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Bridge Design Manual - 2002

Chapter 1 Introduction

INTRODUCTION

These Standards deal with small and medium sized structures and shall be used for all structures within the Ethiopian Roads Authority (ERA) throughout the country. These Standards are based mainly on the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 2nd edition, 1998, with modifications to Ethiopian conditions, requirements and applicable laws of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. As a supplement to these Standards for structures not mentioned here (such as prestressed bridges, large bridges, certain steel bridges, composite bridges, aluminum bridges, etc.), the AASHTO LRFD Specifications, 2nd edition 1998 or later editions may be used but only together with Chapter 3: Load Requirements in these Specifications. The Bridge Design Manual is written for the practicing engineer and describes current, mandated and recommended practice in selected aspects of bridge engineering. These are based on mathematical calculations, and the Ethiopian terrain, experience and research, and have the support of the Ethiopian Roads Authority. It closely follows American practice and is based mainly on the LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 1998 Second Edition, SI Units, of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. These Specifications are based primarily on the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification 2nd Edition 1998 which replaces the AASHTO Standard Specification for Highway Bridges, 16th ed. 1996. The latter specs may however be used during a transition period of 3 years up to December 31, 2003, after which this Bridge Design Manual (LRFD Code) shall govern. The LRFD method was introduced by AASHTO in the USA in 1994. A similar method has been used for bridge design in parts of Europe since 1988, and, without load reduction factors, for building design at the Addis Ababa University since 1985. These Specifications shall govern over the Ethiopian Building Code Standard (at present EBCS Nos. 1,2,3,5,7 and 8, 1995). EBCS shall be used as a compliment to these Specifications. Required loads, dimensions and methods are summarized generally in Chapters 2, 3, and 6-11. The remaining chapters are generally concerned with recommended practices. It is the purpose of this manual to provide all the necessary procedural guidance, dimensions, and materials advice to enable a civil engineer with some field experience to prepare appropriate preliminary and detailed designs for small and medium sized bridges. The manual deals with all stages of bridge design from planning and site investigation to preliminary and detailed design. A main feature is the preliminary design stage, as it is anticipated that it will become more common to bid only with the preliminary layout
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Chapter 1 Introduction

Bridge Design Manual - 2002

drawings, leaving final design to the bidder/constructor. Therefore, the preliminary design stage must contain some minimum requirements, which are described in chapters 4 and 5. The manual covers the entire design process in terms of both the: Time-related process, proceeding from feasibility study through preliminary design and final design to bridge inspection and strength evaluation of old bridges; and Total design from foundations to superstructure to bearings and railing. 1.1 UNITS SI Units shall be used in accordance with ISO 1000, for all calculations. Units in brackets are not SI-units, but are often used together with, or instead of, SI-Units. Length Area Volume Time Temperature Pressure Energy Forces and loads Density, Unit Mass Unit weight Stresses and strengths Moments Velocity Flow m (mm, km) m2 (mm2, km2) m3 (l, where 1000 liters = 1 m3) s (h, where 1 hour = 3600 seconds) K (C, where 1 C = 1 K) Pa, kPa, MPa (1 N/m2 = 1 Pa) J (kWh, where 1 kWh = 3,6*106 J) kN, MN kg/m3 kN/m3 kPa, MPa, GPa (kN/m2, MN/m2, GN/m2) kNm (MNm) m/s (km/h) m3/s (l/s)

1.2 CONVERSION FACTORS: (METRIC TO/FROM SI-UNITS) FORCE 1 kp (kilopound) = 9,81 N KP 1 1000 0.1 100 105 MP N KN MN 0,001 10 0,01 10-5 1 104 10 0,01 -4 10 1 0,001 10-6 0.1 1000 1 0,001 4 100 10 1000 1
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TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE 1oC = 1o K

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Bridge Design Manual - 2002

Chapter 1 Introduction

FORCE MOMENT 1kpm = 9,81 Nm Pressure 1 kp/cm2 (at) 1 Kp/mm2 (1Pa = 1 N/m2) = 98,07 * 103 Pa = 9,807 * 106 Pa kPa kN/m2 104 100 1 1000 MPa MN/m2 10 0.1 0,001 1

kp/mm2 kp/cm2 1 0,01 10-4 0.1 100 1 0.01 10

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