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Code: 9A01503 III B. Tech I Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, November 2011 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING I (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** How do you measure precipitation? (a) Explain Penmans equation. (b) Explain Blaney Criddle formula. (a) Explain area-velocity method of discharge measurement. (b) Explain electromagnetic method of stream flow measurement.

Max Marks: 70

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(a) What is a Unit Hydrograph? List the assumptions involved in the unit hydrograph theory. (b) Given below are the ordinates of a 6-h unit hydrograph for a catchment. Calculate the ordinates of the DRH due to a rainfall excess of 3.5cm occurring in 6 hr. Col(1) 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 69 Col(2) 0 25 50 85 125 160 185 160 110 60 36 25 16 8 0 Here Col(1) indicates Time(h) And Col (2) indicates U.H ordinates in m3 /s. (a) Explain the method for the determination of the transmissibility of a confined aquifer from the steady flow equations. (b) A tube well having a diameter of 15cm fully penetrates a confined aquifer of thickness 10m.The discharge from the well at a drawdown of 8m is 80 lps. Determine the coefficient of permeability and the transmissibility of the aquifer. Take the radius of influence as 300m. (a) Define irrigation. (b) Enumerate and explain the factors which necessitate irrigation. (c) What do you understand by total planning concept of irrigation project? (a) The root zone of a certain soil has a field capacity of 25% and permanent wilting percentage is 8%. (i) What is the depth of moisture in the root zone at field capacity and permanent wilting point? (ii) How much water is available if the root zone depth is 1.1m?The dry weight of the soil is 13.75 kN/m3. (b) Explain how frequency of irrigation is determined. (a) What are the different types of canals? Explain with neat sketch. (b) For a channel discharge Q, rugosity coefficient N, critical velocity ratio m and bed width ratio B/D are given. Explain how would you design the channel using Kennedys theory. *****

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Code: 9A01503 III B. Tech I Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, November 2011 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING I (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70

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Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** List the various methods of streamflow measurement and explain any two in detail. (a) Explain Weighing-Bucket type rain gauge. (b) Explain natural siphon type rain gauge. (a) Explain briefly infiltration capacity, -index and w-index. (b) Explain Penmans Equation.

(a) Explain a procedure of deriving a D-h UH from the IUH of the catahment. (b) Given below are the ordinates of a 6-h unit hydrograph for a catchment. Calculate the ordinates of the DRH due to a rainfall excess of 3.5cm occurring in 6 hr. Col(1) 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 69 Col(2) 0 25 50 85 125 160 185 160 110 60

## Here Col(1) indicates Time(h) And Col (2) indicates m3 /s. 5

(a) Define porosity, specific yield and specific retention and obtain a relation between them. (b) A 300mm diameter well penetrates 25m below the static water-table. After 24 hours of pumping at 6000 liters/minute, the water table in a test well at 90m is lowered by 0.53mand in a well 30m away the drawdown is 1.11m. What is the transmissibility of the aquifer? (a) Describe quality of Irrigation water and also Standards for irrigation water. (b) Describe briefly the various soil groups of India. (a) How would you improve duty? (b) Find the delta of a crop if duty is 900 ha/cumecs and the base period is 120 days. Derive the equation used in solving the problem. (a) Explain the terms: (i) bed load; (ii) suspended load; (iii) critical tractive force. (b) Design an irrigation canal to carry a discharge of 10 cumec. Assue N = 0.225, m = 1.0 and (B/D) = 3.5. *****

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Code: 9A01503 III B. Tech I Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, November 2011 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING I (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** (a) What are different types of buried membrane lining? Describe. (b) Design a channel using Lacey's theory to carry a discharge of 100cumecs. Assume silt factor of 1.0. (a) Discuss optimum utilization of irrigation water. Also discuss irrigation efficiencies. (b) An area of 1 ha was irrigated in 10 hours with a stream of 30 lit/sec. Depth of root zone was 1m and available moisture holding capacity 16 cm/m. Irrigation was given when 50% of available moisture was depleted water application efficiency was 60%. Determine the water storage efficiency. (a) Water resources development encompasses many scientific and engineering disciplines. Discuss. (b) Justifying the need of irrigation in India, describe its development in the country. (a) What are the advantages of ground water compared to surface water? Also explain the occurrence of ground water. (b) In a recuperation test on an open well, the water level was depressed by 4m and it was observed to rise by 2.5 m in 90 minutes. What is the specific capacity of the well? What would be the yield from the well under a depression head of 3m, if the diameter of the well is 7.5 m? (a) List out the various terms associated with hydrologic cycle. (b) Explain any one method with which you can find the average precipitation over a basin. (a) Explain energy-balance method. (b) Explain Blaney Criddle formula. (a) How do you separate base flow from direct runoff? (b) Explain Ultrasonic method of stream flow measurement. (a) Describe briefly the procedure of preparing a D-hr Unit hydrograph for a catchment. (b) Explain a procedure of deriving a D-h UH from the IUH of the catahment. *****

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Code: 9A01503 III B. Tech I Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, November 2011 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING I (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** (a) Explain natural siphon type rain gauge. (b) Also explain Isohyetal method. Explain the various factors which affect evaporation. (a) How do you separate base flow from direct runoff? (b) Explain area-velocity method of discharge measurement.

Max Marks: 70

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(a) Describe briefly the procedure of preparing a D-hr unit hydrograph for a catchment. (b) Given below are the ordinates of a 4-h unit hydrograph. Derive the ordinates of a 12-h unit hydrograph for the same catchment. Col(1) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 Col(2) 0 20 80 130 150 130 90 52

## Here Col(1) indicates Time(h) And Col (2) is in m3 /s. 5

(a) Show with the help of sketches, various types of wells. (b) Explain the terms storage coefficient and coefficient of transmissibility. (c) State and discuss assumptions and limitations of Dupuits theory. (a) Describe in detail sprinkler method of irrigation. Indicate the advantages and limitations of this method. (b) Discuss briefly the history of irrigation engineering in India. (a) What is consumptive use of water? Describe any two methods for determining the consumptive use of water. (b) What is the soil water tension? Distinguish between the soil water tension and soil water stress. (a) What are the merits and demerits of canal lining? Explain the economics of canal lining. (b) The slope of a channel in alluvial soil is 1/5900. Find the channel section and the maximum discharge which can be allowed to flow in it. Take Laceys silt factor f =1. The channel is of trapezoidal section, having side slopes : 1.

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