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A BEHAVIORAL STUDY OF PEOPLE STYLES AT WORK ADISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF


THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF MBA DEGREE OF BANGALORE UNIVERSITY.

Submitted By Ms SOUMYA PRASAD Reg.No -04XQCM6094

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF DR. K.V. PRABHAKAR SENIOR PROFESSOR

M.P.BIRLA INSTITUTE OF ASSOCIATE BHARTIYA VIDYA BHAVAN. MANAGEMENT BANGALORE-560001 2006

DECLARATIO N
I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled A BEHAVIORAL STUDY OF PEOPLE STYLES AT WORK is the result of research work undertaken by me under the guidance and supervision of Dr.K.V.Prabhakar, Adjunct Professor, M.P.Birla Institute of Management, Bangalore.

I also declare that this dissertation has not been submitted to any other University/Institution for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

Place: Bangalore Date: 5th June 2005

(Ms. Soumya Prasad)

CERTIFICAT E
I hereby certify that the research work embodied in this dissertation entitled A BEHAVIORAL STUDY OF PEOPLE STYLES AT WORK ha , s been undertaken and completed by Ms. Soumya Prasad under the guidance and supervision of Dr. K.V.Prabhakar, Adjunct professor, MPBIM, Bangalore.

Place: Bangalore Date: 5/06/06 MPBIM, Bangalore

(Dr. N . S. Malavalli ) Principal

CERTIFICAT E
I hereby certify that the research work embodied in this dissertation entitled , BEHAVIORAL STUDY OF PEOPLE STYLES AT WORK A has been undertaken and completed by Ms.Soumya Prasad under my guidance and supervision

Place: (DR.K.V.PRABHAKAR) Date: 5/06/2006 Professor

Bangalore Adjunct

Acknowledgeme nt
I take this opportunity to sincerely thank Dr. K.V. Prabhakar, Adjunct Professor M. P. Birla Institute of Management, Bangalore who guided me to complete this research work, I thank Dr. Nagesh. Malavalli, Principal M. P. Birla Institute of Management for providing a congenial atmosphere to facilitate the completion of this research work My sincere thanks to my parents and friends for helping me in completing this research work.

Place: Bangalore Date: 5th June 2006 Prasad)

(Soumya

1 Executive ............................................................ ........... 11 2 Summary .................................................................................... Chapter .................. 13 2.1 1 Introduction............................................................................................ the 2.2 Theoretical background study..................................................................... 14 3........... 13 Chapter ................................................................................... ................... to 3.1 2 Review of literature leading 47 indentification of research gap........................ 447 Chapter .................................................................................... .................. 59 4.1 3 Problem 5statement............................................................................................. 59 Chapter ................................................................................... ................... 60 5.1 4 Research ..................................................................................................... 60 6gapChapter ................................................................................... ................... 61 6.1 5 Research 7Objectives .......................................................................................... 61 Chapter ................................................................................... ................... 62 7.1 6 Research 8methodology...................................................................................... 62 Chapter ................................................................................... ................... 64 8.1 7 Research 9limitations.......................................................................................... 64 Chapter .................................................................................... .................. 65 9.1 8 Data analysis and
interpretation........................................................................ 65 Thinking 9.1.1 styles.......................................................................................... 65 9.1.2 Communication Styles .............................................................................. 68 9.1.3 Decision making style............................................................................... 72 9.1.4 Boss-Subordinate Interaction 9.1.5 Emotional style ........................................................... 76 Expressiveness ........................................................................ 80 9.1.6 Colleague delight ...................................................................................... 83 9.1.7 Execution style.......................................................................................... 87 ................................................................................ .................. 90 Major 10.1 research findings .................................................................................... 90 10.1.1 Thinking Style........................................................................................... 90 10.1.2 Communication 10.1.3 Decision making style ................................................................................ 90 style............................................................................... 91 10.1.4 Boss-Subordinate interaction style ........................................................... 91 10.1.5 Emotional expressiveness style................................................................. 91 10.1.6 Colleague delight style.............................................................................. 92 Execution 10.1.7 style.......................................................................................... 92 ............................................................................. ................. 93 11.1 Recommendations....................................................................................... ...... 93

CONTENTS

10 Chapter 9

11 Chapter 10

7 11.2 Directions for further research .......................................................................... 93 ................................................................................ .................. 94 12.1 Select bibliography ........................................................................................... 94 12.1.1 Books ................................................................................................. 12.1.2 ....... 94 ............................................................................................... 12.1.3 Business Journals magazines .................................................................................. 94 ...... 94 12.1.4 Websites visited ........................................................................................ 94 ...................................................................... ............... 96

12 Annexur e

13 Questionnair e

TABLE 1: GENERATE NE IDEAS ................................................................ S W ............. 65 TABLE 2: TRIES TO COME UP WITH SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEM THAT MIGHT S ARISE. ................................................................................................ ...................... 65 TABLE 3: FOCUSE ON FINISHING OR CLOSING TH TASK AT HANDRATHE THAN PLANNING ON HO TO DO SO..................................................... S E R W .......... 66 TABLE 4: IS OPEN TO NE IDEAS, CREATIVE SOLUTIONS GENERATE BY TH D E SUBORDINATESW .................................................................................. .................. 66 TABLE 5: IS ABL TO FORECAS A POSSIBL SITUATION THAT CAN ARISE... E T E 67 TABLE 6: THINKS OF WAYS TO UTILISE PERSON WITH COMPLIMENTAR GOAL SO AS TO ARRIVE AT !WIN-WIN" SOLUTIONS............................... S Y S ... 67 TABLE 7: SHARE INFORMATION ABOUT COMPANY, POLICIES, BUSINES S S AND FUTURE DIRECTION ONLY TO A FE ! SUBORDINATE W FAVOURITE" .......................................................................................................... S ......................... 68 TABLE 8: FORCE HIS/HE VIEWS TO B ACCEPTE BY TH USE OF POSITION POWER.............................................................................................. S R E D E ....................... 68 TABLE 9: PROVIDES SPAC FOR SUBORDINATE TO EXPRES E S S HIMSELF/HERSELF ............................................................................. .................. 69 TABLE 10: JUMP FROM ONE TOPIC TO ANOTHE DURING INTERACTIONS ... S R 69 TABLE 11: STYL OF COMMUNICATION DEPEND ON HIS/HE MOOD ............ E S R 70 TABLE 12: IS ABL TO AGRE AT A DISAGREEMENT ...................................... E E ...... 70 TABLE 13: CONSTANTLY REMINDS SUBORDINATE ABOUT HIS/HE EXPERIENC LEVEL AND POSITION SO AS TO ENSURR CONFORMITY 71 E S E TABLE 14: POSTPONE DECISION MAKING UNTIL ABSOLUTEL INEVITABLE S Y .......................................................................................................... ......................... 72 TABLE 15: NEVE FOLLOW UP ON A DECISION TO OBSERV ITS EFFECT ..... R S E 72 TABLE 16: OPEN TO REVERS A PREVIOUS DECISION IF MERITTED ................. E 73 TABLE 17: TENDS TO TAKE DECISION THAT ARE ! ORIENTED" RATHER PEOPLE THAN ! ORIENTED" ............................................................... COMPANY ............ 73

LIST CHARTS

OF

9 TABLE 18: OFTEN MISSE OUT ON TH IMMEDIATE NECESSITY IN INTERESTS S E OF A LARGER PERSPECTIV WHIL TAKING DECISIONS LEADING TO PROBLEMS ........................................................................................ E E ..................... 73 TABLE 19: WAITS FOR TH BOS TO TAKE DECISIONS .................................... E S ..... 74 TABLE 20: CALL FOR TH OFFICIAL MEETING BEFOR TAKING ANY S E E DECISION ........................................................................................... ..................... 75 TABLE 21: EXPECT SUBORDINATE TO CONSULT BEFOR TAKING ANY DECISIONS.......................................................................................... S S E .................... 75 TABLE 22: INSPIRES HIGH ENERG AMONG SUBORDIATES............................. Y ... 76 TABLE 23: UNAPPROACHABLE..................................................................... ............... 76 TABLE 24: USUALL LIKES TO SE SUBORDINATE BUS (INVENTING Y Y ACTIVITES JUST TO KEE E S BUSY) ................................................. THE P M ......... 77 TABLE 25: TENDS TO DO THINGS BY HIMSELF/HERSEL SO AS TO DO IT F ! RIGHT" ............................................................................................... TABLE 26: ONE CAN LEAR SOMETHIN BY WORKING WITH HIM/HER.......... ..................... 77 N G 77 TABLE 27: USUALL LIKES OTHER TO TREAT HIM/HE WITH RESPECT Y S , ADMIRATION AND PERSONA LOYALTY R AND RECIPROCATES TH SAME ................................................................................................ L E ....................... 78 TABLE 28: TENDS TO TREAT SUBORDIANTE AS LES IMPORTANT OR LES S S S SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE PERFER TO GO BY DESIGNATION AND STATUS 79 . S TABLE 29: ALLOW SUBORDINATE TO MAKE MISTAKES AND IS SUPPORTIVE S TO RECTIFY ........................................................................................ .................... 79 TABLE 30: TEND TO RELEAS PENT UP STRES ON SUBORDINATES ................ E S 80 TABLE 31: IS ABL TO SPREA POSITIVE EMOTIONS AMONG SUBORDIANTE E D ..........................................................................................................S ......................... 80 TABLE 32: EASILY UPSE BY CRITICISM......................................................... T .......... 80 TABLE 33: PROVIDES SUPPOR TO SUBORDIANTE WHE REQUIRED PROACTIVELY.......................................................................................... T S N ..................... 81 TABLE 34: TAKES TIME TO CONVEY HIS/HE FEELING OR EMOTIONS .......... R S 81 TABLE 35: USUALL CALM, NOT DISTRUBED BY PRESSURE ........................... Y ... 82 TABLE 36: IS DEPENDABL FOR SUBORDIANTES............................................ E ....... 83 9

10 TABLE 37: GENERALL TRUSTWORTHY ....................................................... Y ........... 83 TABLE 38: IS COMFORTABL WITH REGULAR TASKS AS REQUIRED BY HIS/HE E POSITION ............................................................................... R ................. 83 TABLE 39: HESTITATE TO WORK IN A TEAMSETTING WITH TH S S E SUBORDINATES ................................................................................. ................... 84 TABLE 40: IS FINE WITH INFORMAL SETTINGS ............................................... ........ 84 TABLE 41: CANNOT KEE A SECRET/CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION ............... P 85 TABLE 42: TENDS TO DELEGAT REPETITIVE WORK AND KEE TH E P E INTERESTING WORK TO HIMSELF/HERSELF ......................................... ........ 86 TABLE 43: IS SENSITIVE TO TH VALU OF TIME ............................................ E E ....... 87 TABLE 44: DELIVER RESULT FOR TH COMMITMENTS MADE ...................... S S E . 87 TABLE 45: OVERUNDERPROMISES, DELIVERS ..................................................... 87 TABLE 46: UNDEROVERPROMISES, DELIVERS ..................................................... TABLE 47: ABILITY TO ASK TOUGH QUESTIONS THAT GET RIGHT TO TH 88 HEAR OF TH MATTER....................................................................... E T E ............... 88 TABLE 48: REWARD THOS WH DO RATHER THAN SAY THE WILL ............. E O Y 89

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1 EXECUTIV
E

SUMMAR
Y

Quite Often in many companies we will have at least some unwelcome and unproductive friction with others. There are difficulties to be worked through even in the best relationships. In more troubled relationships, people problems may loom large enough to seriously undermine both morale and productivity. Of all the problems we encounter n corporate life, people problems are generally toughest to solve. Difficult as task problems may be, most of us would choose them over people problems. Besides when a task problem I especially difficult to handle, it is usually so because on or more painful people problems are embedded in it. People problems in many company is the outcome of people styles at work. It is, therefore, significant to understand the people styles at work from the behavioral angle. Objectives The main objective of this research are to find the common ground with employees and to identify the employees" styles at work in terms of level of assertiveness and level of responsiveness. Also to identify the #back up style and analyze the concept of #style flex in adjusting the patterns of employee behavior. Findings From the analysis done, findings of this research were done under seven categories of styles, Thinking style, Communication style, Decision-making style, Boss-subordinate behavior style, Emotional expressiveness, Colleague delight and Execution styles. The findings are summed up below: 1. it was found that, majority of the employees are open to new ideas and creative solutions that are generated by the subordinates and they try to come up with solutions to problems that might arise. 2. The mood of the employee depends on his style of communication. 3. Employees would like to take decisions that ar e people oriented. 4. Never tends to infect subordinates with stress. 5. Assists subordinates pro-actively.

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12 6. Employees do have the ability to ask the right questions.

Recommendations Major recommendations made in the research are to #improve in interpersonal communication through the use of Johari Window , to understand #flexing each style of behavior among employees and a detail #study should be conducted by the corporate enterprises periodically on effective and ineffective work style of the employees.

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2 CHAPTE
R

Success at work and happiness in life depend lar ge measure on one"s ability to relate well to others. Yet it"s not easy to have consistently good relationships with ever yone one interact with: co-workers, customers, suppliers, family, friends, neighbors, and acquaintances. Some people, though, are better than others at creating and maintaining relationships. But even these individuals find that #people problems bedevil their lives. Chances are that anyone can be much more effective at work and enjoy life more fully by finding better ways of relating to people. Differences between people are major source of friction. Differences can undermine one"s relationships, hamper one"s performance, and add needless stress to one"s life. Fortunately, it"s possible to manage such differences so work relationships are enhanced, productivity is increased, and there"s richness and spice to life. One can make these differences work for, not against, oneself. Dr. David Merrill, an industrial psychologist, developed an approach that focused on differences between people"s outer behaviors rather than one"s differences in their inner states. Merrill used the newly available computer technology and recently developed statistical technique to group people into four styles. Merrill"s model was for most applied style since it was based on behaviors that are directly observable. It created a very useful way of #reading other people and relating to them more effectively. This way of improving work relationships is based primarily on Merrill"s work, although there are important differences. There are four styles of people, none of which is better or worse than any other styles. Each style has characteristic strength and weakness not shared by other styles. Each person has a dominant style that influences the way he or she works.

2. INTRODUCTION 1

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14 The population is evenly divided among the four styles. People of each style can be successful. The behavioral patterns of one style tend to trigger stress in the other three styles. To create optimum working relationships, it"s necessary to get in sync with the style-based behavioral patterns of the people one is working with. Whether at work or home, success and happiness involve relating to others across a chasm of significant behavioral differences.

What is a Style?

2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND THE STUDY 2

Style is pattern of assertive and r esponsive behavior. There are three ingredients that comprise styleBehavior 2) Patterns 3) Habits 1) BEHAVIOR a. The outer expression of a person"s life b. Body language c. Vocal variety (pitch, rate and tone) d. Behavior is a component of personality 2) PATTERNS a. Collection of behaviors b. Group of traits that form a coherent, integrated whole 3) HABITS a. Style determined by habitual behavior b. Frequently repeated in a given situation c. Becomes #second nature d. Feels natural to us e. Consistent from one situation to another

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Foundation of the Concept: Two Dimensions of Behavior


According to Dr.David Merrill, there are two dimensions of human behavior that are key elements in understanding the behavioral style model: "assertiveness" and "responsiveness." It is the degree of responsiveness and assertiveness that combine to determine an individual's style. Dimensions of Behavior: The vertical axis represents Responsiveness and the horizontal axis represents Assertiveness. The first step of understanding behavior is identifying where one falls on each of these 2 dimensions. This forms the foundation of the Behavioral Style model.

Assertiveness In this model, one"s level of assertiveness is the degree to which others see one"s behaviors as being forceful or directive. People are assertive in two differ ent ways. They may be #ask assertive / less assertive or #tell assertive / more assertive . The "ask assertive" person uses a questioning approach to indicate intention. For example, in discussing where they want to go for lunch, they might ask, "Do you want to go to McDonald's?" instead of "I'd like to go to McDonalds!". The intent is clear the approach is understated. These are the people who seek information, and they often avoid taking a position on a subject until they have gotten enough information. The "ask assertive"

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16 individual frequently speaks more slowly, makes fewer statements, and may be quieter in volume. They may make less eye contact during conversation, minimize hand movement, and their body posture may be more reserved
.

The "tell assertive" individual is the one who more readily verbalizes a position. The extremely "tell assertive" person is often the first to state an opinion and likes to lead the group. The "tell assertive" individual may be recognized by a faster speech pattern, making more statements, and using a louder volume when speaking. In addition, their gestures may be more directive. They tend to make more eye contact during conversation.

Characteristic Behavior of More Assertive/Tell Assertive People


More assertive people have the following behavioral characteristics. Compared to less assertive people, they tend to: Exude more energy Move faster Gesture more vigorously Have more intense eye contact Be erect or lean forward, especially when making a point Speak more rapidly Speak louder Speak more often Address problems quicker Decide quicker Be more risk-oriented 16

17 Be more confrontational Be more direct and emphatic when expressing opinions, making requests, and giving directions Exert more pressure for a decision or for taking action Demonstrate anger quicker More assertive people have most but not necessarily all of these characteristics.

Characteristics Behaviors of Less Assertive/Ask Assertive People


Demonstrate less energy Move slower Gesture less vigorously Have less intense eye contact Lean backward even when making a point Speak less rapidly Speak more softly Be slower to address problems Decide less quickly Be less risk-oriented Be less confrontational Be less direct and less emphatic when expressing opinions, making requests, and giving directions

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18 Exert less pressure for making a decision or taking action Demonstrate anger quickly People who are less assertive have most but not necessarily all of these characteristics. Responsiveness Responsiveness is the second dimension of behavior. Responsiveness is an indication of how much emotion a person may be willing to display to others. The individual seen as controlling emotions may be perceived to be less responsive, and the individual who exhibits emotions more freely is seen to be more responsive. The behavioral clues indicative of an emotionally controlling person ar e that they may have a more monotone voice and focus on tasks rather than people. They frequently use data and facts in conversation. Less responsive individuals have emotions but prefer to keep their feelings to themselves. Their body posture, use of hands, and facial expressions may also be more controlled and sometimes seem to be less relaxed. Individuals who are seen as more emotionally responsive frequently use a wider range of voice inflection; their focus is on people and relationships, and they will frequently use stories and personal opinion in conversation. These people are often highly animated. Their attitude is more casual and their gesturing may be more open.

Characteristic Behavior of More Responsive People


Here"s the sort of behavior one will observe when one is with a more responsive person. Compared to the less responsive the more responsive person tends to: Express feelings more openly Appear more friendly Be more facially expressive Gesture more freely

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19 Have more vocal inflection Be comfortable with small talk Use more anecdotes and stories Express more concern about the human aspects of issues Prefer working with people Dress more casually Be less structured in their use of time. More responsive people have most, but not necessarily all, of these characteristics.

Characteristic Behavior of Less Responsive People


Less responsive person shares most of the following behavioral characteristics. Compared to more responsive people, they tend to: Be less disclosing of feelings Appear more reserved Have less facial expressiveness Gesture less often Have less vocal inflection Be less interested in and less adept at #small talk Use more facts and logic than anecdotes Be more task-oriented Prefer working alone

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Dress more formally

People who are less responsive people have most but not necessarily all, of these

The Four Behavioral Styles


awareness provides an insight to greatly enhancing relationships with them. By becomes evident. The four behavioral styles are as follows: behavior as well as the four social styles.

The

is "ask assertive" and tends to control emotions. The analytical is the

Because of their perfectionistic tendencies, they are often ver y hard on themselves and on compliments and expressions of appreciation. Analtyicals need to guard against these

21 tendencies, because it can be demoralizing to work for someone who is big on criticism and small on compliments. This style is restrained in communication. The voice is often subdued, frequently monotone. The focus is on tasks. They have great interest for, and appreciation of, facts and data. The analytical style is reserved in the pace of speech, speaking more slowly and offering fewer statements. Their body language is more controlled and reserved. They may "clam up" with those who are overly aggressive or emotional.

Characteristics of Analytical
Most perfectionist and critical style Sticklers for detail Want things to be done right! Sets very high standards Systematic and well-organized The more data and facts, the better. Risk-averse Comfortable in solitude Quiet, reserved and low-key Indirect when stating opinions Drivers The other type of person to work is the DRIVER The driving style is "tell assertive" and tends to control emotions but tends to make more statements. Drivers blend a higher than average level of assertiveness with less than average responsiveness. They speak fast and are very direct. Though they don't often use a wide range of vocal tone or inflection, they often speak louder than those of other styles. The driving style tends to focus on 21

22 results and outcomes. They may become impatient with those who take too long to make decisions or those who are overly emotional. They excel at time management. The driver"s high energy, fast pace, purposefulness and directness of speech can trigger resentment in people.

Characteristics of Drivers
Very results-focused Get it done! Tends to forego the long-term and quality Indecision is a turn off More likely to change their minds Excel at time management Risk-taker Body language purposeful Can intimidate less assertive people Direct when stating opinions. Amiable Another type of person is the AMIABL . The amiable gets things done in manner that"s E less assertive than average, combined with more than aver age responsiveness. The amiable style is "ask assertive" and tends to display emotions. They speak more slowly and thoughtfully, use variety in their vocal tone, and they're very sensitive to the needs or reactions of others. The amiable style is the most concerned with relationships and can become upset if there is discord in the office. They can lose sight of practicality if overwhelmed with emotional issues or relationship problems. The amiable usually

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23 performs best in stable, clearly structured situation. They often prefer to have the organization define their role and set their goals

Characteristics of Amiable
Team Player Doesn"t seek spotlight Generous with their time Quiet, empathetic and friendly Confidants Very skilled maintainers Patient but slow to forget Risk-averse Natural peacemakers Focused on maintaining relationships with people Indirect when stating opinions. Expressive The expressive style is "tell assertive" and tends to display emotions. We find a lot of Expressiveness in the workplace. People integrate high level of assertiveness with much emotional expressiveness (responsiveness). This is the most flamboyant of the styles. This spirited style bristles with energy. Individuals of the expressive behavioral type tend to make more statements. They speak faster, use more variety in their vocal tone, and they're frequently very animated in conversation. The expressive style tends to focus on issues with people, and they often use stories in making their points. They are often highly spontaneous and can generate high-ener gy and creative ideas for the practice.

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24 Follow-through, however, can be a challenge for these folks. Expressiveness look for ways to make work more enjoyable.

Characteristics of Expressive
Most flamboyant and outgoing Energetic; always on the go Dreamers $ outside of the box Spontaneous Emotional roller coaster Playful and fun-loving Risk-taker Tend to think out loud Free and easy approach to time Skilled procrastinators Direct when stating opinions.

The Dynamics of Behavioral Style


Because of the significant differences in the four behavioral styles, there are conflicts that can naturally occur in daily interactions. Without the benefit of understanding the different behaviors, frustration and anger can occur. This can happen within the team or between team members and patients. The most obvious conflict occurs with the styles that are diagonally opposite on the behavioral style model. For example, a driving style person who wants people to get straight to the point without emotions can become very irritated with an amiable style person who chats leisurely about family and seems tentative in action. This may cause 24

25 the driving style person to become more assertive and the amiable style person to experience emotional stress in response. The expressive style person may come in the office full of ideas and excitement. The analytical style wants to know the facts to support their ideas. The expressive style is met with skepticism by the analytical style that chalks up their ideas as lacking in foundation and overly emotional in tone. The key to making social styles meaningful in the office is to modify own behavior to meet the needs of the other person. This doesn't mean giving up oneself, but adjusting the manner of self-presentation to help the other person feel comfortable with the person. When the entire team strives to understand and communicate effectively with each other, the entire climate of the office improves, staff is happier and productivity increases. When others see that you are striving to communicate more effectively, you are likely to receive greater endorsement by them. The purpose of behavior modification should NEVER be for the purpose of manipulation, but for the purpose of increased understanding.

Backup Style
People move from their normal style into a characteristic backup style in response to excessive stress. Backup style is a response to excessive levels of stress. Excessive stress, though, is uncomfortable, even dangerous. While backup behavior provides a way of reliving some of a persons own stress, it usually generates str ess in others. The switch from normal to backup behavior is not a conscious choice. It just pops out of people, automatically. In response to a stressful situation, a persons normal style-based behavior becomes extreme. The person pushes his regular tendencies to the hilt. Backup behavior is overkill. Expressive , who are usually socially engaging, attack. Drivers, who are normally directive, become autocratic.

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26 Amiable, who are typically supportive and cooperative, acquiesce. Analytical, who are usually quite and less emotional, avoid participation and emotional involvement. In backup, people"s behavior becomes inflexible. They respond not to what the interpersonal situation calls for but to the stress they"re feeling, regardless of the wishes or feelings of others. Expressive in Backup: Attacking Usually assertive and emotional people, expressive become more assertive and emotionally unrestrained. Strong and abusive language Loud, shouting voice Emphatic, belligerent gestures Angry personal attacks Drivers in Backup: Autocratic Drivers are normally strong-willed, under stress they can become controlling They try to impose their thoughts and plans They seem unbending, closed to other ideas They show a steely glint of determination, but little else They may concentrate all their gestures into a vigorously pointing index finger They may get loud and abrasive or they may use an authoritatively quiet voice Amiables in Backup: Acquiescing

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27 Amiables like to be quiet, friendly, and cooperative and to have minimum interpersonal tension When stressed, amiables" desire to avoid conflict and appease others goes overboard Everyone knows when an expressive is in backup It doesn"t take long to know a driver is in backup An amiable slips into backup unobtrusively Analyticals in Backup: Avoiding Analyticals also like to avoid interpersonal tension $ they are quiet, emotionally reserved and prefer to work alone When stressed they avoid both emotional expression and interpersonal involvement If emotional withdrawal doesn"t give the needed r elief; analyticals can seek refuge in being alone

Style Flex
Style Flex involves tailoring our behavior so the way we work fits better with the other person"s style. Flexing one"s behavior is like a professional baseball player electing to swing differently at a fastball, a slider and curve. Style flex is presenting your ideas in ways that are comfortable to the other person. People often develop mistaken ideas about style flex is. They sometimes equate it with manipulation or conformity. Style Flex is adjusting a Few Behaviors Be aware when style differences are affecting working relationships.

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28 Adjust body language and the way we say things to match the other"s preferred style $ two, three or four things A limited number of behavior adjustments can create major improvements Be willing to temporally adjust a few behaviors. Flex the style at the beginning of a conversation to start out in sync. Relax the style, but then flex when the others person"s stress starts to increase. Flex when something important is at stake Flex when the other is stressed more than normal Flex when the other is especially rigid ANALYTICAL Analyticals Flexing to Drivers Pick up the pace Move more quickly than usual Speak more rapidly Address problems quickly Be prepared to decide quickly Implement decisions as soon as possible Respond promptly to messages and requests When writing, keep it short Demonstrate high energy Lean into the conversation Use gestures to show your involvement in the conversation Increase the frequency and intensity of your eye contact Increase your vocal intensity Move and speak more quickly Don"t get bogged down in details or theory Concentrate on high priority issues Present the main points and skip all but the most essential details Don"t get sidetracked in theory or in recounting the history of the problem or solution 28

29 Say what you think Speak up more often Tell more; ask less Make statements that are definite rather than tentative Eliminate gestures that suggest you lack confidence in the point you are making Voice your disagreements Don"t gloss over problems Speak in practical, results-oriented terms Focus on the results of the action being discussed Emphasize that it"s a pragmatic approach Facilitate self-determination Give the driver as much freedom as possible in setting her own objectives As far as practicable, let the driver determine how to do projects and achieve objectives When making recommendations, offer a couple options for the driver When presenting options, provide a succinct factual summary Don"t be a stickler for rules Analyticals Flexing to Amiables Make genuine personal contact Don"t seem aloof When the situation permits, be more casual and informal At the outset, touch base personally Disclose something about yourself Make the most for opportunities for conversations that are not task-related Focus more on feelings Look at the person you\"re conversing with Concentrate on the meaning of the person"s body language Note how the other person reacts Demonstrate more feelings yourself

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30 Be supportive Listen emphatically so the amiable feels heard and understood Express sincere appreciation for the amiable"s contributions Lend a helping hand Provide structure Be sure the amiable"s job is well defined and goals are clearly established Help the amiable plan difficult projects and design complex work processes Reduce uncertainty Demonstrate loyalty Demonstrate interest in the human side Invite amiables" input on matters that affect them Discuss the effects of decisions on people and their morale Provide an opportunity for the amiable to talk with others before committing to a decision Don"t overdue facts and logic Edit out of your conversation any facts that aren"t absolutely necessary to making your point Don"t overdue the appeal to logic Don"t be coercive in your use of facts and logic Show that other people support the idea you are advancing Note factors that minimize the risk Analyticals Flexing to Expressives Make personal contact Don"t seem aloof Be more casual and informal than usual At the outset, touch base personally Disclose something about yourself Talks about what"s going on with other people, too Make the most for opportunities for conversations that are not task-related

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31 Pick up the pace Move more quickly than usual Speak more rapidly Don"t over explain Be prepared to decide quickly Implement decisions as soon as possible Focus more on feelings Be aware of what the expressive is feeling Acknowledge the expressive"s feelings Don"t overreact to the expressive"s highs and lows Show more feelings yourself Demonstrate more enthusiasm Don"t read too much into the expressive"s volatile verbal attack Cooperate with the expressive"s conversational spontaneity Allow enough time for the conversation Keep a balance between flowing with an expressive"s digressions and getting back on track Spend time in mutual exploration Be patient with overstatements Be tactful in responding to contradictions in what the expressive says Be open to the expressive"s fun-loving side Don"t get impatient if the expressive indulges in a few jokes Be relaxed about certain amounts of fooling around Try to create a more pleasant atmosphere for your conversation Give the expressive recognition Show appreciation for the expressive"s contribution Let the expressive be in the spotlight Say what you think Speak up more often Tell more; ask less Make statements that are definite rather than tentative

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32 Eliminate gestures that suggest you lack confidence in the point you are making Voice your disagreements Don"t gloss over problems Communicate on the expressive"s wavelength Communicate face-to-face Try to support the expressive"s vision Focus on the big picture Don"t overdue facts and logic Highlight recommendations of others Demonstrate concern about the human side Recommend a particular course of action Provide incentives when possible Help expressive put their personal stamp on what they do Empower expressives to do new things Don"t be a stickler for rules Be willing to improvise when you can Cater to their physical restlessness. AMIABL E Amiables Flexing to Analyticals Be more task-oriented Be on time Get right to business Be a bit more formal Maintain a somewhat reserved demeanor Deemphasize feelings Decrease your eye contact Limit your facial expressions Limit your gestures Avoid touch 32

33 Talk about what you think rather than about what you feel Don"t upset yourself over the analytical"s impersonal, unfeeling manner Be systematic Set high standards Plan your work Work your plan Develop superior procedures Continually improve procedures Be more rigorous in following established procedures Be well organized, detailed, and factual Be prepared Have a well-organized presentation Go into considerable detail Give a sound rationale for narrowing the options Mention the problems and disadvantages of the proposal you put forward Show why the approach you advocate is best Provide accurate factual evidence Stick to business Provide written support materials, and/or follow up in writing Be prepared to listen to more than you want to know Amiables Flexing to Expressives Pick up the pace Move more quickly than usual Speak more rapidly Address problems quickly Be prepared to decide quickly Implement decisions as soon as possible Respond promptly to messages and requests When writing, keep it short Expect #hurry-up-and-wait phenomenon

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34 Demonstrate high energy Maintain an erect posture Use gestures to show your involvement in the conversation Increase the frequency and intensity of your eye contact Increase your vocal intensity Move and speak more quickly Focus on the big picture Concentrate on high-priority issues Present the main points and skip all but the most essential details Nevertheless, make sure the details are well attended to Say what you think Speak up more often Tell more; ask less Make statements that are definite rather than tentative Eliminate gestures that suggest you lack confidence in the point you are making Voice your disagreements Recommend a course of action and sell it with enthusiasm Don"t gloss over problems Facilitate self-determination Give expressives as much freedom as possible to achieve their visions As far as practicable, let the expressive determine how to do projects and achieve objectives Don"t be a stickler for rules Amiables Flexing to Drivers Pick up the pace Move more quickly than usual Speak more rapidly than is normal for you Use time efficiently Address problems quickly

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35 Be prepared to decide as soon as possible Complete projects on schedule Respond promptly to messages and requests When writing, keep it short Demonstrate high energy Maintain an erect posture Use gestures to show your involvement in the conversation Increase the frequency and intensity of your eye contact Increase your vocal intensity Move and speak more quickly Be more task-oriented Be on time Get right to business Be a bit more formal Maintain a somewhat reserved demeanor Deemphasize feelings Limit your facial expressions Limit your gestures Avoid touch Talk about what you think rather than about what you feel Don"t upset yourself if the driver seems impersonal Be clear about your goals and plans Engage in goal setting Set stretch goals Plan your work Say what you think Speak up more often Tell more; ask less Make statements that are definite rather than tentative Eliminate gestures that suggest you lack confidence in the point you are making

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36 Voice your disagreements Don"t gloss over problems Cut to the chase Concentrate on high priority issues Present the main points and skip all but the most essential details If in doubt, leave it out Be well organized, detailed, and factual Be prepared Have a well-organized presentation When making recommendations, offer two options for the driver to choose from Focus on results Emphasize that you are recommending pragmatic ways of doing things Provide accurate factual evidence DRIVERS Drivers Flexing to Expressives Make personal contact Don"t seem aloof Be more casual and informal than usual At the outset, touch base personally Disclose something about yourself Talk about what"s going on with other people, too Look for opportunities for conversations that are not task-oriented Focus more on feelings Be aware of what the expressive is feeling Acknowledge the expressive"s feelings Don"t overreact to the expressive"s highs and lows Show more feelings yourself Demonstrate more enthusiasm Don"t read too much into the expressive"s volatile verbal attacks

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37 Cooperate with the expressive"s conversational spontaneity Allow enough time for the conversation Keep a balance between flowing with an expressive"s digressions and getting back on track Spend time in mutual exploration Be patient with overstatements Be tactful in responding to contradictions in what the expressive says Be open to the expressive"s fun-loving side Don"t get impatient if the expressive indulges in a few jokes Be relaxed about certain amounts of fooling around Try to create a more pleasant atmosphere for your conversation Give the expressive recognition Show appreciation for the expressive"s contribution Let the expressive be in the spotlight Communicate on the expressive"s wavelength Summarize face-to-face communication in writing Try to support the expressive"s vision Steer clear of the nitty-gritty Don"t overdue facts and logic Highlight recommendations of others Demonstrate concern about the human side Recommend a particular course of action Provide incentives when possible Provide considerable freedom Help expressives put their personal stamp on what they do Empower expressives to do new things Be willing to improvise when you can Cater to their physical restlessness Avoid power struggles Drivers Flexing to Analyticals

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38 Slow your pace Talk slower Don"t create unnecessarily tight deadlines When it comes to making decisions, don"t rush the analytical unnecessarily Take time to be more thorough Listen more, listen better Talk less Provide more and longer pauses to make it easier for the analytical to get into the conversation Invite analyticals to speak Reflect back to the speaker the gist of what you hear Don"t interrupt Don"t finish the other person"s sentences Don"t come on too strong Decrease the intensity of your eye- contact Don"t gesture too emphatically Decrease you vocal intensity Lean back when you make a point Phrase your ideas more provisionally Be more negotiable Communicate on the analytical"s wavelength Be prepared Go into considerable detail Give a sound rationale for narrowing the options Mention the problems and disadvantages of the proposal you put forward Show why the approach you advocate is best Be accurate Provide written support materials, and/or follow up in writing Be prepared to listen to more than you want to know

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39 Drivers Flexing to Amiables Make genuine personal contact Don"t seem aloof At the outset, touch base Disclose something about yourself Make the most for opportunities for conversations that are not task-related Slow your pace Talk slower Don"t create unnecessarily tight deadlines When it comes to making decisions, don"t rush the amiable unnecessarily Listen more, listen better Talk less Provide more and longer pauses to make it easier for the analytical to get into the conversation Invite amiables to speak Reflect back to the speaker the gist of what you hear Don"t interrupt Don"t finish the amiable"s sentences Don"t come on too strong Decrease the intensity of your eye- contact Don"t gesture too emphatically Decrease you vocal intensity Lean back when you make a point Phrase your ideas more provisionally Be more negotiable Focus more on feelings Look at the person you\"re conversing with Concentrate on the meaning of the person"s body language Note how the other person reacts Demonstrate more feelings yourself Be supportive

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40 Listen emphatically so the amiable feels heard and understood Express sincere appreciation for the amiable"s contributions Lend a helping hand Provide structure Be sure the amiable"s job is well defined and goals are clearly established Help the amiable plan difficult projects and design complex work processes Reduce uncertainty Demonstrate loyalty Demonstrate interest in the human side Invite amiables input on matters that affect them Show that other people support the ideas you are advancing Discuss the effects of decisions on people and their morale Provide an opportunity for the amiable to talk with others before committing to a decision EXPRESSIVES Expressives Flexing to Amiables Slow your pace Talk slower Don"t create unnecessarily tight deadlines When it comes to making decisions, don"t rush the amiable unnecessarily Listen more, listen better Talk less Provide more and longer pauses to make it easier for the analytical to get into the conversation Invite amiables to speak Reflect back to the speaker the gist of what you hear Don"t interrupt Don"t finish other people"s sentences Don"t come on too strong

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41 Decrease the intensity of your eye- contact Restrain your gestures Decrease you vocal intensity Lean back when you make a point Phrase your ideas more provisionally Be more negotiable Be supportive Listen emphatically so the amiable feels heard and understood Express sincere appreciation for the amiable"s contributions Lend a helping hand Expressives Flexing to Drivers Be more task-oriented Be on time Get right to business Be a bit more formal Stick to business Deemphasize feelings Limit your facial expressions Limit your gestures Avoid touch Talk about what you think rather than about what you feel Don"t upset yourself over the analytical"s impersonal, unfeeling manner Plan your work and work your plan Be prepared Have a well-organized presentation When making recommendations, offer two options for the driver Focus on the results of the actions being discussed Be pragmatic Provide accurate and factual evidence

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42 Expressives Flexing to Drivers Be well organized in your communication Be prepared Have a well-organized presentation When making recommendations, offer two options for the driver Focus on the results of the actions being discussed Be pragmatic Provide accurate factual evidence Avoid power struggles Expressives Flexing to Analyticals Slow your pace Talk slower Don"t create unnecessarily tight deadlines When it comes to making decisions, don"t rush the analytical unnecessarily Listen more, listen better Talk less Provide more and longer pauses to make it easier for the analytical to get into the conversation Invite analyticals to speak Reflect back to the speaker the gist of what you hear Don"t interrupt Don"t finish other people"s sentences Don"t come on too strong Decrease the intensity of your eye- contact Limit your gestures Decrease you vocal intensity Lean back when you make a point Phrase your ideas more provisionally Be more negotiable

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43 Be more task-oriented Be on time Get right to business Be a bit more formal Deemphasize feelings Limit your facial expressions Avoid touch Talk about what you think rather than about what you feel Don"t upset yourself over the analytical"s impersonal, unfeeling manner Deemphasize feelings Limit your facial expressions Avoid touch Talk about what you think rather than about what you feel Don"t upset yourself over the analytical"s impersonal, unfeeling manner Be systematic Set high standards Plan your work Develop superior procedures Continually improve procedures Be more rigorous in following established procedures Be well organized, detailed, and factual Be prepared Have a well-organized presentation Go into considerable detail Give a sound rationale for narrowing the options Mention the problems and disadvantages of the proposal you put forward Show why the approach you advocate is best Provide accurate factual evidence Stick to business Provide written support materials, and/or follow up in writing Be prepared to listen to more than you want to know

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What's your style?


Here's a systematic way to figure out an individuals style. For each statement, simply circle the letter that better describes how you think others see you. (Remember: Your style is how others see you, not how you see yourself.) Each statement has the comparative word "more" or "less" that, for this evaluation, means more or less than half the population. 1. a. More likely to lean back when making a point b. More likely to stand straight or lean forward when making a point 2. c. Use hands less when you talk d. Use hands more when you talk 3. a. Show less energy b. Show more energy 4. c. Control body movement more d. Control body movement less 5. a. Make less forceful gestures b. Make more forceful gestures 6. c. Show less facial expression d. Show more facial expression 7. a. Speak more softly b. Speak less softly 8. c. Seem to be more serious

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45 d. Seem to be less serious 9. a. More likely to ask questions b. More likely to make statements 10. c. Less inflection in voice d. More inflection in voice 11. a. Less likely to push for action b. More likely to push for action 12. c. Less likely to show feelings d. More likely to show feelings 13. a. More hesitant when making a point b. Less hesitant when making a point 14. c. In conversation, put more emphasis on tasks d. In conversation, put more emphasis on people 15. a. Fix problem situations more slowly b. Fix problem situations more quickly 16. c. More likely to depend on facts and logic d. More likely to depend on feelings and points of view 17. a. Slower-paced b. Faster-paced 18. c. Less likely to use small-talk or use anecdotes

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46 d. More likely to use small-talk or use anecdotes

What's the score?


If you answered "a" most of the time, then your dominant style is Analytical. If you answered "b" most of the time, then your dominant style is Driver. If you answered "c" most of the time, then your dominant style is Amiable. If you answered "d" most of the time, then your dominant style is Expressive. . And remember: No style is bad; it's simply unlike the others

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3 CHAPTE 2
3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE LEADING TO 1 INDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCH
GAP
Title What's Your Work Style? Know Thyself to Know Others : Author : David DeJean
Know thyself. It's some of the oldest advice in the world and still some of the best. Knowing what you can do, what you like to do and how you like to do it is the starting point for finding the right spot for yourself. Understanding how your personality and work style affect you can lead you to an understanding of personalities and work styles, making you a more effective manager. Knowing your own work style and having a vocabulary for thinking and talking about work styles is important. The most widely used tool for identif ying your personality type and working style is the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator. The MBTI was developed by Katherine Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers. They based their work on the theories of Carl Gustav Jung, a Swiss psychologist. In its classical form, the MBTI is a paper-and-pencil exercise that takes about half an hour to complete and must be evaluated by a qualified facilitator. "It's not a test," stresses Bob McAlpine. "It's an indicator, a wonderful tool for helping people understand who they are and identifying their primary sources of energy." McAlpine is president of Type Resources, a Louisville company that qualifies people to administer the MBTI and similar instruments. McAlpine's knowledge of the MBTI and the supporting research is deep, and his patience in explaining the theory and practice of personality typing is endless. "Jung's theory identified eight types of mental process," he says. "Each of us can use them all, but there are those we prefer. If we see other people using those we don't like,

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48 we say they're weird. Myers-Briggs lets us say they're not weird, they're just different. Then we can begin to figure out how we can work with them with respect." Personality type affects all our interactions with others. "In business, senior managers may not be comfortable talking about values," McAlpine says. "But if I'm a CEO and I have difficulty telling you what's important to me, how can you be equipped to make the best decisions - - decisions I'd be most comfortable with? Or how about a board of directors that has decided the CEO has to go. What brought that about? I wonder how much of it we could bring right back to typology. Turnover rates, retention issues -- it might be interesting what organizations might find if they could explore what's here." Type -- if we know how to decode it -- gives us a model, he says, for how we might expect a person to prefer to use those different mental processes. "It's not pigeonholing," says McAlpine. "It would be unethical for me to give you the MBTI and then say you prefer these processes so you should do this or that. But you can look at the results and say, 'Yeah, this really fits,' or 'No, this isn't exactly me.'"

Work Styles
"Any person can be successful at any job," says McAlpine, "yet some people are more comfortable -- have a more positive experience -- at one job than another. If we look at the mental processes used in the job and the processes preferred by the person, there's a high correlation. We're not talking skill, but if interests match requirements, people are more successful." The Myers-Briggs methodology outlines eight types of mental processes that provide a foundation for a personal work style. If you understand Myers-Briggs, you can use your knowledge to identif y this process language, and respond in that process, according to McAlpine. "If we're communicating using one process, we can even move to another process and continue to communicate. But I've got to be careful if I try to move you, because I might pull you out of your comfort zone. There's an energy flow. If I'm in my comfort zone, I'm gaining energy, but if not, I'm losing energy."

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49 This can be applied to all kinds of communication, says McAlpine -- job interviews, building teams, training situations. "When I go for an interview, if I know the language that will be expected, I can prepare myself," he says. "When I'm coaching with a subordinate, what language is appropriate? What's my preference? Do I need to shift my language and approach to be more effective? If I'm a CEO going into a meeting, what am I attempting to convey, who am I speaking to, what's the appropriate language?" This means using Myers-Briggs types flexibly, he points out -- to consciously choose to work within particular pr ocesses to match needs, not to say, "I am me, therefore I speak this way." If you're working with a team, you need to be prepared to deal with all the associated emotions and resistance that gets so close to who we are. "The same thing applies to strategic planning," he says. "t a certain place in the planning process; we need to pull more from some processes than others. We need to understand that some are easier for us to access than others, that what comes from some processes may be easier to share with others, and from other processes more difficult." For individuals, he says, what's most important is using your knowledge of your own preferred processes and alternatives so that you take a more holistic approach and you reach a better decision.

Career Styles
Myers-Briggs can be very useful in considering career and job changes. McAlpine points out that most of us have had jobs that ar e a bad fit. If we had been equipped to analyze the situation going in, we might have been able to say, "It's a great job, but there are things we don't align on, and it's not who I am." But there is danger, he says, in treating what we know about our personality type as a given, fixed and unalter able. We change and develop, he says, and we must recognize that in ourselves as well. "Jung identified these processes and said life is about learning to use all of them, about moving toward wholeness," says McAlpine.

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50 McAlpine stresses that people do change. We can learn other processes, just as we learn other languages, and become comfortable in them. And our understanding can help smooth the transitions: "From a holistic perspective, people might find as they reach midcareer that they want to move to other things. They find that typology gives them a tremendous opportunity to understand what's going on as they see their interest shift."

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Title : Social Style/Management Style Author : Robert Bolton, Dorothy Grover Bolton The key to making your "social style" work for you in a professional environment.
What is social style, and how can you make it work for you in a business situation? Your success at any management level depends largely on your ability to deal with other people. In this business-oriented approach to interpersonal relationships, management experts Robert Bolton and Dorothy Grover Bolton show you how to assess various behavior patterns and how to use that knowledge to capitalize on your strengths, minimize your weaknesses, and get the results you want from others. Are you predominantly an Amiable, an Analytical, an Expressive, or a Driver? Nearly everyone, according to Boltons" extensive research, uses on of the four basic social styles more often than the others. No style is better than any other, but each does bring with it a unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses. This book shows you not only how to recognize your particular style but also how to use that knowledge to manage others more effectively, set appropriate life goals and career paths, plan a sound self-improvement plan, increase your creativity, and more. Te best managers, claim the Boltons, excel at being what they are rather than at trying to be what they are not. If you feel that your effectiveness at work could be increased by better interpersonal skills but are tired of theories that want you to overhaul yourself to fit some uncomfortable, impersonal "management style," then let Social Style/Management Style improve your dealings with others and still let you be yourself.

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Title : Your Counter-Authority, Lone-Gun Attitude Author : Carla King, December 16, 2003
Find out how you're hardwired and how to communicate with radically differing systems Did you know that experts have concluded that there are 16 basic types of people? Guess what? You -- the software developer -- differ radically from the end users you serve and the business people you work for. Read on to discover how people are hardwired to process information and make decisions. Find out how others think, how to approach them, and what kind of information you need to give them so they can say yes to your ideas.

The lone gun IT pro and how business copes Using style assessments to get what you want Technologists and the leadership dilemma Do gender and culture matter? Putting yourself in the matrix: resources for awareness

People have been using scientific and psychological personality typing for at least 4000 years, beginning with a system called the Enneagram, which is thought by some to have roots in the sacred geometry of the Pythagoreans, moving through time to Plato, to esoteric Judaism, and Islamic Sufi traditions. In ancient Greece, Hippocrates (460-377 BC) first determined four temperaments, based on the four elements and believed to be responsible for different types of behavior. For a fascinating introduction to these methods, start with our short article Personality Assessments: Study. 4000 Years of

The lone gun IT pro and how business copes

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53 "IT folks tend to be counter-authority, lone-gun types. Team cohesion and esprit de corps? Trying to instill that kind of mindset in a team of tech people is an uphill challenge for IT managers," says Hile Rutledge, Managing Partner for Otto Kroger, Associates, a prominent organization consultation and training firm. In addition, technical people are often introverted, objective, focused on the present, and make logical decisions based on objective analysis of concrete information. Businesspeople and end users (maybe even your manager) are likely to be extroverts who pride themselves on gut-level "intuitive" decision making, focus on the future, and value flexibility and spontaneity. In a perfect world, each type would understand the other and value their different approaches. You would live in a world of creativity and innovation, developing products and solutions that end users couldn't wait to buy. Each person would be responsible for tasks that matched their natural abilities, and technological and business goals would be met effortlessly. This doesn't happen by itself, which is why the Organization Development (OD) field is a multi-billion dollar business. OD attempts to create these perfect worlds in industry, government, and society, and encompasses ever ything from long-term organizational strategy and hiring practices to conflict resolution in small teams. OD professionals use assessment tools as a key starting point for discussion, as they identify people's different cognitive processes, behavior tendencies, and emotional needs. ______________________________ An estimated 20% of management time is spent dealing with interpersonal conflict issues, and around 30% percent of employee downtime is due to relationship and communication difficulties with co-workers and supervisors. _______________________________ More than four million people took the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[ tm] assessment last year alone. Why? Because an estimated 20% of management time is spent dealing with

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54 interpersonal conflict issues, and around 30% percent of employee downtime is due to relationship and communication difficulties with co-workers and supervisors. A lot of these problems can be solved just by understanding that others may not process information in the same way you do, and learning how to communicate with them. Once you learn how to give others information they want, then you can get them to do what you want... or at least understand why they won't.

Using style assessments to get what you want


If you've ever left a meeting astounded that your idea wasn't accepted, your project didn't get approved, or your arguments were discounted, you probably thought the team wasn't very intelligent or there was a hidden agenda. Actually, you may not have given them all the information they needed to make a decision. Sure, you presented logical, well-researched facts that -- to you -- made absolute sense. Perhaps one decision maker needed to know how people in the company would be affected by your project. Perhaps another would have been swayed by the exciting, cutting edge aura the project would give to the company. Once you identif y someone's style, you can tailor your arguments to include the type of information that person values, and easily give them the information they need to say yes. The little exercise that follows might make all the difference in whether you get funding for your next project, successfully negotiate a new fence between you and your neighbor, or convince your spouse to agree to an adventure to Machu Piccu instead of buying a new car. Spend a few minutes with the styles assessment below to get an idea about what different people might need. (This popular assessment method may be called personal styles, people styles, or social styles, depending on the company administering it.)

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55 It's helpful to print a few copies of the checklist below and identify the characteristics that describe you, your boss, your spouse, your co-workers...whoever you need to communicate with. Once you've determined your own primar y and secondar y style, check off the other person's characteristics. Then compare the kinds of information they need to make decisions against the kinds of information you need and give, using the summary that follows. Analysts need facts, figures and data. For analysts, present the message in an orderly fashion, back it up with documentation, and be prepared to give them a chance to examine the proposal carefully. Amiables need to know the human dimensions of the situation. They'll want to know how others may feel about the matter, who else will be involved in it, and what past experiences in similar situations have been. Expressives must know what's new, exciting, and innovative about your proposal that makes it worthwhile to pursue. Drivers need solution scenarios and implementation methods to make a decision. Make sure to include the 'what are we going to do?' and 'how soon can we do it?' information in your proposal. The process of identifying someone as a type creates a great risk of limiting diversity and inclusiveness. Allen favors the Myers-Briggs method of assessment over simple tools like Personal Styles and DISC because "they all have their value, the Myers-Briggs is just complex enough to be difficult for the everyday manager to start labeling people with it." ______________________________ Don't worry, there's no need to overhaul your personality, even if that were possible. ______________________________

Do gender and culture matter?

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56 When asked if gender and culture considerations have been built into the instruments, Glenn Allen agrees with many other professionals in saying "no..." and also, "yes." The Myers-Briggs, for example, shows more women making decisions based on subjective evaluations of person-centered concerns, and more men making decisions on logic and objective analysis of cause and effect. More women come out on the the feeling side and more men on the thinking side of the thinking/feeling equation. The issue of culture is perhaps more complex. Do these assessments consider the different styles of people from San Francisco and Stockholm, Bombay and Sao Paolo? What styles are considered more desirable than others? Corporations can evolve their own cultures, too, so how does a new employee fit in?

Putting yourself in the matrix: resources for awareness


Two popular assessment methods are the Myers-Briggs and Keirsey Temperament Sorter, both of which pinpoint 16 personality types and 16 temperaments, respectively. They are often used together, and can be self-administered, though they're complex enough to benefit from professional guidance, especially if group-work is involved. See the short description of assessment testing for greater understanding of these methods. Below, in alphabetical order, is more information on assessment methods you might consider, consulting firms, and further reading: DISC William Moulton Marston, a psychologist at Harvard University, was the first to define these styles in his book The Emotions of Normal People, in 1926, and the method is still being evolved today. (Back then most behavior work was being done to explain the actions of the criminally insane.) Marston's four categories of human behavior response are (D) Dominance, (I) Influencing, (S) Steadiness, and (C) Compliance. For a thoughtful history and description of DISC visit the Understanding DISC Web site, and search the Web for information on the of many companies who administer this assessment.

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57 Enneagram The Enneagram Institute Web site is the virtual home of two leading teachers and developers of the Enneagram system, Don Richard Riso and Russ Hudson. The site includes short descriptions of each of the Enneagram Types and how they relate to each other, and provides links to their books on the same topic. Jerome P. Wagner, Ph.D., author of The Enneagram Spectrum of Personality Styles has written a short, interesting history of the Enneagram. You can take a free Enneagram personality assessment on the Enneagram Institute Web site. If you want to really explore the Enneagram, a good start is the third edition book Discovering Your Personality Type by Don Richard Risso and Russ Hudson. Keirsey Temperament Sorter Temperament is a set of inclinations that each of us is born with; a predisposition to certain attitudes and actions. This is the Web site of AdvisorTeam, a company who licenses the assessment and sells books and booklets that help you to understand the method. As with the Myers-Briggs, there are many licensed consultants who can administer this test alone or in combination with other assessments like the MyersBriggs. You can take a free, short assessment online at this site. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[tm] (MBTI[tm]) CPP, Inc. licenses and provides products (like books and assessment guides) and services related to this and various other personality assessments. A Web search will turn up many professionals who are licensed to administer MBTI[tm] alone or in conjunction with other tests such as the Keirsey or the FIRO-B[tm]. Otto Kroger Associates OKA is a well-respected organization development firm with associates all over the country. Headed by Otto Kroger, OKA sells consulting services, software, and popular books about type. Personal Styles By D.W. Merril and R.H. Reid: Personal Styles and Effective Performance: make your style work for you. This site is the source of the Personal Styles characteristics referred to 57

58 in the section Using style assessments to get what you want, above. Visit the site for more information on this topic, including how each type may be positively and negatively perceived by others. The same method might be called "People Styles" or "Social Styles," depending on the company administering it. Ridge Associates Ridge's trainers work with hi-tech firms on conflict management, and understanding and managing behavioral differences. The system they use is People Styles (also known as Personal Styles or Social Styles). Their founders are the authors of People Styles At Work, a good, practical guide to understanding styles. Other Personality Assessments Register at the Morgan Training Prework Home site and spend for fr ee online DISC personality, Decision-Making Style, Human Relations, VAK Communication Style assessments.

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4 CHAPTE 3
An employee"s style is his or her pattern of assertive and response behavior. The pattern is useful in predicting how the employee prefers to work with others. The key is how to identify people styles at work in terms of Analytical, Driver, Amiable and Expressive styles.

4. PROBLEM STATEMENT 1

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5 CHAPTE 4
The study is useful for Professionals who are facing people problems in their jobs, which affect the morale and productivity. People problems are the toughest to solve. People problems in many company is the outcome of people styles at work. It is therefore, significant to understand the people styles at work from the behavioral angle. There is thus a vital gap in the current research. This has prompted us to take up this research investigation

5. RESEARCH GAP 1

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6 CHAPTE
6. RESEARC H 1
R

5
OBJECTIVE
S

To find the common ground with employees To identify the employees" styles at work in terms of level of assertiveness and level of responsiveness To identify the #back up style To analyze the concept of #style flex in adjusting the patterns of employee behavior

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7 CHAPTE
R

7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1
TYPE OF RESEARCH The research is qualitative in nature. The study is based on data collected through structured questionnaire from the respondents. RESEARCH METHOD The method adopted in this research is survey method. TYPE OF DATA Primary Data Questionnaire Interview

Secondary Data Books Journal Internet Other sources. DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE Data for the study was obtained by extensive use of Internet and communicating with various professionals. RESEARCH TECHNIQUE The research technique used is structured questionnaire, which was distributed to professionals at various hierarchical levels in the industry.

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SAMPLING PROFILE The sampling profile selected for the research is highly educated, in the middle management category SAMPLE SIZE Sample size selected for the study is 50 IT professionals in the city of Bangalore @ (10 IT professionals with around 5 years of experience in each IT company totaling 5 companies). SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Stratified Random Sampling There may often be factors which divide up the population into sub population (various groups/ strata) and we may expect the interest to vary among the population. This has to be accounted when we select a sample from the population in order to obtain a sample that is representative of the population and this is obtained by sampling . This technique is generally used when the population is heterogeneous or dissimilar, where certain homogenous or similar groups/ strata can be isolated. stratified random

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8 CHAPTE 7
8. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 1
R
The research investigation is proposed to be restricted to one corporate enterprise in Bangalore city; the problem of generalizations becomes obvious. Besides there can be a bias/prejudice exhibited by the respondents. Nevertheless, we could gain an insight into the research topic through meticulous cross checking of data with all available data. Time and resource constraints

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9 CHAPTE 8
9. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 9.1. THINKING STYLES 1
Table 1: GENERATES NEW IDEAS

0% 0% 0% Never 43% 57% 0%

Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always Ambigous

Source: field investigatio n

INTERPRETATION 57% of the respondents accepted that they usually generate ideas for the organization. 43% of the respondents always generate ideas for the organization. Table 2: TRIES TO COME UP WITH SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS THAT MIGHT ARISE.
0% 0% 0% 0% Never

43% 57%

Not Often Not able Usuall y Alway s

Applic

Ambigou s
Source: investigation field

INTERPRETATION 43% of the respondents usually try to solve problems that might arise and 65

66 57% always comes forth to solve the problems. Table 3: FOCUSES ON FINISHING OR CLOSING THE TASK AT HANDRATHER THAN PLANNING ON HOW TO DO SO

0% 0% 0% Never

29%

0% 71%

Not Oft en Not Applicable Usuall y Alway s Ambigou s

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 71% of the respondents responded not applicable and 29% of the respondents responded that they always focus on finishing the task rather than planning on how to do so. Table 4: IS OPEN TO NEW IDEAS, CREATIVE SOLUTIONS GENERATED BY THE SUBORDINATES

0% 0% 0% 0% Never 57%

43%

Not Often Not pplicable Usuall y Alway s Ambigou s

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 57% of the respondents always encourage subordinates to express ideas and creative solutions and

66

67 43% of the respondents responded that they usually do so. Table 5: IS ABLE TO FORECAST A POSSIBLE SITUATION THAT CAN ARISE

0% 0% 0% 0% Never

43% 57%

Not Often Not Applicable Us ually Alway s Ambigou s

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 57% of the respondents are usually able to forecast a situation that can arise and 43% of the respondents are always able to foresee a possible situation. Table 6: THINKS OF WAYS TO UTILISE PERSONS WITH COMPLIMENTARY GOALS SO AS TO ARRIVE AT WIN-WIN! SOLUTIONS

16% Never

0%0% 21% 0%

Not Often Not pplicable Usuall y Alway

63%

s Ambigou s

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 63% say that they usually utilize persons to arrive at !win-win" solutions. 21% say that not often wills to utilize persons to arrive at !win-win" solutions. 16% say that they always try to utilize persons to arrive at !win-win" solutions.

67

68

9.1. COMMUNICATION 2

STYLE
S

Table 7: SHARES INFORMATION ABOUT COMPANY, POLICIES, BUSINESS AND FUTURE DIRECTION ONLY TO A FEW FAVOURITE! SUBORDINATES

0% 0% Never

14% 29% Not Often Not A pplicable Usually 14% 43% Always Ambigou s

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 43% say they do not often share information about company, policies, business and further direction to their subordinates. 29% say they usually do share the information 14% say they never share information regarding company, policies, business and further direction to the subordinates. 14% say not applicable. Table 8: FORCES HIS/HER VIEWS TO BE ACCEPTED BY THE USE OF POSITION POWER

14% 0% 0% 14%

0% Never Not Often Not Applicable Usuall y Alway s Ambigou s

72%

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION

72% say that they never force his /her opinion to be accepted. 14% say that they usually use their position power 68

69 14% say that they do not often do so. Table 9: PROVIDES SPACE FOR SUBORDINATES TO EXPRESS HIMSELF/HERSEL F
0% 0% 0% 0% Never 57%

43%

Not Often Not A pplicable Usually Always Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION

57% say they always allow subordinates to express him/her. 43% say they usually provide space for the subordinates to express himself/herself. Table 10: JUMPS FROM ONE TOPIC TO ANOTHER DURING INTERACTIONS

14% 0% 0% Never 0% 29% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 57% Ambigou s

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 57% say that they do not often jump from one topic to another during inter actions 29% say that they never jump from one topic to another during interactions 14% say that they usually jump from one topic to another during interactions

69

70 Table 11: STYLE OF COMMUNICATION DEPENDS ON HIS/HER MOOD

14% Never

0% 29% Not Often Not pplicable Usuall y Alway s Ambigou s A

0% 0% 57%

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 57% of the respondents agreed that their style of communication usually depends on their mood. 29% of the respondents agreed that their style of communication never depends on their mood. 14% of the respondents agreed that their style of communication always depends on their mood. Table 12: IS ABLE TO AGREE AT A DISAGREEMENT

0% 0% Never 42%

29%

Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always Ambigou s

0%

29%

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 42% say they usually able to agree to a disagreement 29% say they never able to agree to a disagreement 29% say they always able to agree to a disagreement

70

71 Table 13: CONSTANTLY REMINDS SUBORDINATE ABOUT HIS/HER EXPERIENCE LEVELS AND POSITION SO AS TO ENSURE CONFORMITY

14% Never 0% 14% 0% 0% 72% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always Ambigou s

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 72% say that they never remind their subordinates about their experience level and position to ensure conformity. 14% say that they usually remind their subordinates about their experience level and position to ensure conformity. 14% say ambiguous.

71

72

9.1. D ECISION MAKING STYLE 3


Table 14: POSTPONES DECISION MAKING UNTIL ABSOLUTELY INEVITABL E
17% Never 0% 50% 33% 0% 0%
Source: investigation field

Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always Ambigou s

INTERPRETATION 50% say that they never postpone the decisions that are evitable. 33% say that they usually postpone the decisions that are evitable. 17% say ambiguous. Table 15: NEVER FOLLOWS UP ON A DECISION TO OBSERVE ITS EFFECT
17% 0% 0% 50% 33% 0% Never Not Often Not A pplicable Usually Always Ambigou s
Source: investigation field

INTERPRETATION 50% say that they never follow up the effects on a decision made. 33% say that they do not often follow up the effects on a decision made. 17% say that they always follow up the effects on a decision made.

72

73 Table 16: OPEN TO REVERSE A PREVIOUS DECISION IF MERITTED

0% Never 34% 33% Not Often Not A pplicable Usually 0% 33% 0% Always Ambigou s

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 34% say that they are always open to reverse the previous decisions made. 33% say that they are never open to r everse the previous decisions made. 33% say that they are usually open to reverse the previous decisions made. Table 17: TENDS TO TAKE DECISION THAT ARE PEOPLE ORIENTED! RATHER THAN COMPANY ORIENTED!

0% Never 34% 33% Not Often Not Applicable Usually 0% 0% 33% Always Ambigou s

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 34% say they always take decisions that are people-oriented. 33% say they do not often take decisions that ar e people-oriented. 33% say they never take decisions that are people- oriented. Table 18: OFTEN MISSES OUT ON THE IMMEDIATE NECESSITY IN INTERESTS OF A LARGER PERSPECTIVE WHILE TAKING DECISIONS LEADING TO PROBLEMS

73

74

33% 50% 0% 0% 0%

Neve r Not Often Not Applicable Usuall y Alway s Ambigou s

17%

Source: investigation

field

INTERPRETATION 50% say that never often misses out on the immediate necessity in interests of a larger perspective while taking decisions leading to problems. 33% are ambiguous. 17% say that they do not often misses out on the immediate necessity in interests of a larger perspective while taking decisions leading to problems. Table 19: WAITS FOR THE BOSS TO TAKE DECISIONS

0% 0% Never

17% 33% Not Often Not Applicable Usually 0% 50% Alway s Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% of the respondents say that they do not often wait for the boss to take decisions. 33% of the respondents do usually waits for the boss to take further decisions. 17% of the respondents always wait for the opinion of the boss to take decisions.

74

75 Table 20: CALLS FOR THE OFFICIAL MEETING BEFORE TAKING ANY DECISION

0% 0% Never 33%

17% Not Often Not Applicable Usually 33% 17% Always Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 33% of the respondents say, they do not often call for an official meeting. 33% of the respondents say, they usually call for an official meeting. 17% of the respondents say, they always call for an official meeting. 17% of the respondents say, they never call for an official meeting. Table 21: EXPECTS SUBORDINATES TO CONSULT BEFORE TAKING ANY DECISIONS
0% 0% 33% 50% Neve r Not Often Not Applicable Usuall y Alway s Ambigou s

17%

0%

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% do not often expect subordinates to consult them before taking decisions. 33% always expect subordinates to consult them before taking decisions. 17% usually expect subordinates to consult them before taking decisions.

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76

Table 22: INSPIRES HIGH ENERGY AMONG SUBORDIATES

9.1. BOS - UBORDINATE INTERACTION STYLE S S 4

0% 0% 17% 0% Never

33%

Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 50% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% usually shows positive energy among subordinates 33% always shows positive energy among subordinates. 17% are not applicable. Table 23: UNAPPROACHABLE

16% 0% Never 0% 17% 50% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 17% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% are never unapproachable. 17% are not often unapproachable. 17% are not applicable. 16% are always unapproachable.

76

77 Table 24: USUALLY LIKES TO SEE SUBORDINATES BUSY (INVENTING ACTIVITES JUST TO KEEP THEM BUSY)
17% Never 0% 17% 0% 50% 16% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% do not often suppress pressure on the subordinate. 17% are ambiguous. 17% usually suppress pressure on the subordinate. 16% never suppress pressure on the subordinate. Table 25: TENDS TO DO THINGS BY HIMSELF/HERSELF SO AS TO DO IT RIGHT !
0% 17% 0% 0% Never 17% 66%

Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 66% usually does thing by himself/herself. 17% do not often do things by him/her. 17% are not applicable. Table 26: ONE CAN LEARN SOMETHING BY WORKING WITH HIM/HER

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78

0% 0% 0%

17% 0% Never Not Often Not A pplicable Usually Always 83% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 83% usually learn by working with him/her. 17% always learn by working with him/her. Table 27: USUALLY LIKES OTHERS TO TREAT HIM/HER WITH RESPECT, ADMIRATION AND PERSONAL LOYALTY AND RECIPROCATES THE SAME
0% 0% 33% 50% Neve r Not Often Not pplicable Usuall y Alway s Ambigou s A

17%

0%

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% do not often care about how he/she would like to be treated by others. 33% always likes others to treat him/her with respect, admiration, personal loyalty and reciprocates the same. 17% usually likes others to treat him/her with respect, admiration, personal loyalty and reciprocates the same.

78

79 Table 28: TENDS TO TREAT SUBORDIANTES AS LESS IMPORTANT OR LESS SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE. PERFERS TO GO BY DESIGNATION AND STATUS

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Never

Not Often Not Applic able Us ually Alway s 100% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 100% never treats subordinates according to their position or designation. They prefer to treat them equally. Table 29: ALLOWS SUBORDINATE TO MAKE MISTAKES AND IS SUPPORTIVE TO RECTIFY

0% 17% 17% Never 0% Not Often Not Applicable Usually 33% 33% Always Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 33% are always willing to allow subordinates to make mistakes and rectif y them. 33% are usually willing to allow subordinates to make mistakes and rectify them. 17% do not often allow subordinates to make mistakes and rectify them. 17% are ambiguous.

79

80

Table 30: TEND TO RELEASE PENT UP STRESS ON SUBORDINATES

9.1. EMOTIONAL EXPRE SSIVENESS 5

17% 0% Never 0% 0% 0% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 83% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 83% never shows their pent up stress on subordinate. 17% always shows their pent up stress on subordinate Table 31: IS ABLE TO SPREAD POSITIVE EMOTIONS AMONG SUBORDIANTES
17% 17% 0% Never 0% 0% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 66% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 66% usually spreads high energy levels among subordinates. 17% never spreads high energy levels among subordinates. 17% always spreads high energy levels among subordinates. Table 32: CRITICISM EASILY UPSET BY

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81

17% 0% 0%

0% Never 17% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 66% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 66% do not often become upset by criticism. 17% usually become upset by criticism. 17% never become upset by criticism. Table 33: PROVIDES SUPPORT TO SUBORDIANTES WHEN REQUIRED PROACTIVEL Y
0% 0% 0% 0% Never

33%

Not Often Not Applicable Usually

67%

Always Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 67% always stands up to provide support to subordinates. 33% usually stands up to provide support to subordinates. Table 34: TAKES TIME TO CONVEY HIS/HER FEELINGS OR EMOTIONS

81

82

0% 17% Never 0% 33% Not Often Not Applicable Usually 0% 50% Always Ambigou s

source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% usually conveys their emotions. 33% do not often like to show their emotions. 17% are ambiguous. Table 35: USUALLY CALM, NOT DISTRUBED BY PRESSURE

0% 17% 0% 0% Never

0%

Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always

83%

Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 83% are usually calm and not disturbed by stress and pressur e. 17% are not that often calm and tend to get disturbed by pressure.

82

83

9.1. COLLEAGUE DELIGHT 6


Table 36: IS DEPENDABLE FOR SUBORDIANTES
17% 17% 0% Never 0% 0% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 66% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 66% are usually dependable to subordinates. 17% are always dependable to subordinates. 17% are never dependable to subordinates. Table 37: TRUSTWORTHY
0% 0% 0% 0% Never 50% 50%

GENERALLY

Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% are always and usually trustworthy to the colleagues. Table 38: IS COMFORTABLE WITH REGULAR TASKS AS REQUIRED BY HIS/HER POSITION

83

84

0% 0% 0% 17%

17% Never Not Often Not Applicable Usually 66% Always Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 66% are usually comfortable with their regular tasks. 17% are always comfortable with their regular tasks. 17% are ambiguous. Table 39: HESTITATES TO WORK IN A TEAMSETTINGS WITH THE SUBORDINATES

17% Never 0% 0% 0% 33% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always Ambigou s

50%

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% never hesitates to work in a team along with subordinates. 33% not often hesitates to work in a team along with subordinates. 17% are ambiguous. Table 40: SETTINGS IS FINE WITH INFORMAL

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85

0% 0% 0%

17% Never Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always Ambigou s

50% 33%

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% are usually happy to be involved in informal settings. 33% are always happy to be involved in informal settings. 17% are ambiguous. Table 41: CANNOT KEEP A SECRET/CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION
0% 17% 0% 0% Never 33% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 50% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% do not often keep confidential information to themselves. 33% can never keep confidential information to themselves. 17% cannot usually keep confidential information to themselves.

85

86

Table 42: TENDS TO DELEGATE REPETITIVE WORK AND KEEP THE INTERESTING WORK TO HIMSELF/HERSELF
0% 0% 0% 0% Never

33%

Not Often Not Applic able Us ually Alway s Ambigou s

67%

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 67% do not often keep interesting work to themselves while delegates monotonous work to others. 33% never keep interesting work to themselves while delegates monotonous work to others.

86

87

9.1. EXECUTION STYLE 7


Table 43: IS SENSITIVE TO THE VALUE OF TIME
0% 0% 0% 17% 0% Never

Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 83% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 83% are always time conscious. 17% are usually time conscious. Table 44: DELIVERS RESULTS FOR THE COMMITMENTS MADE
0% 0% 0% 17% 0% Never

Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 83% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 83% are always committed to the work and delivers result. 17% are usually committed to the work and delivers result Table 45: OVER-PROMISES, UNDER-DELIVERS

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88

0% 17% 0% 0% Never 33% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 50% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% of the respondents do not often over-promises while under delivers. 33% of the respondents never over-promise while under delivers. 17% of the respondents usually over-promise while under delivers. Table 46: UNDER-PROMISES, OVER-DELIVERS

0% 17% 0% 0% Never 33% Not Often Not pplicable Usuall y Alway 50% s Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 50% of the respondents do not often under promises while over delivers. 33% of the respondents never under promises while over delivers. 17% of the respondents usually under promises while over delivers. Table 47: ABILITY TO ASK TOUGH QUESTIONS THAT GET RIGHT TO THE HEART OF THE MATTER

88

89

0% 17% 17% Never 0% 0% Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 66% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 66% of the respondents usually have the ability to ask the right questions 17% of the respondents do not often have the ability to ask the right questions 17% of the respondents are ambiguous. Table 48: REWARD THOSE WHO DO RATHER THAN SAY THEY WILL
0% 0% 0% 17% 0% Never

Not Often Not Applicable Usually Always 83% Ambigou s

Source: field investigation INTERPRETATION 83% say that they always reward those who do rather than say they will. 17% say that they usually reward those who do rather than say they will.

89

90

1 CHAPTE 9 R 0 10.1M
10.1. 1

AJOR RESEARCH FINDINGS THINKING STYL


are generated by the subordinates.

E 1. Majoity of the employees are open to new ideas and creative solutions that 2. They try to come up with solutions to problems that might arise. 3. Most employees" plans well before jumping into action. 4. Employees demonstrate concern for attention to details while planning. 5. Employees tend to think of ways to utilize persons with complimentary goals so as to arrive at !Win-Win" solutions. 6. They have the ability to forecast a possible situation that can arise. 7. Very few employees" focuses on !finishing" or !closing" the task at hand.

10.1. 2

COMMUNICATION STYLE
1. Employees do not like to communicate or share any form of information regarding their company, policies and future dir ection to only few subordinates. 2. Allows subordinate to complete the communication thread before reacting. Subordinates are given the necessary space to express themselves. 3. Makes an effort to convince his/her viewpoints but never forces to accept his/her views. 4. They are focused during interactions, never jumps from one topic to another. 5. The mood of the employee depends on his style of communication. 6. Generally gives respect to the other people, ir respective of position in the organization"s hierarchy. 7. Most of them are able to agree to a disagreement.

90

91

10.1. 3

D ECISION MAKING STYLE


1. Majority of the employees takes decisions in the best interests of everybody involved and never postpones the crucial decisions that should be taken. 2. Are open to change the previous decisions made by them. 3. The employees never take trouble in following up a decision to observe its effect. 4. Employees never call for an official meeting before taking any decisions. They consult team members only when absolutely essential when taking decisions. 5. Encourages subordinates to take decisions independently. 6. Employees would like to take decisions that ar e people oriented.

10.1. 4

1. Most employees spread positive energy among subordinates. Tends to take subordinate along. 2. Comes across as a person who is simple and is approachable. 3. Generally stands up and protects subordinates mistakes. 4. Employees like to set themselves as a role model to others. 5. Subordinates do learn by working with him/her. Coaches them- so they can get better 6. Pushes self in order to set an example to subordinates. 7. Gives confidence to employees.

BOS - UBORDINATE INTERACTION STYLE S S

10.1. 5

EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIVENESS STYLE


1. Inspires high energy levels among subordinates. 2. Never tends to infect subordinates with stress. 3. Sensitively handles even unreasonable demands of subordinates. 4. Most of them are not easily disturbed by pressure or stress. They are usually calm. 5. Takes time to understand the subordinate"s feelings and also tries to convey his/her emotions and feelings.

91

92 6. Provides feedback to the employees.

10.1. 6

COLLEAGUE DELIGHT STYLE


1. The employees are generally trustworthy and make an ef fort to be ethical. 2. Employees are more of friend than a boss to subordinate. 3. Assists subordinates pro-actively. 4. Creates a comfortable environment. 5. Employees never grumble or complain with regular tasks. 6. Most of them are happy to be involved in the informal settings. 7. Employees lack in keeping confidential information to themselves.

10.1. 7

EXECUTION STYLE
1. Most of the employees use their time efficiently. Tries to manage time well. 2. They are committed to the work. 3. Employees do have the ability to ask the right questions. 4. Delivers according the promises made. 5. Employees reward those who perform well at work than they say.

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1 CHAPTE 1 R 0 1 11.1R

ECOMMENDATIONS

1. Improve in interpersonal communication through Johari Window 2. Different approaches to work can fit to get sync with others. This can be achieved through managerial grid training 3. Counseling should be provided to employees regarding conflict management. 4. Assertiveness Training 5. Flexing each style of behavior among employees 6. Corporate enterprises need to conduct research periodically on effective ineffective work styles

11.2DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH


Following are the fertile areas for further r esearch: 1. A detailed study on Just $In-Time flex concept. 2. Leveraging personal styles to effective organizational performance 3. Keys to understanding people in contemporary organizations 4. People styles at work; and their interface with organizational stress 5. Energizing employees through productive r elationships 6. Strategies to flex different styles of behavior towards organizational effectiveness.

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12.1SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 12.1. BOOKS 1 1. "Dealing with People By Robert Heller D.K. Publishing Inc. New York.
2. #Human Resource Management By John.M.Ivancevich , Tata McGrawHill Publications. 3. "Personal Styles and Effective Performance" By David Merrill and Roger Reid, Radnor, Chilton Book Publications 2005 4. "Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, Harper and Row Publications 1973 5. "Loving, Living and Learning" By Leo Buscaglia Holt, Rinehart and Winston Publications 2002 6. "Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior" By Erving Goffmann, Anchor Books publications, 2000

1 2

ANNEXUR
E

7.

"Managing for Excellence" By David Bradford and Allan Coheb, John Wiley & Sons, 2000

12.1. 2

JOURNALS
1. Human Capital 2. Executive Excellence 3. ICFAI HRM Review 4. Journal of Organizational Behavior

12.1. 3

BUSINESS MAGAZINES
1. Business World 2. Business Today 3. Fortune 4. Business Line

12.1. 4

WEBSITES VISITED
1. http://developers.sun.com/toolkits/articles/personality.html

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95

2. www.humanlinks.com 3. http://www.southwest.cc.nc.us/careerfocus/fall03/style.htm

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96

13 Q UESTIONNAIR
QUESTIONNAIRE: A behavioral study of people styles at work
Dear Employee, I, Soumya Prasad, a student of MBA course of Bangalore University, would like to ask a few questions as a part of my MBA project. I request you to kindly answer them honestly and accurately. I assure you that the information given by you will be kept extremely confidential. Thanking you in advance for your cooperation. Employee Personal Data: a. Name : ____________________________________ b. Age : _______yrs c. Company : _________________________________ d. Job Designation : ____________________ e. Qualification : ___________________ f. Experience : ____yrs Thinking Styles 1. Generates new ideas Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 2. Tries to come up with solutions to problems that might arise Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 3. Focuses on 'finishing' or closing the task at hand rather than planning on how to do so Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 4. Is open to new ideas, creative solutions generated by subordinates 96

97 Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 5. Is able to forecast a possible situation that can arise Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 6. Thinks of ways to 'utilize' persons with complementary goals so as to arrive at 'win - win' solutions Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? Communication Styles 7. Shares information about company, business, policies and future direction only to a few 'favourite' subordinates Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 8. Forces his/her views to be accepted by the use of position power Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 9. Provides 'space' for sub-ordinate to express himself/herself Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous?

97

98 10. Jumps from one topic to another during interaction/s Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 11. Style of communication depends on his/her 'mood' Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 12. Is able to agree to a disagreement Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 13. Constantly reminds subordinates about his/her experience levels and position so as to ensure conformity Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? Decision making styles 14. Postpones decision making until absolutely inevitable Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 15. Never follows up on a decision to observe it's effect/s Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous?

98

99 16. Open to reverse a previous decision if merited Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 17. Tends to take decisions that are 'people oriented' rather than 'company oriented' Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 18. Often misses out on the immediate necessity in interests of a larger perspective while taking decisions leading to problem/s Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 19. Waits for bosses to take decisions Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 20. Calls for an official meeting before taking any decision Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 21. Expects subordinates to consult before taking any decision Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous?

99

100 Boss-subordinate Interaction styles 22. Inspiring high energy among subordinates Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 23. Unapproachable Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 24. Usually likes to see subordinates busy - even inventing activites just to keep them busy Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 25. Tends to do things by himself/herself so as to do it 'right' Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 26. One can learn something by working with him/her Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 27. Usually likes others to treat him or her with respect, admiration and personal loyalty and reciprocates the same Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous?

100

101 28. Tends to treat subordinates as less important or less significant people. Prefers to go by designation and status Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 29. Allows subordinates to make mistakes and is supportive to rectify Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? Emotional expressiveness 30. Tends to release pent up stress on subordinates Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 31. Is able to spread positive emotions among subordinates Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 32. Easily upset by critisism Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 33. Provides support to subordinates when required pro-actively Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous?

101

102 34. Takes time to convey his/her feelings or emotions Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 35. Usually calm, not disturbed by pressure Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? Colleague delight 36. Is dependable for subordinates Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 37. Generally trustworthy Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 38. Is comfortable with regular tasks (even if repeated) as required by his/her position Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 39. Hesitates to work in a team setting with subordinates Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 40. Is fine with an informal setting

102

103 Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 41. Cannot keep a secret/confidential information Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 42. Tends to delegate repetitive work and keep the interesting work to himself/herself Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? Execution styles 43. Is sensitive to the value of time Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 44. Delivers results for commitments made Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 45. Over-promises, Under delivers Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 46. Under-promises, Over-delivers Never

103

104 Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 47. Ability to ask tough questions that get right to the heart of the matter Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous? 48. Reward those who do rather than say they will Never Not often Not applicable Usually Always Ambiguous?

104