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# Ordinary differential equation

**Ordinary differential Equations:
**

An equation involving one dependent variable and its derivative with respect to an independent variable is called ordinary differential equation.

Order:

The order of OD is the highest order of differential appearing in the equation. The order of equation (1) is 2.

…………………………….………. (1)

Degree:

The degree of highest order derivative is called degree of ordinary differential equation. The degree of equation (1) is one…

Classification of ODE:

On the basis of Order (first order, second order , up to nth order) On the basis of degree(first degree, second degree, up to nth degree) On the basis of Nature of equation

Separable

An equation is separable one if the variables in it can be separated. i.e., the equation is of explicit form.

Ordinary differential equation

** Bernoulli (Reducible to Linear Equation):
**

The equation is one that is reducible to linear differential equation by substitution. Its general form is

** Exact differential equation:
**

When an Ordinary Differential Equation is obtained by only single differentiation of an expression and no other algebraic operation is involved, then such an ODE is termed as the Exact equations, and only single integration is required to get the solution. The equation M(x, y) dx + N(x, y) dy = 0 is exact if and only if

In this case there exist a function W= f(x, y) such that

And

f(x, y) =c is the required solution.

** On the basis of linearity:
**

The differential equation is set to be linear if it is of first degree in the dependent variable and its derivative.

Ordinary differential equation

( )

( )

If Q(x) = 0 then it is homogeneous otherwise non homogeneous.

** Nonlinear differential equation:
**

The differential equation is set to be nonlinear if it is not of first degree in the dependent variable and its derivative.

**Types of solutions of differential equations: 1. General solution
**

A general solution of ODE is one for which value of constant of integration is unknown.

2. Particular solution

A particular solution of ODE is that for which value of constant of integration is known.

**Ordinary differential equation
**

Applications of Ordinary Differential Equations in Chemical Engineering:

In those processes which involve continuous changes in the values of the variables, a differential equation represents the correct relation between the local values of the variables and their rate of change. Following are the few applications: 1) The rate (growth and decay ): i. Newton Law of Cooling. ii. Fourier’s Law of Heat conduction. iii. Diffusion (Fick’s Law of diffusion). iv. Nuclear engineering (Radioactive decay) v. Bio process Engineering: 2) Mixture Problem: 3) Rate of Dissolution: 4) Law of Mass Action: