Comet Encke

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Comet Encke
2P/Encke

Discovery Discovered by Discovery date Alternative designations Pierre Méchain 1786 1786 I; 1795; 1805; 1819 I; 1822 II; 1825 III; 1829; 1832 I; 1835 II; 1838; 1842 I; 1845 IV [1]

Orbital characteristics A Epoch Aphelion Perihelion

September 22, 2006 (JD 2454000.5) 4.11 AU 0.3302 AU

Semi-major axis 2.2178 AU Eccentricity Orbital period Inclination Last perihelion Next perihelion 0.8471 3.30 a 11.76° 6 August 2010 [2][3] [2][4]

21 November 2013

Comet Encke or Encke's Comet (official designation: 2P/Encke) is a periodic comet that completes an orbit of the Sun once every three years — the shortest period of any known comet. It was first recorded by Pierre Méchain in 1786, but it was not recognized as a periodic comet until 1819 when its orbit was computed by Johann Franz Encke; like Halley's Comet, it is unusual in being named after the calculator of its orbit rather than its discoverer.

Discovery
As its official designation implies, Encke's Comet was the first periodic comet discovered after Halley's Comet (designated 1P/Halley). Its orbit was calculated by Johann Franz Encke, who through laborious calculations was able to link observations of comets in 1786 (designated 2P/1786 B1), 1795 (2P/1795 V1), 1805 (2P/1805 U1) and 1818 (2P/1818 W1) to the same object. In 1819 he published his conclusions in the journal Correspondance astronomique, and predicted correctly its return in 1822 (2P/1822 L1).

Comet Encke

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Characteristics
The diameter of the nucleus of Encke's Comet is 4.8 km.[3] Comets are in unstable orbits that evolve over time due to perturbations and outgassing. Given Encke's low orbital inclination near the ecliptic and brief orbital period of 3 years, the orbit of Encke is frequently perturbed by the inner planets.[5]

Observations
The failed CONTOUR mission was launched to study this comet, and also Schwassmann-Wachmann 3. On April 20, 2007, STEREO-A observed the tail of Comet Encke to be temporarily torn off by magnetic field disturbances caused by a coronal mass ejection (a blast of solar particles from the Sun).[6] The tail grew back due to the continuous shedding of dust and gas by the comet.[7]

Meteor showers
Comet Encke is believed to be the originator of several related meteor showers known as the Taurids (which are encountered as the Northern and Southern Taurids across November, and the Beta Taurids in late June and early July).[8][9] Near-Earth object 2004 TG10 may be a fragment of Encke.[10]

Effects on Earth
More than one theory has associated Encke's Comet with impacts of cometary material on Earth, and with cultural significance. The Tunguska event of 1908, probably caused by the impact of a cometary body, has also been postulated by Czechoslovakian astronomer Ľubor Kresák as a fragment of Comet Encke.[11]
A Spitzer image of Encke and its debris trail in infrared light.

A theory holds that the ancient symbol of the swastika appeared in a variety of cultures across the world at a similar time, and could have been inspired by the appearance of a comet from head on, as the curved jets would be reminiscent of the swastika shape (see Comets and the swastika motif). Comet Encke has sometimes been identified as the comet in question. In their 1982 book Cosmic Serpent (page 155) Victor Clube and Bill Napier reproduce an ancient Chinese

A Han Dynasty silk comet atlas, featuring drawings of comets believed by Victor Clube and Bill Napier to be related to the breakup of Encke's Comet in the past

Comet Encke catalogue of cometary shapes from the Mawangdui Silk Texts, which includes a swastika-shaped comet, and suggest that some of the comet drawings were related to the breakup of the progenitor of Encke and the Taurid meteoroid stream. Fred Whipple in his The Mystery of Comets (1985, page 163) points out that Comet Encke's polar axis is only 5 degrees from its orbital plane: such an orientation is ideal to have presented a pinwheel like aspect to our ancestors when Encke was more active.

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Importance in the scientific history of luminiferous aether
Comet Encke (and Biela's Comet) had a role in scientific history in the generally discredited concept of luminiferous aether. As its orbit was perturbed and shortened, the shortening could only be ascribed to the drag of an "ether" through which it orbited in outer space. One reference, [12], reads: Encke's comet is found to lose about two days in each successive period of 1200 days. Biela's comet, with twice that length of period, loses about one day. That is, the successive returns of these bodies is found to be accelerated by this amount. No other cause for this irregularity has been found but the agency of the supposed ether.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. minorplanetcenter. net/ iau/ Ephemerides/ Comets/ 2P/Encke past, present and future orbits (http:/ / jcometobs. web. fc2. com/ pcmtn/ 0002p. htm) by Kazuo Kinoshita 2P (http:/ / ssd. jpl. nasa. gov/ sbdb. cgi?sstr=2P#content) at the JPL Small-Body Database Syuichi Nakano (2010-04-28). "2P/Encke (NK 1927)" (http:/ / www. oaa. gr. jp/ ~oaacs/ nk/ nk1927. htm). OAA Computing and Minor Planet Sections. . Retrieved 2012-02-18. [5] "JPL Close-Approach Data: 2P/Encke" (http:/ / ssd. jpl. nasa. gov/ sbdb. cgi?sstr=2P;cad=1#cad). 2008-09-30 last obs. . Retrieved 2009-05-07. [6] "The Sun Rips Off a Comet's Tail" (http:/ / science. nasa. gov/ headlines/ y2007/ 01oct_encke. htm). Science@NASA. 2007-10-01. . Retrieved 2009-10-20. [7] Astronomy Picture of the Day 2007 October 3 (http:/ / apod. nasa. gov/ apod/ ap071003. html) [8] http:/ / www. serve. com/ ~wh6ef/ comets/ meteors/ showers/ beta_taurids. html [9] Whipple, 1940; Klačka, 1999). [10] Porubčan, V.; Kornoš; Williams; Kornoš; Williams (2006). "The Taurid complex meteor showers and asteroids". Contributions of the Astronomical Observatory Skalnaté Pleso 36: 103–117. arXiv:0905.1639. Bibcode 2006CoSka..36..103P. [11] Kresak, L'. (1978). "The Tunguska object - A fragment of Comet Encke". Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia (Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia) 29: 129. Bibcode 1978BAICz..29..129K. [12] http:/ / www. archive. org/ stream/ firstprinciples06sillgoog/ firstprinciples06sillgoog_djvu. txt

• Klačka, Jozef (1999). "Meteor Streams of Comet Encke. Taurid Meteor Complex". Abstract (http://arxiv.org/ abs/astro-ph/9910045) • Whipple, F.L. (1940). "Photographic meteor studies. III. The Taurid shower." Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., 83, 711-745. • Master, S. and Woldai, T. (2004) The UMM Al Binni structure in the Mesopotamian marshlands of Southern Iraq, as a postulated late holocene meteorite impact crater : geological setting and new LANDSAT ETM + and Aster satellite imagery. Johannesburg, University of Witwatersrand, Economic Geology Research Institute (EGRI), 2004. EGRI - HALL : information circular 382, p. 21 http://www.itc.nl/library/Papers_2004/tech_rep/woldai_umm.pdf (1.56 MB) • Master, S. and Woldai, T. (2004) Umm al Binni structure, southern Iraq, as a postulated late holocene meteorite impact crater : new satellite imagery and proposals for future research. Presented at the ICSU workshop : comet asteroid impacts and human society, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, November 27- December 2, 2004. p. 20 • Hamacher, D. W. (2005) "The Umm Al Binni Structure and Bronze Age Catastrophes", The Artifact: Publications of the El Paso Archaeological Society, Vol. 43

Comet Encke • Hamacher, D. W. (2006) "Umm al Binni lake: Effects of a possible Holocene bolide impact", Astronomical Society of Australia Meeting 40, #15

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External links
• Orbital simulation (http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=2P;orb=1;view=Far) from JPL (Java) / Ephemeris (http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.cgi?find_body=1&body_group=sb&sstr=2P) • 2P/Encke (http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/db_search/show_object?object_id=2P&commit=Show) at the Minor Planet Center's Database • Gary W. Kronk's Cometography page for 2P (http://cometography.com/pcomets/002p.html) • 2P/Encke light curve (http://www.aerith.net/comet/catalog/0002P/index.html) by Seiichi Yoshida • Comets and the Bronze Age Collapse (http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/bronze.html) • Solar Storm Tears Tail From Comet Encke (http://starrymirror.com/cometenckelosestail.htm) • Animation (on APOD) of Encke's tail being torn away (http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap071003.html) • HI-1A movie showing Comet Encke (http://stereo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/item.php?id=stereoimages&iid=72) (April 2007) • Importance in history of luminiferous aether (http://www.archive.org/stream/firstprinciples06sillgoog/ firstprinciples06sillgoog_djvu.txt), search for Encke's comet • Study of the April 20, 2007 CME-Comet Interaction Event with an [sic] MHD Model (http://arxiv.org/abs/ 0903.4942) (arxiv 0903.4942)
Periodic comets (by number) Previous 2P/Encke Next 1P/Halley 3D/Biela

Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
Comet Encke  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=508928945  Contributors: Alansohn, Awolf002, Bender235, Bentley4, Bhadani, Bkobres, Blanchardb, Bonadea, C A Morris, Capricorn42, Chesnok, Chrisobyrne, Curps, Cyberherbalist, DeadEyeArrow, Dino, Double sharp, E Wing, Eaglesight, Epbr123, Epolk, Esrever, Fotaun, FrancoGG, GSlicer, Geboy, Gilliam, Headbomb, Hike395, Hu, Icairns, Ideogram, JForget, Jaraalbe, Joey the mighty turd, John sanclare, JorisvS, Jyril, Kate, Kheider, Korean alpha for knowledge, Kuralyov, Lightmouse, Maghnus, Mahzhaocong, Masursky, Max rspct, Mike Peel, Olly150, Ottershrew, Patrick, Paul Drye, Philip Trueman, Polly, Puchiko, Quadell, Raviaka Ruslan, Razimantv, ReelExterminator, Rjwilmsi, RobertFritzius, Rothorpe, Saros136, Sceptre, ScottyBoy900Q, Silivrenion, Smkolins, Spitfire19, Storm Rider, Sun Creator, Susvolans, The Singing Badger, The comet destroyer, Tide rolls, Tjs003, Ts2539, Ugajin, Urhixidur, Whtrz, Wikipelli, WilyD, Wrelwser43, 79 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Comet Encke.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Comet_Encke.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Jim Scotti File:Ssc2005-04a.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ssc2005-04a.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kelley (Univ. of Minnesota) File:Hansilk2.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hansilk2.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Ecemaml, Rursus, 3 anonymous edits

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