La Trobe University, MELBOURNE

Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery in Pakistan:

Professor Carole J. Petersen

Whenever I hear anyone arguing for slavery, I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally. (Abraham Lincoln)


Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan


Out Line  Introduction:    Pakistan:

Forced Labour in Pakistan: References:

Efforts to eradicate Bonded or

The Dynamics of Bonded labour in

Situation in Pakistan:


gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2008/105376. employment. A wide range of estimates exists on the scope and magnitude of modern day slavery.STUDENT ID INTRODUCTION: Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 Bonded labour. and sexual servitude at any given time.are made from people trafficked and forced to work in industrialized countries. other estimates range from 4 million to 27 million. 29) and Abolition of Forced Labour Convention. 1930 (No. 29) defines the forced labour as under.state. 1930 (No.6 billion from trafficked victims.”(www. of which US$ 31. With the ratification of these ILO Conventions Government of Pakistan undertook to suppress and not to make use of any form of forced or compulsory labour-3|Page . The largest profits . it is estimated that global profits made from forced labourers exploited by private enterprises or agents reach US$ 44. For the purposes of this Convention the term forced or compulsory labour shall mean all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily. is probably one of the least known forms of slavery today but responsible for enslaving millions of people around the world and especially thousands of people in Pakistan. bonded labor.more than US$ 15 billion . forced child labor. The International Labor Organization (ILO)---the United Nations agency with addressing labor standards. 1957 in 1957 and 1960 respectively. Article 2 of Forced Labour Convention.htm) According to ILO study published in 2005 and conducted by Patrick Belser for his working paper titled as “Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits”. also known as debt bondage. and social protection issues estimates that there are 12.3 billion every year. Pakistan ratified the Forced Labour Convention.3 million people in forced labor.

A slave is treated as less than human. but the huge human trafficking around the world. • (b) as a method of mobilizing and using labour for purposes of economic development. social or economic system. They may be subject to the use of force and coercion which can be direct or psychological.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 • (a) as a means of political coercion or education or as a punishment for holding or expressing political views or views ideologically opposed to the established political. expendable labour. or both. and forced and bonded labor proves otherwise. The quantum of the issue of bonded labor in the country cannot be precisely assessed as no survey has been conducted so far by 4|Page . Freedom is a fundamental and non-negotiable right of a human being. They may experience labor exploitation. national or religious discrimination. The twenty-first century slaves undergo various agonies. Labor exploitation may include forced labor or debt bondage. Bonded labour is expanding due to poverty and the global demand for sources of cheap. • • • (c) as a means of labour discipline. sexual abuse. (e) as a means of racial. But as we will discuss further in this paper that the ground reality is totally different. (d) as a punishment for having participated in strikes. Pakistan has a population of over 175 million. It could be within the industry or at private homes. Slavery was supposedly banished to the confines of history. social. SITUATION IN PAKISTAN As for the theory part the Government of Pakistan has taken every possibly step to ensure that the Pakistan follows the principles established by these Conventions.

html) Bonded/Forced labour. The value of their work is invariably greater than the original sum borrowed. periodic crop failures.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 the government. A child is considered bonded labour when he/she “inherits” debt. is a means of paying off loans with direct labor instead of currency or goods. leave workers. indicating that the problem was far from solved. frequent sickness.8 million people one percent of the population are bonded laborers. A labourer becomes bonded when his or her labour is demanded in repayment for a loan. According to the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) in 2007 “Bonded labor was prevalent across the country with the number of bonded labourers in Pakistan recorded at 1. The bonded labourer essentially forfeits his/her right to employment. are highly vulnerable to this kind of exploitation. low wages. The high unemployment. also known as debt bondage. Now the big question what are the reasons for the bonded labour. The person is then tricked or trapped into working for very little or no pay. natural calamities.unhcr. often for seven days a week. Bonded labor. being innocent and weak. right to move freely. also called the debt bondage. and right to appropriate and sell his or a family members’ property or product of his labour at market is probably one of the least known forms of slavery today but responsible for enslaving millions of people around the world. This advance is known as “Peshgi” in Pakistan. Yet it is generally alleged that bonded labor exists in various parts of the country particularly in the sectors of brick kiln and agriculture. Page 7) According to the Asian Development Bank estimates about 1.” (State of Human Rights in 2007.7 million. (www. and unusual expenditure on customary norms. and when the child takes an advance on expected future wages. peasants and family 5|Page . when the child is used as collateral for a loan. The laborers are to pay back the debt at very high interest rates and the debt is seldom paid off Children.

both by the employer and the local police are used to coerce and discourage the bonded labourer from attempting legal redress or physical escape. Since their financial conditions do not allow them to repay the amount. The debt goes on growing. the victims are caught in a web of debt and are obliged to work for almost an unlimited period. such as the right not to be held in slavery. sometimes for more than one generation. In the poor and uneducated societies. the terms of service gradually mutate. women are almost always dependent on men and are deprived of their basic rights. In the tradition of bonded labor. In its worst shape. tortured and trafficked. These are violations of internationally recognized human rights. 6|Page . not only because they are too young to choose to work.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 heads with no alternative but to borrow from their employers or landlords. the girls and women are separated from their parents and husbands. actively coerced into working. There are millions of children whose labor can be considered forced. And the situation gets worst when these bonded labourers are routinely threatened and subjected to all kinds of physical abuse by their employers. but also because they are. in fact. and the employer and employee relationship becomes more and more exploitative. the right not to be imprisoned arbitrarily and the right to freedom of association as in trade unions. Women and children are the most exploited creatures of the globe. are sexually harassed and exploited. Threats and violence. the entire family of the victim is treated as a pool of labor among landlords and employers. children whose labor is pledged by parents as payment or collateral on a debt or the children who are kidnapped or otherwise lured away from their families and imprisoned in sweatshops or brothels. These include child bonded laborers.

Agriculture remains a significant economic activity in Pakistan. Since no written contract exists the worker is vulnerable to all forms of exploitation. concentrated in the Sindh and Punjab provinces in agriculture and brick making. domestic service (particularly women and child labour). women feature as a major labour force. vary widely. anecdotal evidence suggests that bonded labour exists in all four provinces of Pakistan. including men. the agricultural sector is not very productive. primarily in the form of debt bondage. and children. carpet-making. mining. While it generates about a quarter of the national GDP. In the above sectors apart from mining. women. In addition. and destination country for men. transit. Geographically speaking. the most widespread bonded labour is found in the southern portions of Sindh Province and Punjab Province. a high incidence of bonded labour is found in brick kilns. Bonded labor also exists in the fisheries. employing nearly 45 percent of the total workforce. and fishing industries.8 million people one percent of the population are bonded laborers. and to a lesser extent in the mining. and agricultural sectors of Baluchistan Province. The country's largest human trafficking problem is bonded labor.STUDENT ID The Dynamics of Bonded labour in Pakistan: Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 Forced labour in Pakistan. carpet weaving. Estimates of bonded labor victims. The Asian Development Bank estimates that 1. women. nevertheless. is found most commonly amongst agriculture workers. Skewed landownership and exploitative production practices remain significant factors in perpetuating this lackluster agricultural performance. and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. 7|Page 1. glass bangle. According to 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report by US State Department Pakistan is a source. AGRICULTURE SECTOR: . fisheries and mining.

Landlord and tenant relations in rural Pakistan also continue to exhibit traditionally feudal dynamics. especially in the rural areas and in certain disadvantaged geographic regions. Poverty is pervasive and deep. bonded labour is found in different forms. 2. Bonded labourers within the agricultural sector are not allowed to leave landlord’s farm till their debts are repaid. illiteracy and outdated customs. these loans are given with high rates of interest. Studies conducted by reputable agencies like the Asian Development Bank (ADB) reveal that Pakistan has a large rural-urban gap in terms of social and economic indicators of development. Inevitable expenditures on social occasions such as marriage. Due to remoteness of the brick kilns. The problem of bonded labour is outcome of poverty. but also for agricultural inputs. Poor tenants do not only rely on their landlord for access to land. Given the lack of education to calculate how much money they owe to the landlord.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 The phenomenon of bonded labour is perhaps the most glaring example of prevailing exploitations within agriculture. and how much of it is being deducted every month from the overall money made by their labour. especially in rural areas. Often. The dominant economic characteristic of the agricultural labour force in Sindh and Baluchistan is extreme poverty and low social indicators of development. BRICK KILN SECTOR: In Pakistan. these loans often keep unfairly accumulating so as to compel generations into forced labour. death and feasts also lead poor people to accumulate debts taken from landlords where these landless farmers work. which in turn obligates them. backwardness. which keeps compounding over time. most of these workers cannot avail the regular social services including the 8|Page . The workers in the brick kiln sector are one of the most vulnerable segments of workforce.

“Bharai wala”: they load the unbaked bricks on donkeys and carry them from where they are made. This is the hardest job of all. More than half of the kiln workers are below the poverty line. leg aches and joint pains. They lack running water at home. the complaints of bonded labour persist in the society. At the peak of the hot season. majority of the brick kilns are located in Punjab province. then put the unbaked bricks in the kiln.8 percent women work as Patheras. “Jalai wala”: they feed coal into the furnace (there are usually only four to six Jalai workers at a kiln and they works in shifts of 12 hours each or in two six hour shifts per day. molders have the highest percentage of health problems. without a single holiday in the month). to the kiln. health. There are different kinds of workers at the kilns. “Nakasi wala”: they remove the baked bricks from the kiln. Most workers rely upon private doctors. proper drainage and all depend upon fuel wood for cooking. due to the posture required for brick molding.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 education. latrine. the main are back aches. A limited number of children go to school. These are: “Patheras”: they make the unbaked bricks. The Government of Pakistan has announced a National Policy and Plan of Action on Bonded Labour. 9|Page . The workers access to health and education is limited. 96. they live on the site with no proper housing facilities. says a 2003 study by PILER (Pakistan Institute of Labour Education and Research). Over half a million bonded labourers are working at brick kilns. financial support and other services provided by the state to its citizens. The phenomenon of bonded labour is more common in the brick kiln sector in all provinces of Pakistan. they stand at the furnace. Despite the judgment of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and the promulgation of Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1992 and Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Rules 1995.

he has to pay back all his debts than 600. with more . The majority of miners working in the provinces of Baluchistan. little investment in modern equipment and machinery was made and methods remained primitive. and of male juveniles (14 -17 years) in other work groups. is endowed with significant mineral resources. they will be doing domestic chores. The mining sector is spread throughout Pakistan’s four provinces. fluorite. The focus was on short-term profit maximization. and this promotes the use of children as a labour force. albeit on a small scale. The failure to promote the mining sector in any structured manner led to the government leasing out sites to petty contractors. An estimated 2/3rd come from the Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (KPK) formerly 10 | P a g e 3. magnetite. In addition to the world’s second largest reservoir of salt in Khewra (Punjab). scientific knowledge or technical skill to develop the sector. out of which approximately 5000 are in Punjab province. Sindh and Punjab are migrants. usually on a short-term basis. Most children engaged at kilns do not go to school and have never regularly attended one. chromites. over 50 minerals. If a person wishes to leave the kiln and work elsewhere. kms of outcrop area. This virtually means putting himself on sale.000 sq. sulphur and basalt. there are significant deposits of coal and other industrial and construction minerals. When female children are not working at the kiln. The advances families are able to get are most often larger when more members work at the kiln. Pakistan. Mines were operated by hundreds of small and medium-scale mining groups. Mining Sector: to the owner before he leaves. The short duration of the lease also gave little incentive for long-term development of the mines. In this situation sometimes he takes peshgi from his new master and pays it back to the old one. Furthermore. including marble.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 According to the family labour by children aged 10-14 producing unbaked bricks. is a central part of work at the approximately 8000-15000 (according to various sources) brick -kilns in the country. leaving other family members free to manufacture bricks. are under exploitation. Most of the lessees lacked the resources. As a result.

from a labour agent or middleman. Once an advance is secured from a mate or jorisar. the linkage between the labour agent and the worker proves crucial. There is little evidence of interest being charged. Labour-agents are therefore most likely to recruit workers from their own localities. Recruitment. the mine owner ensures that the middleman will be responsible for giving and reclaiming the advance. meaning that the latter.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 known as North-West Frontier Province. the larger the advance the more money is deducted from wages. known as a “mate” in Punjab province and “jorisar” in Sindh and Baluchistan provinces. usually personally know the miner and his family. it is also common practice for the middleman to receive the worker’s wages and then disburse them. In order to protect his own interests. is done by the mate or jorisar. once peshgi is taken. this initial advance tends to grow rather than decline. is dispatched by mine-owners to recruit labour from selected mentioned in above paragraph. A further 10-15% traces their roots to Azad Kashmir. Part of the reason is the relatively large amount given as an advance. But. Here. is likely to give advances only to those workers he trusts and/or is confident of “controlling”. the worker cannot move from the current employer without repaying the advance in full. therefore. in turn. Furthermore. on the basis of securing an advance. By giving the advance to the middleman. 11 | P a g e . therefore. Generally. The mine owner has no direct dealing with the worker. The number of workers who take peshgi and manage to pay it back in full appears to be small. as most labour agents are from the same region as the miners and. The middleman. or as commonly known in Pakistan the “Peshgi”. with 50% of them coming from the regions of districts of Swat and Shangla and a further 10-15% from the districts of Dir and Kohistan. Workers who accept work in mines do so. This means that availing of better wages in another mine or right of a better employment is forfeited. repayment usually takes the shape of deductions from fortnightly or monthly wages.

12 | P a g e . They on average. particularly as miners are overwhelmingly illiterate. Social linkages play a role in the initial recruitment through middlemen. but there is no traditional bond between employer and employee as is the case between landlord and tenant in agriculture. For the workers. the incentive is that it allows a much larger total advance to be received. bonded labour clearly exists. This phenomenon is. In worst case scenarios. apparently conforming to the classic stereotype of debt bondage. In some mines the labour agents deduct the peshgi amount from a worker’s death compensation amount. in fact. These boys can be as young as 10 but the majority are closer to 15. the others are held as collateral. They either migrate with their father or are sent to join their father or elder brothers. Miners who wish to take some leave to visit their home village normally do so by ensuring that a family member remains in the mine during their absence. The increasing burden of peshgis coupled with low wages leads to another phenomenon the use of child labour in mines. Other social mechanisms that might lead to bondage are not clearly in evidence. it means that in the event of one family member escaping. The relationship is only established once a peshgi is offered and accepted. peshgis may pass from one generation to the next. 80-100 per day. with middlemen insisting that. Workers often complained that their original peshgi amount had been inflated by the jorisar or mate. An advance is always part of an unwritten agreement in itself leaving ample scope for the “fiddling” of accounts. boys are usually assigned the job of taking donkeys underground and bringing them out laden with coal. for instance such as social linkages involving mutual obligations between groups.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 Furthermore. make Rs. some workers have taken to involving their children in mining. In the mining sector. In Punjab and KPK. For the jorisar. To lighten the burden of peshgis. jorisars or mates have taken to giving out peshgis to more than one member of a family. common in the mining sector. a son or other relative must take on the responsibility to pay back the advance. upon the death of a worker.

Due to its association with the cottage industry. commissioned by ILO. and the irony is that children are the master weavers. Glass Bangle Industry: always been far from satisfactory. The work involves almost all members of the family. A research in the Punjab.000. moving around on broken glass. another 58. The furnaces may have an unusually high temperature.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 4. Carpet Industry especially children. coal dust and burning material. the safety standards have Working on glass and metal furnaces and working with coal dust are hazardous. busy shaping the molten glass or polishing and reshaping them. soot. “They start working in the carpet industry from the age of three and by the time they are 18 years old. a Hindu community of the drought-prone desert of Tharparkar. estimated that 78% of them work at home weaving carpets. These methods have several safety hazards health risks for the weavers.000 children in the range of 5 to 14 years. It has been 5.000 children may be added which brings the magnitude to the tune of 165. In Sindh more than 90% of the carpet weavers belong to Manghwar. The carpet industry in Pakistan has been employing the same weaving methods for centuries. Glass bangle-making sector in Pakistan uses home-based women laborers including children working at home as well as factory. they become experts with an experience of almost 15 years. Despite a strong reaction demonstrated by the international Industrial Sector community. One can see a large number of young boys and girls. In the age group 15 to 17. Carpet weaving is included in the list of the hazardous forms of child labor. quite a large number of children are still found working in this industry. men and women in glass bangle factories in Pakistan and India. reveals that there are over 107. The workers are exposed to excessive use of chemicals and various sources of heat without reasonable safety 13 | P a g e .

Peshgi (advance) is almost nonexistent in Tanneries. 14 | P a g e . On the contrary. workers raised concerns about three sets of issues: I. Winters and the period following Eid-ul-Azha festival are the periods of high activity due to availability of a large number of hides. One of the reasons why the workers accept even the low wages is that it is hard for them to think of another profession outside their sector. skin burn. Processes involved require the heating of bangles in oven or on open flames. More modern technology is deployed in Karachi as compared to Kasur. The wages may range between 50 rupees per day to 500 rupees per day. Tanneries Pakistan manufactures and exports a large number of leather products. sore eyes. II. scabies. 6. headache. There are several hundred tanneries in Karachi. The workers are usually employed by contractors and payment to them is made on daily basis. and Kasur. Sindh. vulnerability to the threat of firing or job insecurity.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 precautions. Some tanneries work only during the peak season. the contractor holds back the wages to ensure that the workers will continue work till the task is accomplished. and effects on health and safety. asthma. According to the Rapid Assessment on Bonded Labour in Hazardous Industries in Pakistan (2004) by the Bonded Labour Research Forum: In both Kasur and Karachi. The workers may suffer from tuberculosis. III. which may be due to the closer integration of Karachi tanneries with the international market. low and stagnant wages. etc. Punjab. throat irritation.

for example. begging involves the loss of status. For these reasons. 7. In many countries young women migrants. economic. sex work. In fact. encompasses a range of activities at the social. In most societies or at least in the “mainstream” cultures of most societies. pays a great deal of attention to the possible association of domestic work with trafficking. Begging is the most unconventional of sectors discussed in this paper. political and legal margin. Begging. Domestic work. They may also be cut off from their own families and social networks. the vast majority of domestic workers. Begging. Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 clear if begging even qualifies as an integrated economic sector. are particularly vulnerable to abuse by employers and/or by the authorities if they are illegal or semi-legal migrants. Many of the forms of begging are also proscribed by local and national laws and regulations. it is not . child labour and physical and sexual abuse. it was reasonable to expect that there might be bonded labour or other coercive labour arrangements in this sector. the study of begging is complicated by the sector’s social domain.STUDENT ID Domestic work is often regarded as a sector in which workers are highly vulnerable to coercion and abuse. almost by definition. such as scavenging. The international debate on forced labour. entertainment and other services? What is the interaction between begging and illegal activities such as petty crime and selling narcotics? In addition to these definitional problems. The nature of activities and the range of people involved are extremely heterogeneous and pose profoundly complicated questions of definition: To what extent is begging an economic activity? What constitutes a “labour” arrangement? How might different forms of begging be related to other seemingly associated “economic” activities. 15 | P a g e 8.

STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 It is hardly surprising. Most of them certainly had no idea of their rights. All of them faced greater hardships than those experienced by trade unions in other areas. that relatively little systematic information about begging in Pakistan exists. a spurt in construction industry caused by increased economic growth. Another reason was the social and political clout of the brick-kiln owners. or raising their heads. secondly. Efforts to eradicate Bonded or Forced Labour in Pakistan: the organization. One reason was the utterly backward status of brick-kiln workers. Newspapers periodically run stories about “beggar mafias” that operate in a highly organized manner. or even of appreciating the extent of their deprivation and misery. There are also anecdotal accounts of kidnapped children being The existence of bonded labour began to be noticed in any serious way during the regime of President Ayub (1958-1969) when the brick kiln labour registered a sharp increase. the displacement of agricultural labour as a result of the trend towards mechanization of farming. and. The discovery of bonded labour in agriculture. They were almost all illiterate. belonged to the poorest and the marginalized sections of society. The economic plight of the masses in 16 | P a g e . therefore. and had no tradition of voicing their grievances. Two factors seemed to have contributed to this development: firstly. came later than the exploitation of brick-kiln labour became known. Some versions of the “beggar mafia” story have police officials running maimed and used as beggars. and exploit the “labour” of street beggars. especially in Sindh. Several initiatives taken by leftist political workers led to the formation of brick-kiln worker’s unions in several parts of the country. We may begin with some prior hypotheses based partly on anecdotal evidence and partly on received wisdom that begging is associated with coercive and abusive labour relations.

Besides. • Article 25 lays down the right to equality before the law and prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of sex alone. 17 | P a g e . no laws were made to implement the constitutional guarantees against slavery.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 the latter half of the President Ayub’s decade and the popularity of the slogan “land for the tiller” made it impossible to keep the bonded farm labour under covers. except for a private initiative taken in Khyber Pakhtun Khwa Province to get debt-slaves freed by repaying the principal loan amount. yet. slavery like practices and forced labour during the first 45 years of independence. • Article 17 provides for a fundamental right to exercise the freedom of association and the right to form unions. The Constitution of Pakistan 1973 contains a range of provisions with regards to labour rights found in Part II of the Constitution under Chapter: Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policy. • Article 11 of the Constitution prohibits all forms of slavery. Pakistan inherited from the colonial government an obligation to implement the Anti Slavery Convention. forced labour and child labour. • Article 18 proscribes the right of its citizens to enter upon any lawful profession or occupation and to conduct any lawful trade or business. The route taken by those who chose to campaign against bonded labour was the same in both the brick-kiln and agriculture sectors. The state took a long time to realize the extent of bonded labour in the country and the gravity of the problems it posed not only to the workers concerned but also to society at large.

Against this background the significance of the Supreme Court’s judgment in “Darshan Masih vs. The Provincial Home Departments are basically responsible for the enforcement of the laws on bonded labour. However. They were often invoked by political victims of state’s excesses. such as sections 339 to 346 of the Penal Code and section 491 of the Code of Criminal Procedure.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 • Article 37(e) makes provision for securing just and humane conditions of work. While these provisions embraced wrongful/illegal detention. There were also instances when workers recovered by court bailiffs/police. and for maternity benefits for women in employment Despite above mentioned constitutional guarantees due attention was not paid even to the criminal law provisions introduced by the British to provide protection against illegal restraint and detention. or in family matters. even where relief was available through the courts it meant only release from illegal detention and the issue of bonded labour was not touched. or when the workers freed by a court were recaptured by brick-kiln owners. ensuring that children and women are not employed in vocations unsuited to their age or sex. but their application to bonded labour began in the second half of the sixties when worker’s unions. These efforts yielded mixed results. In some cases the court set at liberty workers who affirmed before it the fact of illegal confinement/restraint and sometimes the court was not convinced of confinement being illegal. they were not designed to address exploitation of labour. under threat from owners/police or otherwise. The law was invoked to get bonded labourers released in both brick kiln and agriculture sectors. The case inspired the civil society initiative that led to the enactment of a law specific to bonded labour. the State” can easily be appreciated. human rights activists and conscious citizens started appealing to courts for redress of bonded labour’s grievances. The Act provides for the constitution of District Vigilance 18 | P a g e . In this case the court gave landmark decisions on both aspects of the problem illegal detention of and restraints on workers and the issue of bonded labour. denied their confinement. “The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act of 1992”.

press. • • • To help in the rehabilitation of the freed bonded labourer. Vigilance Committees are required to be constituted at the District level for implementation of the provisions of the law. But there has so far been no effort at the governmental level to rehabilitate freed bonded labourers.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 Committees to advise the District Administration on effective implementation of the law and to help in the rehabilitation of the freed-bonded labourers. For effective enforcement of law. sensitization of implementing officials at all levels judicial training. To keep an eye on the working of the law. 1992. recognized social services and NGOs. and To provide the bonded labourers such assistance as may be necessary to achieve the objectives of the law: Although the law exists in the statue books since last two decades but its enforcement has suffered from numerous administrative and legal snags. There are also reports of the release of bonded labourers in Sindh and Punjab through court orders due to the efforts of trade unions and human rights activists. The Federal Government requires the Provincial Governments to send the implementation reports on the enforcement of the bonded labour law regularly. representatives of the district administration. They are composite bodies headed by District Nazim (Mayor) with representatives from different cross sections of the society including elected representatives of the area. Capacity building to ensure compliance with law. pro-activity at all governmental levels and political will to grapple with the menace. Under Section 15 of the Bonded Labour (System) Abolition Act. 19 | P a g e . The powers and functions of Vigilance Committees include: • To advise the district administration on matters relating to the effective implementation of the law and to ensure its implementation in a proper manner. are acutely required. institutional strengthening and where necessary law reforms. Bar Association.

20 | P a g e . Rehabilitation efforts lack coordination and special efforts therefore are required on the part of all concerned working in the field of bonded labor.STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 Bonded labour is a dominant feature in labour system of Pakistan. economic and psychological exploitation of the bonded families. The bondage forfeits the worker’s right to move freely and sell their labour. The implementation of the Bonded Labour law met with great criticism. The clutches of bondage involve physical. 21 | P a g e .STUDENT ID REFRENCES: Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717  Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP)  The International Labour Organization (ILO)  A rapid assessment of bonded labour in hazardous industries in Pakistan by ILO  A rapid assessment of bonded labour in the carpet industry of Pakistan by ILO  A Rapid Assessment of Bonded Labour in Pakistan's Mining Sector by ILO  A rapid assessment of bonded labour in domestic work and begging in Pakistan by ILO  Gender dimensions of bonded labour in brick kilns in Punjab province of Pakistan by ILO  ILO PEBLISA (Promoting Elimination of Bonded Labour in South Asia)  Fiza Shujaat Ali Shah (Rahi)  National Coalition Against Bonded Labor (NCABL)  Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits by Patrick Belser  Daily Times (www. December 2007  Bonded labour in agriculture: a rapid assessment in Sindh and Baluchistan. Page 9.labourunity. “Knotting  Pakistan Institute of Labour Education and Research (PILER)  eight-million-people-work-as-bonded-labour-in-pakistan)  The Centre for Improvement of Working Conditions & Environment (CIWCE) Lahore   Express Tribune (http://tribune. Not Futures”  http://www. Pakistan ISBN 92-2-115484-X  The State of Bonded Labor in Pakistan by Mr.

STUDENT ID Bonded or Forced Labour/Slavery In Pakistan 17318717 22 | P a g e .

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