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SUBMITTED TO: DR. SHAHID NAVEED jklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvb nmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer tyuiopasdfghjnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklz xcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuio pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj
SUBMITTED BY: ASAD IMRAN REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2009-CHEM-63

Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors

COMPRESSORS: A compressor is a mechanical device, like pumps, used in various different applications. A machine that increases the pressure of a gas or vapor (typically air), or mixture of gases and vapors. The pressure of the fluid is increased by reducing the fluid specific volume during passage of the fluid through the compressor. When compared with centrifugal or axialflow fans on the basis of discharge pressure, compressors are generally classed as high-pressure and fans as low-pressure machines. Compressors are used to increase the pressure of a wide variety of gases and vapors for a multitude of purposes. A common application is the air compressor used to supply high-pressure air for conveying, paint spraying, tire inflating, cleaning, pneumatic tools, and rock drills. The refrigeration compressor is used to compress the gas formed in the evaporator. Other applications of compressors include chemical processing, gas transmission, gas turbines, and construction. Important Terminologies for Compressors: Capacity of a Compressor : • • The capacity of a compressor is the full rated volume of flow of gas compressed and delivered under conditions of total temperature, total pressure, and composition prevailing at the compressor inlet. It sometimes means actual flow rate, rather than rated volume of flow. This is also called free air delivery (FAD) i.e. air at atmospheric conditions at any specific location. This term does not mean air delivered under identical or standard conditions because the altitude, barometer, and temperature may vary at different localities and at different times. Due to ageing of the compressors and inherent inefficiencies in the internal components, the free air delivered may be less than the design value, despite good maintenance practices. Sometimes, other factors such as poor maintenance, fouled heat exchanger and effects of altitude also tend to reduce free air delivery. In order to meet the air demand, the inefficient compressor may have to run for more time, thus consuming more power than actually required. The power wastage depends on the percentage deviation of FAD capacity. For example, a worn out compressor valve can reduce the compressor capacity by as much as 20 percent. A periodic assessment of the FAD capacity of each compressor has to be carried out to check its actual capacity. If the deviations are more than 10 percent, corrective measures should be taken to rectify the same.

Simple Capacity Assessment Method:
• • • Isolate compressor and receiver and close receiver outlet Empty the receiver and the pipeline from water Start the compressor and activate the stopwatch

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Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors
• • Note time taken to attain the normal operational pressure P2 (in the receiver) from initial pressure P1 Calculate the capacity FAD:

Where
P2 = Final pressure after filling (kg/cm2a) P1 = Initial pressure (kg/cm2a) after bleeding) P0 = Atmospheric pressure (kg/cm2a) V = Storage volume in m3 which includes receiver, after cooler and delivery piping T = Time take to build up pressure to P2 in minutes.

Compressor Efficiency :
• • For practical purposes, the most effective guide in comparing compressor efficiencies is the specific power consumption, i.e. kW/volume flow rate, for different compressors that would provide identical duty. There are several different measures of compressor efficiency that are commonly used including i. ii. iii. Isothermal Efficiency Volumetric Efficiency Adiabatic Efficiency Mechanical Efficiency

iv.

1) Isothermal efficiency:

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Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors
Where P1 = Absolute intake pressure kg / cm2 Q1 = Free air delivered m3 / hr r = Pressure ratio P2/P1 The calculation of isothermal power does not include power needed to overcome friction and generally gives an efficiency that is lower than adiabatic efficiency.

2) Volumetric efficiency:

Where D = Cylinder bore, meter L = Cylinder stroke, meter S = Compressor speed rpm χ = 1 for single acting and 2 for double acting cylinders n = No. of cylinders

Affects due to Leakages:
Leaks can be a significant source of wasted energy in an industrial compressed air system, sometimes wasting 20 to 30 percent of a compressor’s output. A typical plant that has not been well maintained will likely have a leak rate equal to 20 percent of total compressed air production capacity. On the other hand, proactive leak detection and repair can reduce leaks to less than 10 percent of compressor output.In addition to being a source of wasted energy, leaks can also contribute to other operating losses. Leaks cause a drop in system pressure, which can make air tools function less efficiently, adversely affecting production. In addition, by forcing the equipment to run longer, leaks shorten the life of almost all system equipment (including the compressor package itself). Increased running time can also lead to
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Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors
additional maintenance requirements and increased unscheduled downtime. Finally, leaks can lead to adding unnecessary compressor capacity. Leak Quantification Method • Total leakage calculation:

Where T = on-load time (minutes) t = off-load time (minutes) Well maintained system can reduce the leakage as less than 10% leakages of the total leakage.

SELECTION OF A COMPRESSOR: While selecting a compressor following factors are kept into mind… • • • • • • • • Efficiency at full, partial and no load Noise level Size Oil carry-over Vibration Maintenance Capacity Pressure

Performance Factors for Compressors
Factors which affect the performance of compressors are speed of rotation, pressure at suction, pressure at discharge and type of refrigerant being used. Similar compressors can operate at different capacities, by varying their refrigerants and compressor horsepower input.

Compressor displacement:
Compressor displacement is the volume displaced by the compressing element per unit of time and is usually expressed in cubic feet per minute (cfm). Where the fluid being compressed flows in series through more than one separate compressing element (as a cylinder), the displacement
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Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors
of the compressor equals that of the first element. Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of fluid compressed and delivered, expressed in cubic feet per minute at the conditions of total temperature, total pressure, and composition prevailing at the compressor inlet. The capacity is always expressed in terms of air or gas at intake (ambient) conditions rather than in terms of arbitrarily selected standard conditions. Air compressors often have their displacement and capacity expressed in terms of free air. Free air is air at atmospheric conditions at any specific location. Since the altitude, barometer, and temperature may vary from one location to another, this term does not mean air under uniform or standard conditions. Standard air is at 68°F (20°C), 14.7 lb/in.2 (101.3 kilopascals absolute pressure), and a relative humidity of 36%. Gas industries usually consider 60°F (15.6°C) air as standard.

Classification of compressors:

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Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors
Compressors can be classified as reciprocating, rotary, jet, centrifugal, or axial-flow, depending on the mechanical means used to produce compression of the fluid, or as positive-displacement or dynamic-type, depending on how the mechanical elements act on the fluid to be compressed. Positive-displacement compressors confine successive volumes of fluid within a closed space in which the pressure of the fluid is increased as the volume of the closed space is decreased. Dynamic-type compressors use rotating vanes or impellers to impart velocity and pressure to the fluid.

Types of Compressors:
There are two basic compressor types: positive-displacement and dynamic.  POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR: In the positivedisplacement type, a given quantity of air or gas is trapped in a compression chamber and the volume it occupies is mechanically reduced, causing a corresponding rise in pressure prior to discharge. At constant speed, the air flow remains essentially constant with variations in discharge pressure.  DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS: Dynamic compressors impart velocity energy to continuously flowing air or gas by means of impellers rotating at very high speeds. The velocity energy is changed into pressure energy both by the impellers and the discharge volutes or diffusers. In the centrifugal-type dynamic compressors, the shape of the impeller blades determines the relationship between air flow and the pressure (or head) generate TYPES OF POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR

1) Reciprocating Compressor:

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Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors

A RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

These compressors have pistons, and move in cylinders. Types of reciprocating compressors are:  Open Compressors: One extremity of the crankshaft is drawn out of the crankcase, due to which multiple drives can be used with the compressor. A mechanical seal is used to check external seepage of refrigerant and oil, and escape of air towards inside. These compressors are driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. With belt drive, changes in speed are achieved by altering the dimensions of the pulleys, while with direct drive units the compressor is planned to operate at speed of motor. Hermetic Compressors: These compressors are serviceable hermetic, in which motor and compressor are enclosed in the same housing, while the welded hermetic type has the compressor and motor sealed in a welded steel shell.

2) Rotary: Compressors of the rotary type are generally low capacity equipment, used normally in home refrigerators and freezers, and not used for air conditioning. These compressors can consist of one vane, which is placed in the body, and sealed against the rotor, or multivane rotary, with vanes located in the rotor.
A ROTARY COMPRESSOR

TYPES OF DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS:

1) Centrifugal Compressors These compressors revolve at excessive speed, and refrigerant is compressed by the application of centrifugal force. These compressors are normally used with refrigerants possessing higher specific volumes, which need lower compression ratios. Multi-stage units can be used to attain greater discharge pressures, and the number of stages is determined by the discharge temperature of the gas as it exits from the rotor. These compressors are utilized for water chilling in air conditioning and for low temperature freezing purposes.
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Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors
Centrifugal compressor is also called as annular compressor.

A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

Its impeller accelerates the flow by flinging it outward. This also increases the pressure. The pressure is increased further, and the flow is slowed, when the flow meets the diffusers that ring the impeller. Centrifugal compressors use the rotating action of an impeller wheel to exert centrifugal force on refrigerant inside a round chamber (volute). Refrigerant is sucked into the impeller wheel through a large circular intake and flows between the impellers. The impellers force the refrigerant outward, exerting centrifugal force on the refrigerant. The refrigerant is pressurized as it is forced against the sides of the volute. Centrifugal compressors are well suited to compressing large volumes of refrigerant to relatively low pressures. The compressive force generated by an impeller wheel is small, so chillers that use centrifugal compressors usually employ more than one impeller wheel, arranged in series. Centrifugal compressors are desirable for their simple design and few moving parts. Centrifugal compressors running by taking in out air near their hub and rotating it by means of an impeller . The impeller , which is usually an aluminum alloy , guides the air toward the outer
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Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors
perimeter of the compressor , building up the velocity of the air by wherewithal high rotational speed of the impeller . MAIN COMPONENTS OF A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR: The compressor consists of three main parts: 1) Impeller 2) A Diffuser 3) A Compressor Manifold Air leaves the Impeller at high speed , and flows through the diffuser which converts high velocity , kinetic energy to low velocity , high pressure energy . The diffuser also serves to direct airflow to the compressor manifold which acts as collector ring. They also delivery air to the manifold at a velocity and pressure which will be satisfactory for use in the burner section of the engine.Advantages of the centrifugal compressor are that it is easier to design and manufacture, and it can often increase the pressure enough for efficient combustion with only one stage. However, the airflow for a centrifugal compressor is much lower than for an axial, and its pressure ratio is generally lower, meaning it is much less effective for creating thrust and less fuel- efficient. Hence, it is more often seen in small engines, where the the manufacturung advantages outweigh the performance disadvantages; in shaft engines, where thrust is less of a concern; and in industrial applications, where thrust is no concern at all.

2) AXIAL COMPRESSOR:
Axial compressors use a series of fan-like rotating rotor blades to progressively compress the gasflow. Stationary stator vanes, located downstream of each rotor, redirect the flow onto the next set of rotor blades. The area of the gas passage diminishes through the compressor to maintain a roughly constant axial Mach number. Axialflow compressors are normally used in high flow applications, such as medium to large gas turbine engines. They are almost always multi-staged. Beyond about 4:1 design pressure ratio, variable geometry is often used to improve operation.
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AN AXIAL COMPRESSOR

Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors
GENERAL CONSTRUCTION OF AXIAL COMPRESSORS:
Axial compressors consist of rotating and stationary components. A shaft drives a central drum, retained by bearings, which has a number of annular airfoil rows attached. These rotate between a similar number of stationary airfoil rows attached to a stationary tubular casing. The rows alternate between the rotating airfoils (rotors) and stationary airfoils (stators), with the rotors imparting energy into the fluid, and the stators converting the increased rotational kinetic energy into static pressure through diffusion. A pair of rotating and stationary airfoils is called a stage. The cross-sectional area between rotor drum and casing is reduced in the flow direction to maintain axial velocity as the fluid is compressed.

WORKING OF AXIAL PUMP:
A compressor in which the fluid enters and leaves in the axial direction is called axial flow compressor. So, the centrifugal component in the energy equation does not come into play. Here the compression is fully based on diffusing action of the passages. The main parts include a stationary (stator) part and a moving (rotor) part. The diffusing action in stator converts absolute kinetic head of the fluid into rise in pressure. The relative kinetic head in the energy equation is a term that exists only because of the rotation of the rotor. The rotor reduces the relative kinetic head of the fluid and adds it to the absolute kinetic head of the fluid i.e., the impact of the rotor on the fluid particles increases its velocity (absolute) and thereby reduces the relative velocity of the between the fluid and the rotor. In short, the rotor increases the absolute velocity of the fluid and the stator converts this into pressure rise. Designing the rotor passage with a diffusing capability can produce a pressure rise in addition to its normal functioning. This produces greater pressure rise per stage which constitutes a stator and a rotor together. This is the reaction principle in turbomachines. If 50% of the pressure rise in a stage is obtained at the rotor section, it is said to have a 50% reaction.
Axial compressor

The air in an axial compressor flows in an axial direction through a series of rotating rotor blades and stationary stator vanes. The flow path of an axial compressor decreases in cross-section area in the direction of flow , lowering the volume of the air as compression advances from stage to stage of compressor blades.

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Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors
The air being delivered to the face of compressor by the air inlet duct, the Contained air passes through the inlet guide vanes . Air upon entering the first set of rotating blades and flowing in axial direction, is deflected in the direction of rotation . The air is arrested and turn as it is passed on to a group of stator vanes , following which it is again picked up by another set of rotating blades , and so on , through the compressor . The pressure of the air increases each time that it passes through a set of rotors and stators ..

>3) Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors A mixed flow compressor combines the axial and radial components to produce a diagonal flow unit. The exit mean radius is greater than at the inlet, but the flow tends to exit in an axial rather than radial direction. This eliminates the need for a relatively large diameter exit diffuser associated with centrifugal compressors, The impeller can be machined from solid using NC machines, in much the same way as that of a centrifugal compressor
Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors are similar to centrifugal compressors, but have a radial and axial velocity component at the exit from the rotor. The diffuser is often used to turn diagonal flow to the axial direction. The diagonal compressor has a lower diameter diffuser than the equivalent centrifugal compressor.

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Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DYNAMIC OR TURBO COMPRESSORS:
ADVANTAGES: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • reliable and suitable for uninterrupted operation without standby no wearing parts, compact design, easy installation consistent performance can handle very large flow rates high polytropic efficiency single and multistage with inter-cooling variable capacity at constant speed can handle most of the process gases besides air non lubricated / oil free compression flexibility in driver selection DISADVANTAGES: Sensitive to changing ambient conditions Special protection system against surge Change in gas mol. wt. limits the operation Special arrangement to ensure no liquid carry over from process Elaborate filtration system required for the air High noise level. Special care to be taken for the variation in frequency Any dirt build/ polymer build up alter the performance adversely Due to high speed vibration monitoring system to be installed High initial cost

• • • • • •

Main Applications: Standard Centrifugal Compressors General Engg & other industries such as Glass, Automobiles, Electronics, Synthetic Fibers, Textiles, plant & instrument air Compressors for steel plants, refinery, power plants etc. Normally with flow rates starting higher then 2000 m3/hr till 15000 m3/hr as single or multiple units

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Compressor And Types Of Dynamics Compressors
REFERANCES
www.retscreen.net/.../Compressor%20and%20compressed%20air%20systems.ppt
http://www.planeshow.net/aircraft-gas-turbine-engines-part2.html

http://www.fscc-online.com/%22Passing%20Gas%22-article/passing_gas.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axial_compressor

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