new standards. There are two parts to this: Current situation: Determine the current skills, knowledge and abilities of the service providers Desired or necessary situation: Identify the desired or necessary conditions for personal success. This analysis focuses on the necessary standards, as well as the skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to accomplish these successfully.

Needs Assessment Techniques
There are many ways of gathering information about training needs. Below is a sample analysis of some of the techniques:

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INFORMATION GATHERING TECHNIQUES
1. Community Meetings
Description: Community meetings are gatherings of some or all members of a community. They provide a forum for local people to meet and discuss issues, to present information, or to decide on action to be taken. Meetings can take a variety of forms. They can have open agendas, allowing anyone to raise and discuss issues, they can be focused primarily on subcommittee reports, or they can allow “expert” speakers to address the community. The community meeting should be well publicized – through flyers, announcements, word of mouth, bulletin boards, and radio. Everyone who might want to attend should be contacted. The purpose of the meeting needs to be clear. If there are many topics to be discussed, or if the group is large, it is a good idea to have people meet in smaller sub groups for initial discussion, and then report their conclusion or suggestions to the larger group later. At the end of the meeting it is helpful to summarize the decisions thate have been made, and the plan of action.

Advantages:
Community meetings provide a forum for everyone to find out what is happening and to contribute to the process of sharing opinions and prioritizing needs They can be used at the planning stage, at the end of a project, or at any stage in between They often provide motivation for community participation and help to transfer ownership of and responsibility for the project to the community

Disadvantages
Meetings can be time consuming for adults, who have many responsibilities. There can be a tendency to stray from planned topics, leaving people with the feeling that no decisions were made, and the meeting was a waste of time People may have issues which are not directly related to the project at hand, which may manifest themselves in the group and be difficult to resolve in that context (see ‘itemized Response’ and ‘Nominal Group’ techniques for suggestions on focusing planning and decision making in a group meeting) Notes to the Facilitator: Community meetings, especially if they include or represent the people most affected by the project, can be a first step toward planning, distributing project tasks, and soliciting feedback about the project in general. They are also an appropriate way to introduce ‘outsiders’ to the group when necessary.

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2.

Key Consultants

Description: Some people as a result of their formal or informal standing in the community are privy to the needs of the group. Often, these key consultants are gatekeepers of information, and one must go through them to get certain kind of information. Village leaders, midwives, and teachers all qualify as potential key consultants. In certain situations even children may serve as key consultants by bringing school-learned information to the home, for example. Once the key consultants have been identified, many of the techniques described, such as interviews or community meetings, can be used to gather necessary information from them.

Advantages:
Consulting key individuals in the community is fast, simple way to get in

3.

Focus Group Discussions

Characteristics: Focus group discussions involve people with similar characteristics in a social interaction. The purpose of the focus group discussions is to collect information from a focused discussion. The moderator uses a topic guide to focus the discussion.

Advantages
Focus group discussion (FGD) is a socially-oriented, information-gathering procedure. People are social creatures, who interact with others. They are influenced by comments of others and make decisions after listening to the advice of people around them. Focus group discussions place people in real life situations. The format of the FGD allows the moderator to probe. This flexibility allows exploration of unanticipated issues. FGDs are relatively low in cost. FGDs provide speedy results. In emergency situations, skilled moderators have been able to conduct three or four discussions, analyze results, and prepare a report. Results of FGDs are presented in lay terminology, using quotations from participants, not fromstatistical charts.

Disadvantages
Groups are difficult to assemble. Moderators require special skills. The discussion must be conducted in a conducive environment Differences between groups can be troublesome.

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4. Questionnaires
Advantages
When using a questionnaire, it is possible to include a large number of respondents in more diverse locations, if it self administered and mailed. Questionnaires guarantee confidentiality and can elicit more truthful responses than interviews

Disadvantages
There is a possibility that people filling out the questionnaire may misunderstand the questions. Low completion and return rate The reliability of the results can be quite low

5. Interview
This involves the collection of information through formal verbal interaction between individuals; the collection of information takes place in person or over the phone.

Advantages
There is flexibility in using interviews as an information-gathering technique. Questions can be repeated and their meanings can be explained in the event that they are not understood. Personal contact during interviews increases the likelihood that the individual will participate and provide the necessary information.

Disadvantages
Interviews are time consuming They are expensive

6. Observation
Advantages
Generates data relevant to the work environment

Disadvantages
Employees’ behavior may be affected by being observed.

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Session 10 Handout 1

Supervision of service providers
What is supervision?
Supervision is a working alliance between a supervisor and a worker in which the worker can reflect on him/herself in her/his working situations; a worker gives an account of his/her work and receives feedback, and where appropriate, guidance and appraisal. The object of this alliance is to maximize the competence of the worker by providing a helping service. (Inskipp & B.Proctor)

The Components of Supervision

MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

EDUCATION AND TEACHING SUPPORT AND TEACHING

These components inter-relate to each other and often overlap

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Session 10 Handout 2

The Components of Supervision:
There are three main components to supervision: 1. Management and administration 2. Education and teaching 3. Support and enabling. These three components describe what supervision should include. Supervision is not just being supportive to the service providers. Supervision is about managing service providers/ employees in an appropriate way and teaching, training or coaching them. To take these components further:

Management and Administration
1. To ensure that the objectives of the agency or organization are met and the needs for each client are defined and met 2. To plan, distribute and use all of the resources effectively 3. To ensure that each member of the team and each service provider is clear about his/her role, responsibilities and accountability. 4. To monitor and evaluate how effectively the work is being done. 5. To develop a suitable climate and satisfactory conditions for quality service delivery. 6. To reduce stresses that may impair service delivery or stop the development of individual service providers.

Education and Teaching
1. To assist the professional development by Increasing and developing basic skills Developing new knowledge and skills Developing appropriate attitudes 2. To help service providers to develop awareness of how their personal characteristics/actions/ responses can affect relationships with clients and co- workers 3. To help service providers understand group work processes and the need for and value of team work

Support and Enabling
1. To recognize achievements and to give encouragement and praise 2. To help service providers use their mistakes as a basis for development and learning. 3. To help individual service providers to cope with pressure by recognizing the signs of stress (apathy, frustration etc), and to allow them to express negative feeling in “a safe” environment.

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How does supervisor know that supervisee is not performing effectively?
There are a number of ways a supervisor may learn that a supervisee is not performing effectively these may include: 1. Supervisee behavior includes: nervousness, rudeness, noisiness , coming late for work, dodging work, giving lots of excuses and being forgetful. 2. You observe a declining quality in supervisee’s work. 3. Having a conversation with the person, his/her peers and other supervisors. 4. Requesting and reading reports from other supervisors.

What you can do to help a service provider remain focused?
Provide guidance to service provider Provide appropriate training for example if the service provider is rude, train about interpersonal relations/communication. Consult the service provider on how s/he feels about his/her work. Find ways to motivate the service providers. Help the service provider deal with the challenges he/she is facing Provide a good working environment Team building. Let the service provider know that s/he is part of a team and can not do everything by him/herself. S/he can delegate. Give good/ sincere feedback. Regular supervision/monitoring

Lessons for trainers/supervisors
Help participants to know that there is room for delegation Help participants to focus/prioritize activities Trainers must complete follow-up for service providers following training, but at the back of your minds remember that the providers have other responsibilities As a supervisor you need to be aware of the factors that affect the supervisee’s performance.

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Session 10 Handout 3

Supervision of Service Providers
The Roles of a Nurse

Primary Roles

Secondary Roles

Additional Roles

Just like a nurse has multiple responsibilities, many service providers will have additional responsibilities at work.

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TRAINING OF TRAINERS

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M nra sfu Tl n e rn a o ia g T i

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