Effective Hrm Practise In Banking Sector Of Bangladesh

Introduction: In order to achieve development of both the Bank and the individual members of staff who contribute to its success, the HR Strategy encompasses organizational development activities, which aim to improve the Bank‟s capacity to achieve greater effectiveness, including improved quality of service. There are number of HR practices that could be tested in connection with employee performance. We have studied eleven HR practices and their relationship with organizational success which are personnel selection, performance appraisal, incentive compensation, job design, grievance procedures, information sharing, attitude assessment, labormanagement participation, recruitment efforts, employee training and promotion criteria. These eleven HR practice in very important to achieve organizational success and these practices have positive relationship with organizational success. Methodology: The questionnaire was based on questionnaire for measuring impact of various HR practices on employee performance and as well as organizational success. The reason for selecting this questionnaire is that it was used to study the impact of same variables as in present study and was well tested on reliability and validity scales this questionnaire was also correction by our teacher. Questionnaire that was administered consisted of 16 questions and these questions are included Compensation Practices, Promotion Practices Performance Evaluation Practices and Perceived Employee Performance and so on. To complete this term paper we use primary data. Literature Review: Human resources management includes a variety of activities , and among them is deciding what staffing needs in banking sector and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs , recruiting and training the best employees , ensuring they are high performers , dealing with performance issues and ensuring the personnel and management practices conforms to various regulations. Activities also include managing their approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee record and personnel policies (Garry A. Gelade and Mark Ivery) HRM practices have shown to be valuable to any banking sectors success. Thus to be successful in a global market place, the challenge for all banking regardless of size is to invest in human resources. They need to select and retain talented employees, undertake employee training and development programs and dismantle traditional bureaucratic structures that limit employee‟s ability to be innovative and creative (CARL F. FEY). The commonly practices HR activities in banking sector include the following: HR Planning Recruiting

Selection Training and Development Compensation Performance Management Employee Relations Discussion and Analysis: Under discussion and analysis we will focus on the relationship between effective HR practice and organizational success. We will see the effective HR practice of every bank and the comparison of these banks. Our discussion and analysis will be on 5 banks. 1. BRAC BANK LTD: One of the leading banks in banking sector of Bangladesh is BRAC BANK LTD. To become more strong and providing superior service, this bank performs in effective HR practice. Planning and Recruiting: As BRAC BANK LTD. is one of the leading banks in Bangladesh; they follow an effective HR policy. BRAC BANK LTD. recruits people both inside and outside of the bank; according to the post and people they need for the bank. The Bank follows the best practice of 80/20 ratio, meaning that 80 % of management population shall be home grown while 20% may be recruited externally in order to infuse new skills and new thinking. Job analysis: A job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It includes: Task/work, activities. Human behavior, Machine, tools, equipment and work aid Performance standards Job context Human requirements/ skills and so on. Methods of collecting data about the job interview: Three types of interview. It includes: Individual interview with each employee. Group interview with group of employees, Supervisor concerned employee. Observation: Directly observe the activities of the employee without asking him/her questions. Job Description: job description is a written statement of what the job holder actually does, how he or she does t, and under what conditions the job is performed. It includes: job identification, job summary relationship and responsibilities, working condition and so on. Job Specification: Under the job specification HR officer consider: Education, experience, knowledge, skills, abilities and so on. Selection process: BRAC BANK LTD. thinks that the prosperity of the bank is depends on customer satisfaction. They select that kind of employees who can give them quality full service. BRAC BANK LTD. follows a procedure to select employees for any blank post .

They are taught how to use them and also how to manage the raw materials. Each permanent workers need to pass through a six weeks training program. EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION AND TRAINING: Employee orientation and training includes: •What are the organization‟s goals? •What tasks must be completed to achieve these goals? •What behaviors are necessary for each job incumbent to complete his or her assigned tasks? •What deficiencies. if any.Hiring Decision: New position arising out of new business direction. Temporary and casual workers are usually trained in the same process as the permanent workers. knowledge or attitudes required to perform the necessary behaviors? BRAC Bank also concern about employment development and also thinks about necessary training. Personal reference and background check and so forth. Before hiring decision HR officer checks and test: Selection test. The workers look the whole process and get acquainted with all the machines. employee test. Planned Recruitment of fresh graduates. The core purpose of BRAC BANK . This training program is important for effective use of resources. The training of the permanent workers is done under the supervisors whereas the temporary and casual workers get trained under the permanent workers. do incumbents have in the skills. vacancy arising because of resignation/retirement Annual.. They use measurable criteria for evaluating their employees. Evaluating Training and Development Effectiveness: To evaluating training and development effectiveness BRAC BANK follows some methods. Performance Appraisal at BRAC Bank Limited: BRAC Bank practices performance appraisal to evaluate their employee‟s performance. Here the supervisor is responsible for the training. like: Test-retest method •Pre-post performance method •Experimental-control-group method Workers Training & Developing Program: The manufacturing plant has different section.

INCREMENT: BRAC BANK LTD. offers bonuses for good performance and as goal completion reward. AWARDS: HR of BRAC BANK LTD.1. offers its employees both regular and surprise bonuses. 30. It happens on. Salary: HR of BRAC BANK LTD. 00. These variations occur only in the case on senior employees. starting salary of an employee is tk. •Enable Reward and Recognition BRAC BANK LTD. It helps to: •Align employee objectives to the business goals. Salary of a probationary officer is tk.20. Punishment: . Enable strategic Performance Management through Management by Objectives (MBO) •Measure and Assess employee performance periodically and provide feedback and support to achieve quantitative. 000-1. BRAC BANK LTD. 000.000-3. cannot give promotion to its employees in time and then they offered them an increment in their salary. provides increment to their employee that depends on their performance and sometimes seniority. 20. qualitative and process targets •Evaluate and track Hi-Performance and achievers based on Competency driven practices. 50.000. insurance facilities. offers different salary packages for its employees.is to promote or increase salary of their employees whose performance is better comparing to other employees..000 Other facilities: Transportation facilities.000 and salary of top level officer is tk. desk watch performance. interpersonal skill. The entry-level employees who join BRAC BANK LTD. The amount of salary depends on both seniority and performance. Thus two employees in the same position can get different salaries and incentives for their different performance.80.000-35.‟s performance appraisal. Sometimes BRAC BANK LTD. As management trainee usually gets the same amount of salary. gratuity.‟S HR COMPENSATION: Bonus: BRAC BANK LTD.yearly basis. business performance etc. When an employee shows outstanding performance.LTD. he is offered an increment. Normally per year minimum 6 to 8 employees are awarded with certificates and some other non-financial reward like air tickets of Dhaka-Bangkok-Dhaka for their outstanding performance. In BRAC BANK LTD. Beside this BRAC BANK LTD. Salary of mid level officer is tk. Regular bonuses are given in two Eid as festival bonus.‟s practices performance appraisal by marking the employee‟s office attending time. offers certificates for outstanding performance of their employees. general regulation of leave and so on.

generalize ability. •Deduction of Salary. Based on the investigation report and recommendations of the inquiry committee. validity. . •Realizing financial loss from his salary or other source. allegations of the aforesaid manner are brought against any employee. 2. This Hr practice includes: HR Planning Recruiting Selection Training and Development Compensation Performance Management. Personnel selection is the process by which companies decide who will or will not be allowed into their organization. the top management may award the following punishment: I. Selection: Any organization that intends to compete through people must take the utmost care with how it chooses organizational members. II. •Removal/Dismissal from service Relationship of effective HR practice and organizational success: These HR practice are very effective to improve performance. Its compensation and benefits even punishment help to receive the best efforts from employee. This bank is tried to do effective HR practice in their organization. By this practice they can collect capable and effective employee.As and when. which are reliability. Several generic standards should be met in any selection process. and legality. Minor Punishment: •Warning Letter. these will be investigated in a systematic way as described in this code. Major Punishment: •Demotion to lower grade/Post. utility. STANDARD CHARTERED BANK: STANDARD CHARTERED BANK is one of the most popular banks in Bangladesh.

Each business and function would decide the appropriate development needs for each individual . ethnic origin. Standard Chartered provides a framework within which the employee can identify the training and development needs. Performance Appraisal: Each organization must create and communicate performance measures that reflect its unique strategy. The key elements of a Performance Management System include the following: 1. 6. nationality. Performance management is the process through which managers ensure that employee activities and outputs are congruent with the organization‟s goals. skills. Performance Appraisal System . Attract quality employees with an effective performance management system. 3. within this overall framework. or marital status. A Formal Compensation Philosophy Statement 2. Retain key employees through the use of competitive compensation programs. Reward staff with compensation directly linked to performance. race. Development Programs are carried out in the first two years of joining . They are committed to providing equality of opportunity to all employees. Orient staff towards goal achievement. Salary Administration Program 3. disability.Standard Chartered selects employees based on knowledge. applicable to all management trainees. age. It is central to gaining competitive advantage. 4. skills and talent. A well-executive performance management plan enables an organization to achieve critical goals such as: 1. Recognize the efforts and contributions of current staff. or behavior by employees. Motivated staff to improve performance. Job Evaluation System 4. It also enables the employees to take all of the programs or study for individual modules according to their particular development needs. across the Bank. regardless of gender. 5. 2. Such training provides a consistent standard of management learning throughout Standard Chartered. Training & Development: Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate the learning of Job-related knowledge.

selection employees. is directly related to the sales compensation program. This bank does all these things very effectively so this is the most leading banking company with its superior banking service. Southeast Bank also tried to follow effective HR practice.5. and in turn. They encourage continuous discussion. The management links this to financial and non. and compensation and must provide motivation to the employees. These are the individuals who take an active approach in getting the message out about the Bank‟s products and services. To do all these things they must be careful in recruiting process. They regularly conduct salary surveys to ensure the reward package remains competitive in the market place. 5000 as cash prize 2. how successful it is. Spot Award + Rs. In addition to this. SOUTHAST BANK LIMITED: Southeast Bank divides the whole Bangladesh into four potentials divisions and operates their banking activities and provides services for the consumers. Service Quality Award Relationship of effective HR practice and organizational success: Standard Chartered Bank practices HR effectively to provide superior service to the customer and to be a leading Banking organization in the Bangladesh. the bank provides various incentives in the form of bonuses to encourage the employees and motivate them to continue with their high performance. These include: 1. encourage regular review of employee‟s performance and development. and rewards these outcomes with compensation tied directly to the level of achievement. A sound sales compensation package enable Standard Chartered Bank to focus sales activities towards desired results. Reward Programs Compensation: Being a leading Bank Standard Chartered Bank presents itself to its corporate as well as individual customer as dependent upon the ability of its sales force.financial recognition. Surprise Award 3. This provides feedback to the staff about how they are doing. Best Performance Award 4. Rewards & Recognition: Standard Chartered Bank rewards the talented and high performing employees competitively. training. How effectively the sales team markets the Bank. These include: Human resource planning: . 3.

free transportation . skills. HR Practices of SOUTHEAST BANK Recruitment Training Performance Management Labor relation Employee relation Job analysis Job design Selection Development Incentives Benefits Recruitment and Selection process in SOUTHEAST BANK Recruitment is the process trough which the organization seeks applicants for potential employment. adequate lighting and ventilation facilities from sheet. on site sports . External source . 24 hour medical center . Southeast bank is one of the biggest employers in Bangladesh. The total number of employees is 1. abilities and other characteristics that will help the company achieve its goals. Production and accommodation facilities include full time supply of safe drinking water. companies engaging in different strategies need different types and numbers of employees.They are 1. along with salary and benefits the company provides various facilities like free meals .Southeast bank has a personal and administrative Department.223. To motivate the employees. The total number of employers in Bangladesh. Source of recruitment There are two kinds of source SOUTHEAST BANK uses for recruitment . The strategy a company is pursuing will have a direct impact on the types of employees that it seeks to recruit and selection. For the employees there are systematic in house training in home and abroad. Selection refers to the process by which it attempts to identify applicants with the necessary knowledge.

Development is a related process. Performance Appraisal doesn‟t necessarily use to blame or to provide a disciplinary action. Performance Appraisal Process: Who Appraises • Supervisors • Subordinates • Peers . There are many types of method practices in SOUTHEAST BANK . „Performance appraisal (is) a process that identifies. help individuals to the progress towards maturity and actualization of their potential capacities so that they become not only good employees but better men and women. It covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those which bring growth of the personality. It is application of knowledge. evaluates and develops employee performance to meet employee and organizational goals. it is intended to equip person to earn promotion and hold grater responsibility. It attempts to improve their performance on the current job or prepare them for an intended job.we discuss that method at bellow: On the job training Off the job training Performance Management: Performance appraisal is the process of assessing employee‟s past performance. Performance appraisals are now more clarified and they concentrate on developing organizational strengths and employee performance. Previous management theories used to view performance appraisal as a stick that management has introduced to beat people. promotion and staff development purposes.2. It gives people an awareness of the rules procedures to guide their behavior. Training and Development program of SOUTHEAST BANK Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. We try to discuss all relative sources which are used for recruitment in SOUTHEAST BANK. Internal source. In organizational terms. primarily for reward.

This list also include how. The supervisor or HR specialist of SOUTHEAST BANK normally collects one of the following types of information: Work activities First he or she collects information about the job actual work activities such as marketing. Employee safety 2. Experience Experience must be needed for any job in SOUTHEAST BANK. sewing. an understood agreement between employer and employees that defines the work relationship. agreement influence the outcome achieve by each side. Education and qualification Collects the information about education background and qualification.• Clients/customers • Self appraisal • 180/360 degree approach Employee relation Employers and employees each have their own sets of needs and values. Incentives . This balance often takes the form of a psychological contract. This contract with or without support of a formal collective bargaining. and successful relationship between these two sides requires that some sort of balance be struck. Employee working condition Job analysis Job analysis is the procedure for determining the duties and skill requirement of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. why and when the worker performance each activity. SOUTHEAST BANK has the various into three channel categories those are 1. production. Employee health 3.

Relationship of effective HR practice and organizational success: Like all other banks Southeast Bank also try to do effective HR practice to survive in competitive market. All these things are very much helpful to provides superior customer services. insurance. 4. selection. Exim Bank Ltd. It also provides other benefits like Transportation. Selection . medical. training and so on.Compensation fluctuates according to – A pre-established formula – Individual or group goals because group goals are different from individual goals – Company earnings Incentives adds to base pay It controls costs because the employee is being paid for his/her extra effort and for the benefits brought to the organization. Human Resource Management Process: Human Resource Management Process consists of eight activities necessary for staffing the organization and sustaining high employee performance. This bank is very much concern about the activities of HRM like recruiting. The process is 1. medical. HR planning and requisition. insurance and so on. 2. Motivates employees Incentive Pay Categories Individual Group Company-wide Other facilities and benefits: Transportation.

which can not measure the actual personnel needs. but they use managerial judgment because it gives the more real world scenario for personnel needs. We have thousands of diverse people from different cultures and backgrounds working in a variety of different jobs in different fields • Merit is the sole criteria for selection. Appraisal and evaluation 6. there are vacancies where your talents can likely be applied and developed. internal job postings and the internet. Recruitment and Selection process in EXIM BANK: EXIM Bank is looking for top-caliber people who want the flexibility and resources to grow in their career. • Panel interviews comprising of Functional Head & HR Head. • Sources for recruitment are through campus. employee referrals. consultants. It is the foundation upon which the other three areas should be built. These are basically graphical methods. They offer the kind of person who has always stood out. GET and MT involve written tests. Planning requires management to evaluate where human resource of the company is currently. • Attitude is given as much weight age as functional competencies. Training 4. strategic goals & objectives & technological and other changes resulting in increased productivity. • Antecedent verification is an integral part of our recruitment process. Although there are several methods to predict personnel needs. But managerial judgment method depends upon the change in productivity. Where you can continue to excel.3. No matter what your field or range of interests. Orientation 5. From there an appropriate course of action to attain the company's goals and objectives is determined and implemented. . EXIM BANK has also its employment planning. Every organization has employment planning. Compensations and benefits Human Resource Planning in Exim Bank: Planning is the core area of all the functions of management. and where it would like to be in the future. market conditions etc. They usually forecast their personnel needs based on their mission. • Positions in Officer Cadre. They think that the other methods can not give the accurate situation of the personnel needs.

religion or sex.• Medical fitness is pre-requisite for all positions. •Panel interviews comprising of Functional Head & HR Head. The functions of the recruitment office of EXIM BANK are given below: 1. GET and MT involve written tests. •Antecedent verification is an integral part of our recruitment process. community. Defining the position description 3. •Equal opportunity employer and do not discriminate on the basis of race. Recruitment process: A responsibility for recruitment usually belongs to the HR department. •Sources for recruitment are through campus. employee referrals. Checking the recruiting options 4. •Attitude is given as much weight age as functional competencies. community. Screening and Short – listing Applications 6. religion or sex. internal job postings and the internet. Advertisement 5. Job description and speciation provide the needed information upon which the recruitment process starts. consultants. Written test . This department works to find and attract capable applicants. •Positions in Officer Cadre. • We are an equal opportunity employer and do not discriminate on the basis of race. Need Assessment 2. Recruitment process: •Merit is the sole criteria for selection. •Medical fitness is pre-requisite for all positions.

2. Offering the Role Employee Training Method: On-the-job Training: On the job training is a training that shows the employee how to perform the job and . Pre. Selection interview (3 – tier) 8. Offer letter 11. Employment Decision 6. Pre-employment Medical Check-up 7. Follow –up Source of Recruitment: There are two types of sources: Internal Sources & External Sources Selection Process: Selection is the process of gathering information for the purpose of evaluating and deciding who should be employed in particular jobs. Orientation / Induction 12. Employment decision (Application Bank) 9. Selection Interview 4. Reference Check 5. Screening and Short-listing Applications. Placement 13.7. 1.employment medical check-up 10. Written Test 3.

•Coaching Approach: The trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person they are to replace. Accounts. Sale etc. Behavior Modeling and so on. •Action learning: Here the management trainees are allowed to work full-time analyzing and solving problems in other departments Types of Training: •Technical Training •Management Training •Safety Training •Occupational Health •General Training (Management. These include are: Apprenticeship Training. Employee Development Method Managerial On-the-Job Training: The development of employee‟s abilities can take place on the job. The Case Study Method. job rotation etc. or increasing skills Any effort toward developing employees must begin by looking at the organizations objectives. It includes: •Job Rotation: It involves moving a trainee from department to department to broaden their understanding of all parts of the business and test their abilities. Outside Seminars. The objectives tell us where were going and provide a framework from which our managerial needs can be determined.) . changing attitudes.allows him or her to do it under the trainer‟s supervision. Management Game. Off the job Training: It includes. Informal Learning. Development: Any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge.

Motivating Employees in Exim Bank Ltd: The advantage of having a Management by Objective (MBO) system is that everyone becomes Self-motivated. EXIM BANK offers a number of benefits to keep them motivated. Indirect Payment: Financial benefits like employer-paid insurance and vacations. safety facilities etc. It also includes: transportation.•Social Skill Training •Refresher Training •Workers Education Training Performance Appraisal: At EXIM BANK appraisals are done by the Self-appraisal system. In EXIM BANK. Apart from creating a healthy working environment and ensuring employee Empowerment. It has two min components: 1. Goals are set by participative management approach and performance is evaluated quantitatively against those previously set objectives. and bonuses. family trip. 2. The only challenges is to keep the employees‟ moral high in times of failure. one of the tasks of the management is counseling. Direct financial payments: Wages. The total appraisal process is completely transparent to everyone within the organization. commissions. to perform. 1 for unsatisfactory 2 for marginal 3 for target 4 for superior 5 for outstanding Employee Compensation: Employee compensation refers to all forms of pay or rewards going to employees and arising from their employment. salaries. Managers appraise the performance of their subordinates through a 5 points Graphic Rating Scale. Managers are there to help the employees to achieve the goals. which in turn keep the employees motivated. . Everyone is motivated to achieve. incentives. insurance.

In case of recruitment and selection AB Bank Ltd considers the Following process: • Need assessment • Checking the recruiting options (Internal and External) • Screening and Short-listing Applications • Written test . In case of internal source they mainly follow – promotion. Selection & recruiting process: Recruiting is the process of searching the potential job candidates in order to fill up the vacant position of the organization and selection is the process of choosing the best candidate among the available candidates. which former name is Arab Bangladesh Bank Ltd. follows both the internal and external sources of recruitment. Foreign Travel with Family Offers Relationship of effective HR practice and organizational success: Exim Bank is another leading bank in Bangladesh. transfer and job rotation and in case of external source they follow – advertisement. AB Bank Ltd. Yearly Employee Awards 5. The candidates who are successfully perform the job. AB Bank Ltd. employment agency. This bank is tried to use proper HR practice in their organization. Promotion 6. Effective HR practice and other motivational factors to employees are also very useful to compete in the market. Leave facilities 4. 5.: AB Bank Limited is the first private sector bank in Bangladesh. Education costs of the children 2. They should improve HR practice to get in better place. Permanent job facility 3.The benefits offered by the company are given below: 1.

concepts. or point arrived at through job evaluation. demotion. For every organization promotion is extremely important. and attitudes to increases the performances of the employees in the organizations. a manager has to make. The employee of AB Bank Ltd are gets both rewards and punishment from their employer based on their performance. Pay Policies of AB Bank Ltd Once the job evaluation is complete. Usually money transfer or other . rules. skill or knowledge. classifications. personality. ready to take challenge etc. AB Bank Ltd gives emphasis both for internal and external training. Development helps the individuals handle future responsibilities. overall output. honesty. On the other hand development is more future oriented. Another important use of performance appraisal is to encourage performance improvement. This means pay rates or range will be established that are compactable with the ranges. Any new operations or product is marketed. and separation is a major aspect of human resource management. Performance Appraisal: Performance appraisal information can provided needed input for determining both individual and organizational training and development needs.their promotion. than is employees training or assisting a person to become a better performer.• Interview • Reference checking • Medical check-up • Orientation /induction • Follow up Training & Development: Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of skills. such as attendance. For apprising the performance AB Bank Ltd consider the different criteria of the employee. The actual decision about whom to promote. when the process based on merits and skills of the employee. attitude. quality of work. In this regard Performance appraisals are used as means of communicating to employees how they are doing and suggesting needed changes in behavior. and more concerned with education. with little concern for current job duties. Promotion Policies of AB Bank Ltd The movement of personnel within an organization. and who to fire can also be among the mot difficult. they gives training to the employees attached to the operations. dependability. initiative. transfer. and important. attitude. the data generated become the nuclease for the development of the organization‟s pay structure. cooperation.

Recommendation: Human Resources Management presents special challenges for the Human Resources leader in organizations. banking sector is too much . By considering all these things. I recommend that banking organization should upgrade their HR policies and practice specially their compensation. So the main challenge is that how can make employees energetic. selection employees. selection. motivation. But in our survey we see that comparably BRAC Bank can successfully reduce their turn over by taking effective decision in taking interview from candidates. Thus. Compensation and reward policies should upgrade continuously. because banking sector in Bangladesh is very competitive. This bank does all these things very effectively so this is the most leading banking company with its superior banking service. Conclusion: The topic of the study was “Effectiveness of HRM practice on the organizational success. Almost all banks follow same HR policies and practice to provide superior customer service. They should emphasis in motivation because banking job is boring and traditional. Comparison of all 5 banks: This is very difficult to compare these five banks. Banking organization should use more technology which can be imported from advanced country to reduce the pressure of works from employees. motivation and compensation policies. They fix the interview date on the same date of BCS. training. Relationship of effective HR practice and organizational success: AB Bank practices HR effectively to provide superior service to the customer and to be a leading Banking organization in the Bangladesh. and access to professional Human Resources associations. and compensation and must provide motivation to the employees. By this study we come to know about recruitment and selection process.” This study has help to understand about theoretical and practical aspect of HR practice in reality. so the employees fall in dissatisfaction quickly. selection. Effective Human Resources Management requires special HR tools. special approaches to management. and publications. Because of hard competition in Banking sector HR department needs to be more effective. compensation and other benefits. All banks should reduce turnover by using effective recruitment.benefits are provided as rewards. To do all these things they must be careful in recruiting process. So their turnover is reduced very quickly. On the other hand a major problem of promotion is discrimination and favoritism. But the main problem of banking sector in that employees become very much bore. training and performance appraisal. training and developing program. motivation. education.

Moynihan[6] • The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on the Performance of European Firms by Paul Gooderham. Gardner and Lisa M. They also must to adopt with new technology and new method. Reference: • How HR & Training Practices Can Boost Worker Performance (IOMA‟s Report on Managing Training and Development) [4] • Human Resource Practices and Organisational Performance: Can the HRM-performance linkage be explained by the cooperative behaviours of employees? By Dr. Mattijs Lambooij[5] • The impact of HR practices on the performance of business units by Patrick M. Kristen Ringdal and Emma Parry[7] • Human Resource Strategy to Improve Organisational Performance: A Route for British Firms by Fang Lee Cooke[8] • Human Resource Management. Timothy M.competitive so HR policies and practice must be changed very quickly. Wright. Organizational Performance and Employee Well-Being by David Guest [9] .

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