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## Perfecta Combinacin entre Energa e Intelecto

PRACTICA No. 3
NON-IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS
LUIS CONTRERAS PEREZ, ANDRES MAURICIO JACOME GARCIA, MARCO AURELIO NARVAEZ SILGADO Submitted to: ING. DIANA FAJARDO
SUMMARY
The practice is based on the importance of the op amp, its uses and features that have each of them, with the help of the function generator, oscilloscope and power generation. The op amp used in this practice is the UA741 which is one of the most used to develop this kind of experiments. range and the breadth and width of the sweep can be controlled by the user

OBJETIVES
In all the experiments with op amps up to this point, it was assumed that no current enters the input terminals and the output voltage is exactly zero when V+ = V-. This experiments deals with the real situation; you will measure how much error is incurred by making these approximations. PROCEDURE

## Keywords: oscilloscope, signal generator, frequency,

period, CA and CD.

INTRODUCCTION
An operational amplifier ("op-amp") is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential  input and, usually, a single-ended output. An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically hundreds of thousands times larger than the voltage difference  between its input terminals. Operational amplifiers are important building blocks for a wide range of electronic circuits. They had their origins in analog computers where they were used in many linear, non-linear and frequency-dependent circuits. Their popularity in circuit design largely stems from the fact that characteristics of the final elements (such as their gain) are set by external components with little dependence on temperature changes and manufacturing variations in the op-amp itself.

A.

Input Offset Voltage. Build the circuit of Fig. 3-4. Choose the resistor ratio RF/R1 to give a measurable output voltage in response to the input offset voltage. You can estimate the value of VIO from the manufacturers data sheet for your op amp. Be sure that your closed-loop gain is much less than the open-loop gain of the op amp. If it is not, them the output will be saturated. Compare the data sheet value of VIO with your value calculated from the output voltage.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Oscilloscope: is an electronic measuring instrument for the graphic representation of electrical signals that vary over time. Signal generator: is an electronic device which produces sine waves, square, triangular, and create TTL signals. Applications include testing and calibration of audio systems, ultrasonic and servo.
This function generator, specifically working on a range of frequencies from 0.2 Hz to 2 MHz also has a scan function which can be controlled both internally and externally with a DC level. The machine cycle, the level of DC offset, sweep

Fig. 3-4

## R1= 1.94k RF= 9.67k V+=V- = 15_V VOUT = 15.1_V

ESCUELA DE INGENIERAS ELCTRICA, ELECTRNICA Y DE TELECOMUNICACIONES

Perfecta Combinacin entre Energa e Intelecto resistor. Although the nulling procedure is different types of op amp, many follow the procedure given below for the LM741. When in doubt, must consult the manufactures data sheet for a given op amp type. The offset terminals for the LM741 are shown in Appendix C. VOS= 2.523 _V B. Input Bias Current. Build the circuit of Fig. 3-2, using a value for RF large enough to give a measurable output voltage due to the bias current. Remember that there will also be an output due to VIO, but it will be small because this is a unity-gain amplifier with respect to VIO. Calculate I from your measurement and compare it with the data-sheet value. Note that the data sheet gives a value for IBIAS, which is the mean of I+ and I-. Build the non-inverting amplifier shown in Fig. 3-5, and set the input voltage to zero by grounding the input node.

Fig. 3-5 RF= 1M R1= 9.64k +Vcc = -Vcc= 15_V VOUT= 0_V

## Ra= 1.7 Rb= 10.81k Potentiometer is chosen 10.82k.

The output voltage due to the combined effects of offset voltage and bias current is a random quantity; it might even be zero in a particular circuit the two effects happen to cancel each other. Many op amps provide and additional pair of offset null terminals that allow the designer to cancel out the unwanted output voltage by applying an external voltage via an external

D.

Slew Rate Build the unity-gain follower of Fig. 3-6, using +15 y -15 power supplies, and set the input source to a 100-Hz square wave with 10-V p-p amplitude. AT this amplitude the output will not saturate. Gradually increase the frequency of the input

ESCUELA DE INGENIERAS ELCTRICA, ELECTRNICA Y DE TELECOMUNICACIONES

Perfecta Combinacin entre Energa e Intelecto square wave until the output ceases to look like a square wave on the scope trace; at this point it is slew-rate limited. If a Polaroid camera is available, position the trace in the upper half of the scope screen and photograph it. Do not develop the photograph yet. Your goal is to obtain two scope traces on the same print. Now, without changing the input signal frequency, switch to a 10-V p-p sine wave Position the trace of VOUT in the lower half of the screen and take a second exposure. Paste the photograph in your notebook, and label the two traces. If a camera is not available, then sketch the two waveforms in your notebook as carefully as you can. Finally, switch the generator back to a square wave, and increase the frequency until the output looks like a triangular wave. The op amp is now strongly slew-rate limited. Measure the slew rate directly from the slope of the waveform, and compare it with the given in the data sheet for the op amp. With F= 225-kHz

With F=22.67-kHz