Characteristics used to describe drinking water quality Physical Associated with physical quality of water, its colour or turbidity

, temperature, taste and colour Chemical Chemical elements and compounds, reactions in water, hardness, Microbiological Important as it relates to public health Radiological Only important in areas where there is a possibility that water may come in contact with radioactive substances.

Physical Characteristics Turbidity Presence of suspended materials such as clay, silt, organic material, plankton . Unit of measure is TU (Turbidity Unit) or NTU (Nephlometric Turbidity Unit). Determined by reference to a chemical mixture that produces a reproducible

refraction of light. Turbidities in excess of 5 TU is detectable in a glass of water. Colour Dissolved organic material from decaying vegetation and certain inorganic matter produce colour. Or algal blooms or aquatic microorganisms may impart colour. May not be dangerous but is aesthetically not favourable. Taste and Odour May be caused by foreign matter such as organic compounds, inorganic salts, or dissolved gases. May come from domestic, agricultural or natural sources. Temperature Most desirable drinking water are normally cool. Groundwater and mountainous surface waters are normally cool. Temperature of 10-15 C as most palatable. Chemical Characteristics Chloride Most waters contain some chloride. In excess of 250 mg/L produce noticeable taste in water. Should contain less than 100 mg/L chloride.

Fluoride Some water may contain natural fluoride. Excessive amount may cause fluorosis of teeth. Acceptable level is 0.8 and 1.3 mg/L fluoride. Iron and Manganese Imparts brownish colour to lundered goods and affects the taste of coffee and tea. Lead Cumulative poison and may lead to health problems Sodium Affect people with heart, kidney or circulatory ailments. Home water softeners may add large amount of sodium to water. Sulfate May come from leaching of water containing sodium or magnesium sulphate. Cause laxative effect. Zink Found in areas where zink ore mining carried out. Not detrimental to health Impart undesirable taste Arsenic Lung and bladder cancer. Occurs naturally and also from timber treatment, pesticides and others.

Toxic inorganic Substances Includes Nitrates, Cyanides and heavy metals. Blue baby syndrome (methemoglobinemia) due to water high in nitrate. Cyanides (CN) ties up hemoglobin sites that bind oxygen to red blood cells.Cause blue skin colour. Called cyanosis. CN may also affect thyroid and central nervous system. Other heavy metals may cause acute or chronic disease. Toxic organic compounds Include pesticides, herbicides and various industrial chemicals. Over 120 chemicals have been listed. Microbiological Characteristics Water must be free from pathogens which include viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminthes (worms). May originate from fecal discharge from human or other animals. Most widely used tests estimate the number of bacteria in coliform group which include Escherichia coli and Aerobacter aerogenes.

Potential carcinogens and reproductive effects. Choroform is most prevalent. The test for these microorganisms are called total coliform test. Two common protozoa: Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. One class of DBP is THM (trihalomethanes). Water Classification and Treatment Systems . These pathogens are carried by wild animals and farm animals. THM are formed when water containing organic precursor is chlorinated. bromodichloromethane and bromoform. Disinfectants and Disinfectant ByProducts (D-DBPs) Disinfectants and the byproducts of the reaction of these disinfectants are of heath concern. Precursor is an organic compound formed from decay of vegetative matter such as leaves and aquatic organisms. Giardia and viruses can be effectively inactivated by chlorine but cryptosporidium is resistant to chlorine. THMs : chloroform.E coli is common in intestinal tract while aerobacter is common in soil. Cryrpto can be disinfected by Ozone or UV light.

Surface water usually contaminated by bacteria.Classified according to its source groundwater or surface water. viruses or inorganic substances. Fe. Table 4. Groundwater normally uncontaminated but may contain undersirable impurities. Mn Characteristics of Surface water Varying compositions Low mineralization High turbidity Colour Dissolved oxygen Low Hardness Tastes and Odours Possible chemical toxicity .12 Characteristics of Groundwater Constant composition High mineralization Little turbidity Low or no colour Bacteriologically save No dissolved oxygen High hardness H2S.

filtration and disinfection are used to . Deepwell source do not contain pollutants but may contain high manganese. flocculation. sulfates and carbonate. River water has lowest quality and the reservoir highest. reservoir or river. Algal blooms may create taste and odour problem Treatment System Simple disinfection Filter plants Softening plants Or combinations of these Groundwater source require simple chlorination Filtration plant is used for surface water and if necessary softening is used for groundwater source.Groundwater – further classified as deep or shallow wells. Reservoir and lake water have less variation daily. magnesium and chloride. Surface water may come from lake. sedimentation. Shallow wells are recharged by a nearby watercourse therefore they may take the characteristics of the surface recharge water. A filtration plant rapid mixing.

or coarse screen. The chemical react with the impurities and form precipitates and slowly brought into contact during flocculation. coagulants are added and rapidly dispersed through the water. Additional operations may include bar racks. Objective of flocculation is is to allow the flocs to collide and grow to a settleable size. This is done to minimize the amount of solids applied to the filters. taste and odours. During filtration water is passed through sand or other media to screen out the fine partiecles that did not settle earlier. With high quality raw water it may be possible to omit flocculation and coagulation.. turbidity. organic matter and bacteria. Followed by screening and pumping During filtration. . Disinfection is the addition of chemicals chlorine to kill pathogens .remove colour. The particles are then removed by gravity. Figure 4-8 Raw water enters the plant via pumps or gravity.

soil particles and colour.Disinfection must be done after filtration because colour and turbidity may consume disinfectant and prevent pathogen destruction. Softening plants use the same unit operations as filtration plants but use different chemicals. Particles in colloidal range are too small to settle in a reasonable time period and too small to be trapped in the pores of the filter. The object of coagulation is to turn small particles of colour. It is a method to alter the colloids so that they will be able to approach and adhere to each other to form larger flocs. Coagulation refers to removal of colloidal particles. viruses. Recarbonation is done in softening plant to adjust the final Coagulation Filtration alone will not produce clear water because filtration is ineffective in removing bacteria. turbidity and bacteria into larger flocs. Why colloids are suspended in solution and cant be removed by sedimentation or filtration. The function of a softening plant is to remove hardness (calcium and magnesium). .

These charges can be measured by placing DC electrodes in a colloidal suspension. The charge must be neutralized to destabilize the particles. .Colloids are stable also because they possess negative charge that repels each other. The particles migrate to the pole of the opposite charge at a rate proportional to the potential gradient. Particles are continuously in motion called Brownian movement. The larger the surface charge the more stable the suspension. This is done by the addition of an ion of opposite charge to the colloid for exp Na + ions. The higher the concentration of the sodium ions the lower the charge on the colloids.

I mole of trivalent ion can remove the charge as much as 30 to 50 moles of a divalent ion and so on. The substance that is added to the water to accomplish coagulation is called coagulant. Three important properties of coagulants: 1. During coagulation a positive ion is added to water to reduce the surface charge to the point where the colloids are not repelled from each other. Since colloids found in water are negatively charged. a cation is required to neutralize the charge. divalent or trivalent ion can be added. . A trivalent cation is the most efficient cation. A trivalent cation.Instead of monovalent ion.

It must be insoluble in the neutral range.2. It must precipitate out of solution so that high concentration of the ion are not left in the water. Adequate coagulation between 5 to 8. Two most commonly used coagulants are Al 3+ and ferric ion Fe 3+ . Aluminium can purchased as liquid or dry alum as Al2(SO4)3. It must be non toxic 3.5 to 6.5 .14H2O Most important factors in coagulant addition are pH and dose. . The optimum dose and pH must be determined from laboratory test. Optimum pH range for alum is approximately 5.

Lime. clay and polymers. Activated silica can unite with aluminium or iron flocs resulting in larger denser floc that settles faster. Acids and bases are used to adjust the pH into optimal range. Optimum pH range is 4 to 9. Especially useful for removing highly colored low turbidity waters because it adds weight to the floc . soda ash and sulphuric acids are commonly used for altering the pH.Iron Can be purchase as sulfate salt Fe2(SO4) 3 or the chloride salt. activated silica. Coagulant Aids Consists of pH adjusters.

water heaters and so on. Polymers can have a negative charge or positive charge. This process is called interparticle bridging. and positive and negative charge (polyamphotype) or no charge (nonionic). white. SOFTENING HARDNESS Water does not lather well. crusty deposits on pots. Polymers are long chain compounds of high molecular weight that have many active sites The sites adhere to flocs joining them and producing larger tougher floc and settles better.Clay can act as activated silica . causes a scum in the bath tub and leaves hard. .

. Ca 2+ + soap → CaSoap As a result soap does not interact with dirt and the calcium soap complex forms precipitates.This is due to reactions of calcium and magnesium with soap. Goal of water treatment is to provide water with a hardness in the range of 75 to 120 mg/L as CaCO3. All polyvalent cations contribute to hardness but the predominant contributors are calcium and magnesium. Hardness is defined as the sum of all polyvalent cations expressed as CaCO3 or meq/L. Total hardness (TH) is the sum of Ca2+ and Mg2+.

More expensive to remove noncarbonated hardness than carbonate hardness because we must provide the CO3 2.3. the pH must be raise to about 11. .Lime Soda Softening Hardness precipitation is based on the following solubility reactions Ca2+ + CO3 2. To precipitate Mg.ions. Magnesium more expensive to remove than calcium so Mg2+ is left in water as much as possible. To precipitate CaCO3 the pH must be raised to above 10.→ CaCO3 (s) Mg2+ + 2OH→ Mg(OH)2 (s) The objective is to remove calcium as CaCO3 and the magnesium as Mg(OH)2.

2 3 Then pH is raised to precipitate the CaCO3. Or CaO is mixed with water to produce Ca(OH)2 which is fed to the water for softening. The softening reactions are regulated by controlling the pH. More lime is added to achieve pH carbonate by adding hydroxyl ions. 4 Finally CO32.and OH. Common source of hydroxyl ion is the calcium hydroxide.So non carbonate hardness is left in the added to precipitate noncarbonate hardness. 1 Free acids is first neutralized. Convert HCO3. If necessary the pH is raised further to remove Mg(OH)2. The chemical process used to soften water are a direct application of law of mass action. The concentration of increased by the addition of chemicals to drive the reaction to the right. .

Water containing hardness is passed through a column containing the ion exchange material.Ion Exchange Softening Defined as the reversible interchange of ions between a solid and a liquid phase in which there is no permanent change in the structure of the solid. The hardness in the water exchanges with an ion from the ion exchange material usually sodium One ion of Mg or Ca is exchanged for two sodium ions. 100 percent removal can be achieved until the ion exchange capacity of the material is reached. This point is called breakthrough point .

Aluminium hydroxide or iron hydroxide form during coagulation while calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide from during .Column is then taken out for regeneration. MIXING AND FLOCCULATION Rapid Mixing Physical Method to achieve coagulation and softening. During coagulation and softening the chemical rxns form precipitates. Can be done by passing water containing large amount of Na+ though the column. The chemical must be rapidly dispersed in the water. Mixing or rapid mixing is the process whereby the chemicals are quickly and uniformly dispersed in the water.

therefore it is important that mixing be as instantaneous as possible. Flocculation .softening. This contacting process is called flocculation and is accomplished by slow gentle mixing. Rapid Mix The chemical reaction in coagulation is completed in less than 0. The precipitates formed must be brought into contact so they can agglomerate to form flocs. During coagulation and softening the chemical reaction that takes place form precipitates.1 s.

Sedimentation Sedimentation Basin (Clarifier) Rectangular or circular with radial or upward flow pattern .While rapid mix is the most important part of coagulation efficiency. stick together and grow to a size that will settle readily. The objective of flocculation is to bring the particles into contact so that they will collide. Enough mixing must be provided to bring the floc into contact and keep the floc from settling in the flocculating basins. Too much mixing will shear the floc particles and make it small and dispersed. flocculation is the most important part affecting particle removal efficiency.

If inlet zone is not properly designed the inlet velocities may never subside to settling zone design velocity.Divided into 4 zones Inlet Settling Outlet and sludge storage. Purpose of inlet zone : evenly distribute the flow and suspended particles Inlet zone consist of a series of pipes and baffles placed 1 m into the tank extending to the full length of the tank When velocity slowed down to the design velocity of the sedimentation zone. . the settling zone begins.

m2 In sedimentation basin velocity is slow In outlet zone water will be channel to a pipe or small channel for transport which causes high velocity.Sludge zone design depends on the method of cleaning and frequency of cleaning and the quantity of sludge estimated to be produced. . V = Q/Ac V = water velocity. Outlet zone is designed to remove settled water from sedimentation basin without carrying the floc particles. m /s Ac = cross sectional area. m/s 3 Q = water flow. With good inlet and well flocculated solid 75 percent of solids settle in first fifth of the tank.

day. Typical overflow rate of 20 m3/m2. . Example Problem For Sedimentation Tank Design Determine the surface area of a settling tank using 0.d Detention time 95 minutes.5 m3/s design flow with design overflow of 32. Therefore a series of troughs or weirs are placed that provide large areas for water flow and minimize velocity of water near the outlet.If pipe placed at end of sedimentation basin all water would rush to the pipe and this will lead to scouring (floc washout). the weirs then feed into a central channel or pipe for transport of water.5 m3/m2.

3 . FILTRATION Water leaving sedimentation tank still contains suspended particles with NTU 1 to 10 NTU Filtration is carried out to reduce NTU to 0.Common length to width ratio of between 2:1 and 5:1. Assume use 2 tanks. (ᶱ= V/Q . Find the depth and the surface area. Water filtration is a process for separating suspended or colloidal impurities from water by . v = Q/A).

Loading rate is the flow of water applied per unit area of the filter. rapid sand filters or high rate sand . coal. sand and garnet). Another common way of classifying the filters is by allowable loading rates. Based on loading rates. Water pass through the pores while impurities are left behind.passing through a porous medium usually a bed of sand or other medium. Medium used sand. the filters are described as slow sand filters. dual media (coal plus sand) or mixed (coal.

6 m3/d.filters. After the pores are clogged the pore water no longer passes through the sand. Water is applied to the sand at a loading rate of 2.m2.9 to 7. Require large area and operator intensive. cleaned and replaced. At this point the top layer of sand is scrapped off. The sand grain distribution is selected to optimise . Slow sand filter is introduced in the 1800s. Rapid Sand Filters Have graded sand within the bed.

. Resulting in a fine soil layer on top and coarse sand layer at the bottom. With proper media selection even higher loading rates can be used. The largest particle settles first.m2.the passage of water while minimizing the particulate water. Typical rapid sand filters designed to operate at a loading rates of 120 m3/d. Rapid sand filters are cleaned by back washing Sand is expanded and filtered particles are removed. After backwashing sand particles settle back into place.

Coal has lower specific gravity than sand so after backwash it settle slower than sand and ends up on top. In rapid sand filter the fine sand particle is on top hence smaller pore spaces are on top. In order to use more of the filter depth it is necessary to have larger particles on top. Most particles will clog in the top layer. Accomplished by using a layer of coarse coal on top of the fine sand particles. . It is designed to use more filter depth.Dual media filters were developed in early 40s. Refer to Figure 4-43 and 4-44.

Chlorine Reactions in Water Chlorine is most important disinfectant chemical used. virus and amebic cysts. .DISINFECTION Not the same of sterilization because sterilization implies complete destruction of microorganism but drinking water is not sterile. Used to reduce pathogens to an acceptable level. Pathogens of humans consists 3 groups: bacteria .

and calcium hypochlorite [(Ca(OCl)2]. a mixture of hypochlorous acid ( HOCl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) is formed Reaction is pH dependant and becomes complete in matter of milliseconds. The equilibrium is shifted to the right and very little Cl2 exists in solution. Hypochlorous acid is weak acid and dissociates . In dilute solutions and in pH levels above 1. When Chorine is added o water. sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl).Used in the form of Cl2.

(hypochlorite ions).5 hypochlorous acid dissociate into H+ and defined as free available chlorine. Chlorine existing as HOCl and OCl. . above pH 7. Below pH 1 HOCl reverts back to Cl2 At 20 C. Chlorine exists as HOCl at pH between 4 and 6.5 and at 0 C above pH 7.poorly at pH below 6.8 hypochlorite ion (OCl-) predominate Hypolorite ions exists almost exclusively at levels of pH around 9 and above. At pH 6 and 8.

Hypochlorite ions again establish equilibrium with hydrogen ions depending on pH. Chlorine/Ammonia Reactions When water is added to water containg ammonia.The oxidizing power of FAC is dependent on pH because of ratio of HOCL:OCl. Chlorine that exists in water in combination with ammonia or organic nitrogen compounds is defiend . It reacts with HOCl to form chloramines which retain the oxidizing power of chlorine. Hypochlorite salts dissociatein water to yiled hypochlorite ions. Chlorine also reacts with organic nitrogenous compounds to form chloramines complex.

Free residual chlorination involves the application of chlorine to produce a free available chlorine residual and to maintain the residual through part or all of a water treatment plant or distribution system. If water contains ammonia that results in the . If water contains no ammonia the application of chlrine will yield free combined available chlorine. Free available chlorine forms have higher oxidation potential than combined available chlorine forms. The disinfecting ability of chloramines is much lower than free available chlorine.

it must be destroyed by adding an excess of chlorine.formation of combined available chlorine. The same active chlorine species and equilibrium . NaOCl Hypochlorite salts dissociate in water to yield hypochlorite ions and this ion establish equilibrium with hydrogen ions .

Elemental chlorine tends to decrease the pH while the hypochlorite salts contain excess alkali and tend to raise the pH.5 to optimize disinfecting action. the ammonia reacts with HOCl to form various chloramines which retain the .5 to 7. The pH should be maintained at 6.are established regardless of whether elemental chlorine or hypochlorite ions are used. Chlorine/Ammonia Reaction When chlorine is added to water that contains natural or added ammonia.

Chlorine also reacts with organic nitrogenous compounds to form organic chloramines complex. a combined available chlorine residual and to maintain that . Combined Residual Chlorination Involves the application of chlorine to water that contains natural or added ammonia. Chlorine that exists in water in chemical combination with ammonia or organic nitrogen compounds is defined as combined available chlorine.oxidizing power of chlorine.

residual through part or all of a water treatment plant or distribution system. Reduced more slowly and persists for a longer time in the distribution system. . It has the advantage over free residual chlorine because it is reduced more slowly and therefore persists for a longer time Combined residual chlorine has a lower oxidation potentials than free available chlorine and therefore less effective as oxidants and as disinfectants. It is used for controlling algae and bacteria growth and for providing a stable residual throughout the system to the point of consumer use.

Free Residual Chlorine Involves the application of chlorine to water to produce the destruction of ammonia. Free residual chlorine have higher oxidation potentials than combined available chlorine and therefore more effective as oxidants. . a free available chlorine residual and to maintain that residual through part or all of a water treatment plant or distribution systems. Chlorine Dioxide Very strong oxidant.

Advantage of chlorine dioxide over chlorine is that chlorine does not react with precursors to form DBPs. But chlrien dioxide may result in formation of chlorita nd chlorate which is assocaied with health . Chlorine dioxide does not maintain a residual long enough to be useful as a distribution system disinfectant.Formed on site by combining chlorine and sodium chlorite. Often used as a primary disinfectant followed by the use of chloramines as a distribution system disinfectant.

Usually generated at point of use using discharge electrode. A form of oxygen in which three atoms of oxygen are combined to form O3. . Oxygen in air is dissociated by the impact of electrons from the discharge electrode. Ozonation Pungent smelling unstable gas. The atomic oxygen then combines with atmospheric oxygen to form ozone in the following reactions. O + O2 > O3 Ozone air mixture is then diffused into the water to be disinfected.risks.

Ultraviolet Radiation Light photons with wavelengths longer than 1000 . Primary disinfection then followed by chloramine addition as distribution system disinfection. However ozone does not persist in water since it converts back into oxygen in minutes. even more than chlorine in destroying virus and cysts. Added advantage: Does not form THMs or chlorinated DBPs.Powerful oxidant.

.UVA causes changes that lead to tanning.UVB can cause skin burning and can induce skin cancer . UV light disinfect water by rendering pathogenic organisms incapable of reproducing – by disrupting the genetic material in the cell.UVC extremely dangerous since it is absorbed by proteins and can lead to cell mutations.nm have small photon energy and will not cause damage when absorbed but light with wavelength shorter than 100 nm gave high energy that ionization and molecular disruption occurs. UltraViolet Range: Divided into 3 categories .

Inactivation by UV is related to UV dose D = It D = UV dose . But since it cannot reproduce it cannot cause infection.7 nm. If too much UV light is absorbed by DNA it will be damaged and unable to replicate. Amount of energy required to destroy DNA is much less than that required to destroy the organism. Cell DNA absorb UV light most strongly at 253.Cell DNA absorb light in range of 200 nm and 300 nm.

s. turbidity. and suspended solids can shield pathogens from UV light or scatter UV light and prevent light from reaching target organism. Recommended that UV system be installed downstream of filtration unit.I = average intensity mW/cm2 t = average exposure time. ADSORPTION Mass transfer process where a substance is transferred from the liquid phase to the surface of . Major factor affecting performance of UV disinfection is the influence of water quality Particles.

.the solid where it is bound by chemical or physical forces. Generally in water treatment the adsorbent is activated carbon either as granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon. Used to remove taste and odour causing substances or synthetic organic chemicals. Membranes Thin layer of material that is capable of separating materials as a function of their physical and chemical properties when a driving force is applied across the membrane.

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