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[A]

AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) A regulatory organization which governs the design and specifications of highway bridges. Accessories Are extra items that can be furnished in addition to the base joist or joist girder. They include: headers, top chord extensions, ADL Abbrevation for 'After Dead Load is Applied'. Aesthetic Having the sense of beauty or pleasing to the eye. AFF Abbrevation for 'Above Finish Floor'. AGA (American Galvanizers Association) A non-profit association representing the post-fabrication hot-dip galvanizing industry. AGCA (Associated General Contractors of America) Is a national trade organization of qualified construction contractors and and industry related companies dedicated to skill, in AIA (American Institute of Architects) An organization to unite in fellowship the members of the architectural profession in the United States. AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.) Is a non-profit technical specifying and trade organization for the fabricated structural steel industry in the United States. It w AISE (Association of Iron and Steel Engineers) Abbreviation. AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) An institute to promote the interests of the iron and steel industry. Alignment Chart for Columns A nomograph for estimating the effective length factor, K, of columns in an unbraced frame. Note that the chart is based upo Amplitude A measure of floor vibration. It is the magnitude or total distance traveled by each oscillation of the vibration. Amplification Factor A multiplier of the value of moment or deflection in the unbraced length of an axially loaded member to reflect secondary va Anchor Bolt A long 'L' shaped bolt which is set in concrete and used to anchor columns or other members to a foundation or other suppor Anchor Bolt Plan A plan view showing the size, location, and projection of all anchor bolts. Anchorage The process of fastening a joist or joist girder to a masonry, concrete, or steel support by either bolting or welding. Angle A hot rolled shape called an Angle with symbol L which has equal legs or unequal legs. Angle Unit A member used as a joist substitute which is intended for use at very short spans (10 feet or less) where open web steel joists ANSI (American National Standards Institute) A nonprofit organization which promotes the use of U.S. standards internationally Apex The highest point on a joist or joist girder where the sloped chords meet. See also Peak. Approval Plans Plans sent by the joist manufacturer to the buyer, engineer, architect, contractor or other person for approval. The plans may Area

Unit of measure of length times width expressed in square inches. Arched Joist A non-standard type of joist where both the top chord and bottom chord are curved parallel with each other. Architect A person who designs buildings or other structures and has completed schooling in building design or similar subjects and is li ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) Founded in 1852, is the oldest national professional engineering society in the United States. It is dedicated to the advancem ASD (Allowable Stress Design) A structural design method whereby a structural element is designed so that the unit stresses computed under the action of Aspect Ratio For any rectangular configuration, the ratio of the lengths of the sides. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) An organization which has developed over 10,000 technical standards which are used by industries worldwide. Atrium An opening or skylighted lobby through two or more floor levels other than an enclosed stairway, elevator, etc. AutoCAD The world's most popular computer-aided drafting software product for the personal computer in both DOS and windows by Automatic Welding A welding procedure using a machine to make a weld. Auxiliary Load Any dynamic live loads such as cranes, monorails, and material handling systems. AWI (American Welding Institute) An organization established in 1984 to bridge the gap between the findings of basic welding research and the needs of the ind AWS (American Welding Society) A non-profit organization whose major goal is to advance the science, technology, and application of welding and related join Axial Force A force tending to elongate or shorten a member. Axial Compression An axial force causing compression in a member. Axial Load A load whose line of action passes through the centroid of the member's cross-sectional area and is perpendicular to the plan Axial Strut Load A structural member designed to transfer a axial tension or compression load only. Axial Tension An axial force causing tension in a member. [Return to Glossary] [B]

Backing Bar A welding aid used to prevent melting through of a joint when preforming, for example, a complete-joint penetration groove Balcony An elevated platform or seating space of an assembly room projecting from a wall of a building. Ballast Roof A roof which has selected material, such as crushed stone, placed on its surface to hold down the roof from wind forces. Bar A square or round piece of solid steel which is usually 6 inches or less in width. Base Metal

The metal to be welded or cut. Base Plate A steel plate welded to the base of a column which distributes the column loads over an area of foundation large enough to p Basement Any floor below the first story in a building. Batten A small piece of angle or plate welded to the heels of a two angle web member or any two parallel components to tie them t Bay The distance between the main frames of a building. Base Ply Is one layer of felt fastened to the deck over which a built-up roof is applied. BBC (Basic Building Code) A minimum model regulatory code for the protection of public health, safety, welfare and property by regulating and control Beam A structural member, usually horizontal, whose main function is to carry loads transverse to its longitudinal axis. These loads Beam-Column A structural member whose main function is to carry loads both parallel and transverse to its longitudinal axis. Bearing 1) The distance that the bearing shoe or seat of a joist or joist girder extends over its masonry, concrete, or steel support 2) A Bearing Plate The steel plate used for a joist or joist girder to bear on when they are supported by masonry or concrete supports. This plate Bearing Wall A wall which is supporting any vertical loads i2n addition to its own weight. Bending Moment The condition in the analysis of the internal stresses across the cross section of a member when it is subjected to forces which Bending Stress Is zero at the neutral axis and assumed to increase linearly to a maximum at the outer fibers of the section. Formula in the elastic range: Bending stress (in psi)=(M * c)/I, where 'M' is the bending moment at the section in in-lbs, 'I' is th Bent The plane of beam or joist girder members which support loads and the columns which support these members. Bevel Cut A single cut made at an angle to the member length. See Miter Cut. BG-Type Joist Girder A type of Joist Girder where joists are located at all panel points where vertical webs and diagonal webs intersect the top cho Biaxial Bending Bending of a structural member about two perpendicular axes at the same time. Bifurcation The phenomenon whereby a perfectly straight member may either assume a deflected position, deflect then twist out of plan Bill of Lading A list that gives each part or mark number, quantity, length of material, total weight, or other description of each piece of ma Bill of Materials A list of items or components used for fabrication and accounting purposes. See Cut-List. Blasting A method of cleaning or of roughening a surface by a forceable stream of sharp angular abrasive. Blue Print Also called a blue line. Is a copy of an architectural or other drawing made by a special machine usually on white paper with t BOCA (Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc.)

A minimum model regulatory code for the protection of public health, safety, welfare and property by regulating and control Bolted Splice The connection between two structural members joined at their ends by bolting to form a single, longer member. Bond Beam The top course of block of a masonry wall filled with concrete and reinforcing steel and used to support roof loads. Bottom Bearing A bearing condition where the joist or joist girder bears on its bottom chord and not at an underslung condition. Bottom Chord The bottom members of a joist or joist girder. Bottom Chord Extension (BCX) The two angle extended part of a joist bottom chord from the first bottom chord panel point towards the end of the joist. Bottom Chord Strut A bottom chord of a joist or joist girder designed to transfer a axial tension or compression load. Boundary Condition An idealization to model how a structure is attached to its "external" points of support, for example, pin, fixed, roller, or shea Bow String Joist A non-standard type of joist where the top chord is curved and the bottom chord is straight or level. Bow's Notation Used in a graphical analysis of a joist or joist girder. It is a notation for denoting truss joints, members, loads, and forces. Capi Braced Frame A frame which resists lateral loads by the use of diagonal bracing, K-braces, or other system of bracing. Bracket A structural support attached to a column or wall on which to fasten another structural member. Bridge Crane A lifting system which has a hoist that moves laterally on a beam or other member which then in turn moves longitudinally on Bridging In general, is a member connected to a joist to brace it from lateral movement. See Horizontal Bridging and Diagonal Bridging Bridging Anchor An angle or bent plate attached to a wall where the bridging will be attached or anchored, either by welding or bolting. The e Bridging Clip A small piece of angle or plate with a hole or slot that is welded to the top and bottom chord angles so that bridging may be a Bridging Diagram A diagram of the profile of a joist used to show the number and location of the rows of bridging. Brittle Fracture The tearing or splitting of a member with little or no prior ductile deformation. BTU (British Thermal Unit) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree farenheit. Buckling Load The load at which a straight member under compression transfers to a deflected position. Building Any structure used for support or for shelter. Building Code Regulations established by a recognized agency describing design loads, procedures, quality of materials, and construction de Building Designer A registered architect or registered engineer who is responsible for the design of a structure. See Specifying Professional. Building Official The officer or other authority which has the duty of administration and enforcement of a building code.

Built-Up Roof A type of roof composed of two or more layers of alternating felt, tar and asphalt. Built-Up Section A structural member made up from individual flat plates welded together or any structural metal elements that are welded o Butt Plate The end plate of a structural member usually used to rest or butt against a like plate of another member in forming a connect [Return to Glossary] [C]

C Shapes A hot rolled shape called an American Standard Channel with symbol C. C Section A structural member cold-formed from sheet steel in the shape of a block "C" which can be used by itself or back to back with CAD Abbreviation for Computer-Aided Drafting. Calipers A mechanical instrument usually having a pair of pivoted legs adjustable to any distance and used to measure thichness, dista Camber Camber is an upward curvature of the chords of a joist or joist girder induced during shop fabrication to compensate for defle Canopy A projecting member that is supported at one end only. Cant Strip A deck accessory which is a short piece of gage steel used at 45 degrees where a wall or parapet meets the end of deck. Canted Seat A seat which is sloped perpendicular to the member which most joist manufactures do not do. Usually the steel contractor fu Cantilever The part of a member that extends freely over a support which is not supported at its end. Cap Plate A steel plate welded to the top of a column which a joist, joist girder, or other structural member can bear on. Catwalk Suspended structural framing used to provide access to and between areas below a roof and above a floor. Ceiling Extension Is similar to a bottom chord extension except that only one angle of the joist bottom chord is extended from the first bottom Centerline Span (or Center-to-Center) A theoretical span definition which is the distance between the actual centerlines of a beam, column, joist, or joist girder. Centroid The point in a member at the intersection of two perpendicular axes so located that the moments of the areas on opposite si Certified Welder A welder who has been certified by a competent experienced welding inspector or a recognized testing facility in the field of Change Order A written document which modifies the plans, specifications, or price of a construction contract. Channel A hot rolled structural shape the looks like "[". There are American Standard Channels designated by (C) and Miscellaneous Ch Chord The two angle top or bottom member of a joist or joist girder, usually with a gap between the angles. Cladding The exterior covering of the structural members of a building.

Clear Span The actual clear distance or opening between supports for a structural member, i.e., the distance between walls or the distan Clevis A U-shaped yoke with internal threads in one end which can be attached to a threaded rod and the other end a connection w Clip Angle A structural angle which attaches to the side of a wall, column, beam, etc. where a joist, joist girder, or other structural memb Closure Strip A floor deck accessory made of gage metal which is placed over the ends of deck so that concrete cannot run out of the flute Coefficient of (Linear) Expansion The change in length, per unit, for a change of one degree of temperature. Cold-Formed The process of forming a structural section by bending sheet or strip steel in roll-forming machines without the use of heat. Collateral Load All additional dead loads other than the weight of the building, such as sprinklers, pipes, ceilings, and mechanical or electrical Column Is a main vertical member carrying axial loads, which can be combined with bending and shear, from the main roof beams or Column Curve A curve which shows the relationship between axial column strength and slenderness ratio. Compact Section A steel section whose flanges must be continuously connected to the webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression Composite Beam A steel beam and a concrete slab connected, usually by shear stud connectors, so that they act together to resist the load on Compression A condition caused by the action of squeezing or shortening of a component. Compression Member Any member in which the primary stress is longitudinal compression. Concentrated Load A single load or force that has such a small contact area as to be negligible compared with the entire surface area of the supp Connection A joint connected by welds or bolts used to transmit forces between two or more members. See also Splice. Continuity The term given to a structural system denoting the transfer of loads and stresses from member to member as if there were n Continuous Span A span that extends over several supports and having more than two points. Continuous Weld A weld which extends continuously from one end of a joint to the other. Contract A legal document or agreement, enforceable by law, between two or more parties for the doing of something specified, such Contract Documents Contract drawings, specifications, etc., used to build a structure which define the responsibilities of the parties involved. Contract Drawings All the architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, etc. plans that make up a legal set of contract documents to build a bu Conventional Framing Framing using conventional joist, beams, columns, masonry walls, etc. instead of framing used in Metal Building construction Coping The process of removing certain sections of a structural steel member to allow easier fitup to the supporting structural memb Corbel

Successive courses of masonry projecting from the face of a wall to increase its thickness or to form a shelf or ledge for a stru Cover Plate A long plate usually welded to the top or bottom flange of a rolled steel beam or to the bottom chord of a joist or joist girder Coverage The width of a deck sheet, i.e., 30 inches or 36 inches. Crane 1) A machine used to move material by means of a hoist. 2) A machine that can usually move and is used to lift heavy materia Creep A time-dependent deformation of a structural member under a sustained constant load. Cricket A ridge or drainage diverting roof framing. Crimped Angle Web A regular angel whose ends have been 'crimped' in the shape of a 'U' whose out-to-out distance is usually one inch. The actua Critical Load The load at which deflection of a member or structure occurs as determined by stability analysis. CSI (Construction Specifications Institute) Abbreviation. Curb A raised edge of a concrete floor slab or support for a mechanical unit. Curtain Wall A non-load bearing exterior wall which carries only its own weight and wind load. Curvature The rotation per unit length of a member due to bending forces. Cut-List A list of components with dimensions used for fabrication and accounting purposes. See Bill of Materials. [Return to Glossary] [D]

Damping For floor vibrations, it is the rate of decay of amplitude. Dead Load Loads due to the weight of the components making up the structure and that are intended to remain permanently in place. Deck A floor or roof covering made out of gage metal attached by welding or mechanical means to joists, beams, purlins, or other s Deck Type The specific type of deck to be specified, such as Type "B" Wide Rib, Type "F" Intermediate, Type "N" Deep Rib, Type "A" Narr Deflection The displacement of a structural member or system under load. Deformation The act of distorting or changing the shape or dimensions of a structural element or body resulting from forces or stresses. Depth of Joist The out-to-out distance from the top of the top chord to the bottom of the bottom chord taken a some reference location, u Design Documents The plans, details, sections, specifications, etc. prepared by the building designer. Design Length The 'span' of a joist or joist girder in feet minus 0.3333 feet. Design Loads

The loads specified in the contract drawings or specifications which a building is to be designed for. Design Strength The resistance provided by a structure, member, or connection to the forces imposed on it. Diagonal Bracing Structural members which are inclined and are usually carrying axial load which enable a structural frame to behave as a trus Diagonal Bridging Two angles or other structural shapes connected from the top chord of one joist to the bottom chord of the next joist to form Diaphragm Roof panel or decking, metal wall, or floor slab which provides a larger in-plane shear stiffness and strength adequate to tran Diaphragm Action The resistance to a racking affect or in-plane shear forces offered by roof deck, panels, or other structural members when pro Double Curvature When end moments on a structural member produce a bending effect which cause the member to form an S shape or has a r Downstanding Leg The leg of a structural angle which is projecting down from you when viewing. Drift The lateral movement or deflection of a structure. Drift Index The ratio of the lateral deflection to the height of the building. Drift Pin A tapered pin used during the erection process to align holes in steel members which are to be connected by bolting. Duct Any tube, pipe or other conduit by which air or fluid is transfered. Duct Opening The round or square opening required through the web system of a joist or joist girder to allow passage of a duct. Ductility Is the ability of a material to withstand large inelastic deformations without fracture. Structural steel has considerable ductilit Ductility Factor The ratio of the total deformation at maximum load to the elastic-limit deformation. Dynamic Load A load that varies with time which includes repeative loads, seismic loads, and other loads created by rapid movement. [Return to Glossary] [E]

Eave The line along the sidewall of a building formed by the intersection of the plane of the roof and the plane of the wall. Eave Height The vertical distance from finished floor to the eave. Eave Strut A structural member located at the eave of a building which supports a roof and/or wall panels. Eccentric The condition that exists when a load is applied on a line of action that does not pass through the centroid of the body it is ap Eccentricity The distance between a line of action of force and the centroid of the member it is applied to. Edge Angle 1) A structural angle that is connected around the edge of a joist extension or other member 2) An angle used around the sid Edge Distance

The distance from the center of a hole to the edge of a connected part. Edge Strip The width or region around the edges of a building where uplift values are higher than in the interior of the roof. Effective Depth The distance from the centroid of the top chord to the centroid of the bottom chord. Effective Length The equivalent length, KL, used in compression formulas. This method estimates the interaction effects of the total frame on Effective Length Factor (K) The ratio between the effective length and the unbraced length of a member measured between center of gravities of the br Effective Moment of Inertia The moment of inertia of the cross section of a member that remains elastic when partial plastification takes place. See Mom Effective Width The transverse distance indicating the amount of slab that acts in conjuction with the supporting member. EJ Abbrevbation for 'Expansion Joint'. Elastic Analysis The analysis of a member which assumes that material deformation disappears on removal of the force that produced it and Elastic Design See Allowable Stress Design and Working Stress Design. Electrode The device through which current is conducted thru to the arc or base metal during the process of welding. Embedment A steel member such as a plate, bolt, stud, or bar cast into a concrete structure which is used to transmit applied loads to the End Bay The bay which is located from the end of a building to the first interior main frame. End Diagonal or Web The first web member on either end of a joist or joist girder which begins at the top chord at the seat and ends at the first bo End Distance The horizontal distance from the first top chord panel point at the end of a joist to the first bottom chord panel point. End Lap The lap at the end of a sheet of deck which bears over the primary support (joist or beam). End Moment A moment which is generated at one end or both ends of a joist, joist girder, or beam due to continuous frame action which c End Panel The distance from the panel point at thejoist seat to the first top chord panel point towards the interior. End Wall An exterior wall which is perpendicular to the ridge of the building. Envelope A graphical plot indicating the maximum magnitude of an internal force effect such as flexual stess, shear stress, axial stress, EOD Abbreviation for 'Edge of Deck'. EOJ Abbreviation for 'Edge of Joist'. EOS Abbreviation for 'Edge of Slab'. Equations of Equilibrium The equations relating a state of static equilibrium of a member or structure when the resultant of all forces and moments ar

Equivalent Uniform Load A uniform load (in plf) derived from the maximum reaction (in lbs) or the maximum moment (in inch-lbs) of a member carryin Formula: Weq= 2 * max. reaction (in lbs) divided by length (in feet) or Weq=(8 * max. moment) divided by (lenght^2 (in feet) * 12) Erection The process of installing joists, joist girders, beams, bridging, deck, or other structural members in order to construct a struct Erection Plan Floor or roof plans that identify individual marks, components, and accessories furnished by the joist manufactures in a detai Erector The person or company that actually does the erecting of the joist or joist girders for a job. Expansion Joint A break in construction or a special design detail to allow for thermal expansion and contraction of the materials of a structur Extended End The extended part of a joist top chord with also the seat angles extended from the end of the jost extension back into the jois [Return to Glossary] [F]

Fabrication The manufacturing process to convert raw materials into a finished product by cutting, punching, welding, cleaning, and pain Factor of Safety Is the ratio of the ultimate load for a member divided by the allowable load for a member and must always be greater than u Factored Load The product of the nominal load and a load factor. Farside For joists and joist girders, when looking at the member with the tagged end to the right, it is the side that is opposite the sid Fascia The flat surface located at the outer end of a roof overhang or cantilever end or also a decorative trim or panel which project Fastener Term for a connecting device such as a weld, bolt, rivet, etc. FC Abbreviation for 'Field Cut'. Field A term used for the jobsite or building site where construction of the project will take place. Field Weld The specific term used for the welding of structural members out at the actual jobsite and not in a fabricators shop. Filler A rod, plate, or angle welded between a two angle web member or between a top or bottom chord panel to tie them togethe Finish In deck terminology, the coating on the deck sheet, i.e., galvanized, painted, or unpainted. Finish Strip A roof deck accessory made out of gage metal for finishing out runs of deck for small areas of coverage where full sheet cove Fire Proofing The process of coating a structural steel member with a fire retardant material to make the member resistant to fire. Fire-Resistance The ability of a joist or other structural member to resist a fire due to the type of protection it has, such as membrane protec Fixed-End Support A condition where no rotation or horizontal or vertical movement can occur at that end. This type of support has no degrees

Flange The projecting edge of a structural member. Flange Brace A structural bracing member used to provide lateral support to the flange of a beam, the bottom chord or a joist girder, or a c Flashing Pieces of sheet metal or the like used to cover and protect joints, etc. where a roof comes in contact with a wall or chimney. Flute The fold or bend in a sheet of deck which forms a groove or furrow. FMS (Factory Mutual System) A leader in property loss prevention engineering and adjustment. It helps companies prevent and control property loss throu Folding Partition A moveable wall on a track suspended from a joist or beam which usually folds like an accordion and can be stored in a closet Footing A concrete pad or mat located under a column, wall, or other structural member that distributes loads from that member int Foundation The substructure which supports a building or other structure. Frame A structural framing system consisting of members joined together with moment or rigid connections which maintain their or Framed Opening Headers or other structural members which surround an opening in a roof which can be for mechanical units, straiwells, etc. Framing Plan Floor or roof plans that identify individual marks, components, and accessories furnished by the joist manufactures in a detai Free-Body Diagram A diagram on which all of the external forces acting on a body are shown at their respective points of application. Frequency A measure of floor vibration. It is the speed of the oscillations of vibration and is expressed in cycles per secong or Hz (Hertz). [Return to Glossary] [G]

G-Type Joist Girder A type of Joist Girder where joists are located at panel points where diagonal webs intersect the top chord only. Gable The triangular portion of a roof located above the elevation of the eave line of a double sloped roof. Gable Joist A non-standard type of joist where the top chord is double pitched at an extreme pitch (say 3/12) and the bottom chord is str Gage 1) The thickness of a sheet of deck or 2) The distance from centerline hole to centerline hole across a set of holes, usually per Galvanized The process of coating steel with zinc for corrosion resistance. Gambrel A roof having two slopes on each side, the lower slope usually steeper than the upper one. Girder A main horizontal, primary structural member spanning between two main supports which carries other members or vertical Girt A horizontal structural member that is attached to the sidewall or endwall columns supporting sheeting or paneling. Grade The ground elevation around a building.

Grillage Beam A short beam used like a bearing plate to distribute large reactive loads to a wall such as the load from a joist girder. Gusset Plate A steel plate used to connect structural steel members or to reinforce members. It is usually inserted between the top or bot [Return to Glossary] [H]

H-Series Joist A series of joist adopted in 1961 so proportioned that the allowable tension or bending stress does not exceed 22,000 psi or 3 Hardness Is a measure of the resistance of a material to scratching and indention. Header A structural member located between two joists or between a joist and a wall which carries another joist or joists. Usually ma Heel The outside point of a structural angle where the two perpendicular legs intersect. High Strength Bolts A structural steel bolt having a tensile strength greater than 100,000 pounds per square inch, usually A325 or A490. High Strength Steel Structural steel having a yield stress greater than 36,000 pounds per square inch. Hinge Support This type of support has one degree of freedom, it can freely rotate about its axis but it cannot displace in any direction. Two Hip Roof A roof which slopes from all four sides of a building. The line where two adjacent sloping sides intersect is called the 'hip'. Hip and Valley A system of roof framing where support members form valleys and ridges. Hoist A chain or electric lifting device usually attached to a trolly which travels along a monorail or bridge crane. Homogeneous Material A material having the same engineering design properties throughout. Hooke's Law The linear relationship of forces and deformations, or stresses and strains. Horizontal Bridging A continuous angle or other structural shape connected to the top and bottom chord of a joist horizontally whose l/r ratio ca Horizontal Shear Stress Is zero at the outer fibers of a section and is maximum at the neutral axis. It tends to cause one part of the section to slide pa Formula: Horizontal Shear stress (in psi)=(V * Q)/I*t, where 'V' is the external vertical shear on the section in lbs, 'I' is the mom Hot-Rolled Shapes Structural steel sections which are formed by rolling mills from molten steel which can be angles, channels, W Shapes, S Shap HP Shapes A hot rolled shape with symbol HP used for bearing piles which have essentially parallel flanges and equal web and flange thic Hysteresis A term that describes the behavior of a structural member subjected to reversed, repeated load into the inelastic range whos [Return to Glossary] [I]

ICBO (International Conference of Building Officials (Uniform Building Code) A minimum model regulatory code dedicated to public safety through development and promotion of uniform codes and sta

Ice Dam A dam or blockage formed on a roof by the buildup of ice along the eave of a building. IFI (Industrial Fasteners Institute) Abbrreviation. III (Institute of the Ironworking Industry Abbreviation. Impact Factor The factor by which the static weight is increased by dynamic application. Impact Load A weight that is dropped or a dynamic load generated by movement of a live load such as vehicles, craneways, etc. Impact Strength The ability of a material to absorb the energy of a load delivered rapidly to a member. Impact Wrench A pneumatic device used to tighten nuts on bolts. Inclusions Nonmetallic material which is entrapped in sound metal. Inelastic Action Deformation of a material which does not disappear when the force that produced it is removed. Inflection Point Represent a point of zero moment in structural member. Influence Line An influence line is a curve whose ordinates give the values of some particular function (shear, moment, reaction, etc.) in an e Instability A condition reached when a structure or structural member is loaded in which continued deformation results in a decrease in Insulation Any material used to reduce heat transfer in a roof or building. Intermittent Weld A weld which is not continuous. It is broken by recurring unwelded spaces. Internal Pressure The pressure inside a building which is a function of the wind velocity and the number and locations of openings. Interior Bearing Bearing supports which are interior to two exterior supports. ISO 9000 (International Organization for Standardization) Is a series of quality management and assurance standards for companies to strive for. Isotropic A material having equal physical properties along all axes. [Return to Glossary] [J]

J-Series Joist A series of joist adopted in 1961 so proportioned that the allowable tension or bending stress does not exceed 22,000 psi and Jack Truss A joist girder that is supporting another joist girder. JBE Abbreviation for 'Joist Bearing Elevation'. Jib Crane A cantilevered boom or beam with a hoist and trolly used to pick up loads in all or part of a circle around which it is attached

Jig A device which holds work or pieces of materal in a certain position until rigidly fastened or welded during the fabrication pro Jobsite The specific location where a structure is being build. Joint The area where two or more ends or surfaces are joined by a weld or other fastener. See Panel Point. Joint Penetration The minimum depth the weld metal extends from its face into a joint. Joist A structural load-carrying member with an open web system which supports floors and roofs utilizing hot-rolled or cold-form Joist Designation A standard way of communicating the joist safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities for a given span such as 16K5 o Joist Girder A primary structural load-carrying member with an open web system designed as a simple span supporting equally spaced co Joist Girder Designation A standard way of communicating the girder design loads such as 48G6N10.5K where the first number is the nominal girder d Joist Manufacturer The producer of joists or joist girders who is SJI approved. Joist Spacing The distance from one joist to another. Joist Substitute A structural member which is intended for use at very short spans (10 feet or less) where open web steel joists are impractica [Return to Glossary] [K]

K-Distance The distance from the outside fiber of a rolled steel beam to the web toe of the fillet of a rolled shape. K-Series Joist A series of joist adopted in 1986 based on a load/span type of determination. KCS Joist Is a K-Series joist that is designed to support uniform load plus concentrated loads or other non-uniform loads. Kerf The width of a cut produced during a cutting process. Key Plan A small reference plan or outline of the whole building on each plan sheet divided into smaller areas for which each sheet is d Kicker A structural member used to brace a joist or beam usually at an angle. Kilo SI prefix for 10^3 or 1000. Kip A unit of weight equal to 1000 pounds. Knee Brace A structural brace positioned diagonally between a beam or column and a joist panel point. Knife Plate Seat A vertical plate used as a joist seat whose width is small for bearing purposes. It is used for hip and valley bearing conditions, KSI (Kips per Linear Foot) Is 1000 pounds per square inch.

KSF (Kips per Square Foot) Is 1000 kips per square foot. [Return to Glossary] [L]

Lamellar Tearing Is a separation or crack in the base metal caused by through-thickness weld shrinkage strains of adjacent weld metal. Lap Joint Lateral Buckling Also called lateral-torsional buckling. This is buckling of a member involving lateral deflection and twist. Lateral Bracing Members, fasteners, or welds which brace a member at certain locations to prevent lateral movement. Lean-To A structure depending upon another structure for support and having only one slope such as a shed. Leeward The direction toward which the wind is blowing, which is opposite the side from which the wind blows. Opposite of windward Leg The flat projecting part of a structural angle. Leveling Plate A steel plate used on top of a foundation on which a structural column can be placed. Lintel A horizontal structural member spanning a door, window, or other wall opening which supports a wall or any construction im Live Load Loads on a member that are not permanent and are likely to be moved at some point in the life of the structure. They can be Load An external force or other action acting on a member or structure. It can be from permanent construction, environmental eff Load Combination The combination of loads which produce the worse loading condition in a structural member. Load Table A table of standard joist designations which give the total safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities and live load-car Loading Diagram A diagram which shows all design loads and design criteria that a member is to be designed for. The loads include: dead load, Longitudinal The direction extending along the long axis of the member. Longspan Designation A standard way of communicating the longspan joist safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacities for a given clear span Longspan Joist A structural load-carrying member with an open web system which supports floors and roofs utilizing hot-rolled or cold-form Loose Angle Strut A single or double angle either welded or bolted at the first bottom chord panel point and extended to brace another membe LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design) A method of proportioning structural members such that no limit state is exceeded when all appropriate load combinations h [Return to Glossary] [M] M Shapes A hot rolled shape called a Miscellaneous Shape with symbol M that cannot be identified as W, HP, or S Shapes.

Major Axis The axis of a structural member possessing the largest section modulus and radius of gyration, thus having the greatest flexur Mark An identification number or method of relating to the erector which joist, joist girder or other separate part of the building go Masonry A type of construction from materials such as concrete blocks, bricks, concrete, stone, or ceramic blocks which is laid unit by Maxwell Diagram A graphical method of determining stresses in a truss by combining force polygons of all the joints into one stress diagram. MBMA (Metal Building Manufacturers Association) An association of manufacturers of metal building systems whose objectives are to compile and publish recommended design MC Shapes A hot rolled shape called a Miscellaneous Channel with symbol MC. Mechanical Unit An air conditioner or other unit either placed on top of a roof system or hung below which applies loads to joist or joist girder Mega SI Prefix for 10^6 or 1000000. Member Release An idealization to model how members are attached to "each other". It designates whether forces and moments at the ends Metal Building System A building system consisting of a group of coordinated components which have been designed for a certain loading. These co Metal Stud A structural steel member used for framing walls just as a regular wooden one. Meuller-Breslau Principle Is a simple method to draw approximate shapes of influence lines. Mezzanine A low floor between two stories in a building, usually just above the ground floor. MHI (Material Handling Industry) Is a not-for-profit organization which was formed to advance the interests of the material handling industry which includes th Mil A measurement of thickness of paint. One mil=.001 of an inch. Milled A surface which has been accurately sawed or finised to a true plane. Mill Test Report A report of a heat of steel that indicates the customer's order number, grade of steel, number and dimensions of pieces shipp Milli SI prefix for 10^-3 or 0.001 Minor Axis The axis of a structural member possessing the smallest section modulus and radius of gyration, thus having the least flexural Miter Cut A single cut made at an angle to the member length. See Bevel Cut. Modulus of Elasticity (E) Is the slope of the straight-line portion of the stress-strain curve in the elastic range found by dividing the unit stress in ksi by Moment The tendency of a force to cause a rotation about a point or axis which in turn produces bending stresses. Moment Connection A connection designed to transfer moment as well as axial and shear forces between connecting members. Moment Diagram

A diagram that represents graphically the moment at every point along the length of a member. Moment of Inertia (I) A physical property of a member which helps define rigidity or stiffness and is expressed in inches raised to the fourth power. Moment Plate A welded steel plate used to develop a rigid connection to the supporting member so that moment transfer can occur. Monorail Usually a single rail support for a material handling system. MPC (Materials Properties Council) Abbreviation. MT A hot rolled structural tee shape with symbol MT which is cut or split from M Shapes. Mullion A vertial member or division between the panels of a window. Mylar A type of strong, thin polyester sheet used for producing blueprints of architectural drawings. [Return to Glossary] [N]

Nailers Strips of lumber attached to the top chord of a joist so plywood or other flooring can be nailed at 36 inches maximum on cen NBC (National Building Code) A minimum model regulatory code for the protection of public health, safety, welfare and property by regulating and control NBS (National Bureau of Standards) Abbreviation. NCEES (National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying) Provides leadership in professional licensure of engineers and land surveyors. NEA (National Erectors Association) Abbreviation. Nearside For joists and joist girders, when looking at the member with the tagged end to the right, it is the side you see first and is clos Neutral Axis The surface in a member where the stresses change from compression to tension, i.e., represents zero strain and therefore z Newton The SI unit of measure for force (N). NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) An international nonprofit organization to reduce the burden of fire on the quality of life by proposing codes and standards, r NIC Abbreviation for 'Not in Contract'. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technololgy) An organization that works with industry and government to advance measurement science and develop standards. Non-Bearing Wall A wall that supports no vertical load other than its own weight. Noncompact Section A steel section which does not qualify as a compact section and the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements do no Nonrigid Structure A structure which cannot maintain its shape and may undergo large displacements and would collapse under its own weight w NRCA (National Roofing Contractors Association)

Abbreviation. NSPE (National Society of Professional Engineers) Abreviation. NTS Abbreviation for 'Not to Scale'. [Return to Glossary] [O]

Offset Ridge When the ridge of a joist that has the top chord pitched two ways is not in the center of the member or bay. On The Flat A measurement of distance horizontally on a plan, no slopes involved. One-third Increase When designing steel members for forces produced by wind or seismic conditions, the allowable stresses in the design formu OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) A federal organization whose purpose is to save lives, prevent injuries, and protect the health of the workers of America. Outrigger A structural member which is usually perpendicular to a joist and attaches under the outstanding leg of one of the joist top ch Outstanding Leg The leg of a structural angle which is projecting toward or away from you when viewing. Overhang The extension of the top chord of a joist beyond the outside of the bearing support. See Top Chord Extension. [Return to Glossary] [P]

P-Delta Effect The secondary effect of column axial loads and lateral deflection on the moments in structural members. Pack Out When joists are erected in multiple bays, they begin to hit each other end to end (or pack out) because the center to center o Panel or Panel Length 1) The distance between two adjacent panel points of a joist or joist girder 2) A sheet of deck for a roof or floor. Panel Point The point where one or more web members intersect the top or bottom chords of a joist or joist girder. See Joint. Parallel Chord Type of joist or joist girder which has its top and bottom chords parallel to each other. The member can be sloped and still ha Parapet The portion of a vertical wall of a building which extends above the roof line at the intersection of the wall and roof. Part Number See Mark and Piece Mark. Partially Restrained A type of connection that displays a moment rotation behavior that can neither be described as pinned nor fixed. Partition A wall that is one story or less in height used to subdivide the interior space in a building and can be a bearing wall or a non-b Pascal The SI unit of measure for stress or force per unit area (N/m^2). PE Abbreviation for 'Professional Engineer'.

Peak The highest point of a gable or also the highest point on a joist or joist girder where the sloped chords meet. See also Apex. Penthouse A small enclosed structure above the roof of a building. Permit An official document or certificate by a governmental agency or building official authorizing performance of a building proces Piece Mark See Mark and Part Number. Pilaster A reinforced or enlarged portion of a masonry wall to provide support for vertical roof loads or lateral loads on the wall. Pin Connection or Support A connection where no moment is transfered from one member to another, only axial and shear forces. This type of support Pipe A hollow cylinder of metal used for the conveyance of water or gas or used as a structural column which comes in sizes of sta Pipe Bridge A structural system where two joists are used to carry loads such as piping or ducts. The two joists have to have diagonal brid Pitch Is the slope or inclination of a member. It is defined as the ratio of the total rise to the total width. It also is defined as the ang Placing Plan See Erection Plan and Framing Plan. Plan North The North arrow symbol on a contract drawing usually 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the plan so that communication Plane Frame A two-dimensional structural framework. Plastic Design A design concept based on multiplying the actual design loads by a suitable load factor and then using the yield stress as the m Plate A thin, flat piece of metal of uniform thickness usually over 8 inches to 48 inches in width. Plate Girder A built-up structural beam. PLF (Pounds per Linear Foot) A unit of load obtained by multiplying pounds per square foot times the tribituary width on a joist. Plug A rod, plate, or angle welded between a two angle web member or between a top or bottom chord panel to tie them togethe Plug Weld A weld in a slot in a piece of steel which overlaps another piece. A principle use for a plug weld is to transmit shear in a lap joi Poisson's Ratio Defined as the ratio of the unit lateral strain to the unit longitudinal strain. It is constant for a material within the elastic range Polar Moment of Inertia (J) Is the sum of any two moments of inertia about axes at right angles to each other. It is taken about an axis which is perpendic Ponding The gathering of water at low or irregular areas on a roof. Portal Frame A rigid frame structure which is designed to resist longitudial loads where diagonal bracing is not permitted. It has rigidity and Pounds (LB or #) A unit of weight. Pour Stop

An angle used around the sides of a floor to contain the concrete when it is being poured. Powder Actuated A fastening method which uses a powdered charge to imbed the fastener into the member. Prefabricate To manufacture or construct parts or sections of structural assemblies beforehand that are ready for quick assembly and erec Press Brake A machine used in cold-forming metal sheet or strip into a desired cross section or structural shape. Primary Members This is the main load carrying members of a structure such as a beam or joist girder. Principle of Superposition States that the resultant is the algebraic sum of the effects when applied separately. Primer or Paint The initial coating of a member applied in the shop which is not a finish coat and only protects from rust for a limited time. Prismatic Beam A beam with uniform cross section. Profile Drawing A drawing or diagram which shows the outline of a joist with dimensions and also maybe the web system configuration and b Proportional Limit The point on a stress-strain curve where the linear relationship between stress and strain ends and usually coincides with the PSI (Pounds per Square Inch) A unit of stress or pressure. PSF (Pounds per Square Foot) A unit of stress which to multiply the tribituary width on a joist by to get PLF. Puddle Weld See Plug Weld. Purlin Usually a cold-formed horizontal structural member attached perpendicular to the joist top chord or main frames of a buildin [Return to Glossary] [Q] **** No terms yet! [Return to Glossary] [R]

Radius of Gyration (r) Is the distance from the neutral axis of a section to an imaginary point at which the whole area of the section could be concen Formula: The square root of (the moment of inertia in inches^4 divided by the area of the section in inches^2) expressed in in Rafter The main beam supporting a roof system or a sloping roof framing member. Rake The edge of a roof which intersects the gable part of a roof. RCSC (Research Council on Structural Connections) Abbreviation. Reaction The force or moment developed at the points of a support. Redundants

The reactions which are not necessary for static equilibrium. Reinforcement An additional member added to a structural member to provide additional strength. Reinforcing The process of strengthening a member with some additional piece of material. Relaxation Is a decrease in load or stress of a member under a sustained constant deformation. Repair The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing structure or building for the purpose of its maintenance. Residual Stress Pre induced stresses within a structural member due to uneven cooling of the shape after hot-rolling. Resistance The capacity of a structure or structural member to resist the effects of loads or forces imposed on it. Retaining Wall A wall designed to resist the lateral displacement of soil, water, or any other type of material. Rib A fabricated fold or bend in a sheet of deck which projects up from a horizontal plane. Ridge The highest point on the roof of a building formed by two intersecting slopes or the horizontal line made by the top surfaces Rigid Connection A connection where moment is transfered from one member to another. See also Fixed-End Support. Rigid Frame or Structure A structural framing system consisting of members joined together with moment or rigid connections which maintain their or Rise The vertical distance from the bottom to the top of an entity. RMI (Rack Manufacturers Institute) An institute organized in 1958 by industry leaders as a not-for-profit trade association. Its mission is to advance standards, qu Rod A smooth solid round bar used for the web system of a bar joist. Roof Covering The exposed exterior roof skin of a building which can be sheets, panels or other materials. Roof Overhang A roof extension that projects beyond the ends or sides of a building. Roller Support This type of support has two degrees of freedom, it can freely rotate about its axis or displace in one direction in the plane. O [Return to Glossary] [S]

S Shapes A hot rolled shape called an American Standard Beam with symbol S. Saddle Angle The angle connection or seat on the end of a header or frame which bears from the side on the top chord of a joist. This angle Sag Rod A tension member used to limit the deflection of a girt or purlin in the direction of the weak axis. SBC (Standard Building Code) A minimum model regulatory code for the protection of public health, safety, welfare and property by regulating and control Scab On

A member fastened or welded to another member for reinforcement. Scissor Joist A non-standard type of joist where both the top chord and bottom chord are double pitched and parallel with each other. Scupper Any opening or drain in the side of a structure, flat roof, or downspout for the drainage of rain water. Scuttle A framed opening in a roof used for access to the roof from inside a building. SDI (Steel Deck Institute) An institute which brings uniformity to the design, manufacture, quality control, and construction practices applicable to cold SEAA (Steel Erectors Association of America) An organization that sets uniform standards among the many steel erectors and helps promote safety in the erection industry Seat Depth The out-to-out depth of the end bearing shoe or seat of a joist or joist girder which is the distance from the top of the top cho Section Modulus (S) A physical property of strength of a structural member. It relates bending moment and maximum bending stress within the e Seimic Load Are assumed lateral forces acting in any horizontal direction that produce stresses or deformations in a structural member du Self Tapping Screw A mechanical fastener for attaching deck, panels, or other materials to a structure which taps its own threads in a predrilled h Sequence A breakdown of when materials are to be made or delivered for a project with one following after the other. Set Back The distance from the outside edge of an angle or other member to the edge of a gusset plate or angle welded near the end. Shaft An interior space, enclosed by walls, which extends through one or more stories or basement which connects successive floo Shape Factor The ratio of the plastic section modulus Z to the elastic section modulus S or the ratio of the plastic moment Mp to the yield m Shear A condition or force causing two contacting parts of a material to slide past each other in opposite directions parallel to their Shear Center The point in a cross section of a structural member to which a load may be applied and not induce any torsional stress in the Shear Diagram A diagram that represents graphically the shear at every point along the length of a member. Shear Release A boundary condition which constrains a member end from axial displacement and rotation but allows movement in a directi Shear Stud Connector A steel device used in composite design which is welded to the top flange of a beam or top chord of a joist which transfers sh Shear Wall A wall that resists horizontal shear forces applied in the plane of the wall. Shim A piece of steel used to level a joist seat. It can be a bent plate, flat plate or rod. Shipping List A list that gives each part or mark number, quantity, length of material, total weight, or other description of each piece of ma Shop Drawings 1) Can also be called the erection plans or framing plans 2) The actual drawings used by a shop to fabricate a product which in Shore The process of temporarily supporting a structure or structural member with auxiliary members.

SI (Le Systeme International d'Unites) The international abbreviation for the International System of Units or metric system. Side Lap The lap at the sides of a sheet of deck and is attached by side lap screws or welds between supports. Side Lap Screws A screw used to connect the sides of two adjacent sheets of deck together, #10 being the standard size. Side-View Diagram A drawing or diagram which shows the outline of a joist with dimensions and also maybe the web system configuration and b Side Wall An exterior wall which is parallel to the ridge of the building. Sidesway The lateral movement of a structure when subjected to lateral loads or unsymmetrical vertical loads. Simple or Single Span A span with supports at each end, no intermediate support, that restrain only against vertical displacement with the ends of t Single Curvature When moments produce a deformed or bent shape of a structural member having a smooth continuous curve or arc. Single Slope A sloping roof in one plane which slopes from one wall to the opposite wall. Single-Ply Roof A type of roofing system using thermoplastic membranes which are seamed by either hot air or solvent welding of one sheet SJI (Steel Joist Institute) The institute is a non-profit organization of active joist manufacturers that maintains sound engineering practice throughout Skew The condition when two entities come together at an angle which is not 90 degrees or perpendicular to each other. Skylight An opening or roof accessory in a roof or ceiling for admitting light. If it bears across a joist, the top chord angles may be unbr Slag A non-metallic byproduct of the welding process forming a hard crust over the molten steel which should be chipped away fo Slender Element Section A steel section whose width-thickness ratios of any compression element exceeds the values of a noncompact section. Slenderness Ratio The ratio of the effective length of a column to the radius of gyration of the column about the same axis of bending. Slip-Critical Joint A bolted joint in which the slip resistance of the connection is required. Slope The angle or inclination a structural member makes with reference to a horizontal position expressed in inches of vertical rise Slot Length The length of a slotted hole in a joist bearing seat or other structural connection. Slot Weld See Plug Weld. Snow Drift The triangular accumulation of snow at high/low areas of structures expressed in PSF or PLF. Snow Load Are forces applied to a member by snow accumulation on the roof of a structure. Soffit A panel which covers the underside of an overhang, cantilever end, or mansard. Soil Pressure

The load per unit area that a structure exerts through its foundation on the underlying soil. Span The distance between supports which is the centerline of a beam, column, or joist girder or 4 inches onto a wall. Spandrel Joist or Beam A structural member at the outside wall of a building, supporting part of the floor or roof and possibly the wall above. Special Design A design required by a loading diagram or other special notes because a standard joist or joist girder cannot be specified from Specification The detailed description of requirements, materials, dimensions, etc. of a proposed building or project. Specifying Professional An architect or engineer, registered or licensed to practice professional architecture or engineering, as defined by the statuto Splice The connection between two chord members or other structural members joined at their ends by welding or bolting to form Sprinkler System A system for fire protection usually consisting of overhead piping connected to a water supply to which automatic sprinklers Square In deck terminology, it is the term for 100 square feet of deck or roofing surface. Formula: number of squares = sum of(length of deck sheet in feet * width of deck sheet in feet * number of pieces)divided by Square Cut A cut to a structural member made at 90 degrees to the length of the member. SRI (Steel Recycling Institute) Abbreviation. SSPC (Steel Structures Painting Council) A professional technical society whose primary objective is to improve the technology and practice of prolonging the life of st SSR (Standing Seam Roof) A type of roof system where the deck is attached to clips which are then attached to the beam or joist. Usually this type of ro SSRC (Structural Stability Research Council) Abbreviation. ST A hot rolled structural tee shape with symbol ST which is cut or split from S Shapes. Stability The property of a body to maintain its shape and remain rigid when detached from its support. Also see Rigid Frame or Struct Stabilizer Plate A steel plate at a column or wall inserted between the end of a bottom chord of a joist or joist girder to weld the bottom cho Starter Joist A joist which is spaced close to a wall for deck support, usually 6 inches. Static Equilibrium A member or body that is initally at rest and remains at rest when acted upon by a system of forces. Static Load A load applied slowly and then remains nearly constant. Statically Determinate A member or structure that can be analyzed and the reactions and forces determined from the equations of equilibrium. Statically Indeterminate A member or structure that cannot be analyzed soley by the equations of statics. It contains unknowns in excess of the numb Stiffener A member used to strengthen another member against buckling or to distribute load or to transfer shear. Usually a flat bar, p Stiffness

The resistance to deformation of a structural member which can be measured by the ratio of the applied force to the corresp Story That portion of a building which is between the upper surface of any floor and the upper surface of the floor next above. Story Drift The difference in horizontal deflection at the top and bottom of a story. Strain Hardening The condition when ductile steel exhibits the capacity to resist additional load than that which caused initial yielding after und Stress An internal force that resists a load. It is the intensity of force per unit of area, i.e., psi (pounds per square inch). Stress Concentration A localized stress which is considerably higher than average due to sudden changes in loading or sudden changes in geometry Stringer In buildings, a structural member supporting stair steps. Strong Axis The cross section which has the major principal axis. Structure A mechanism designed and built or constructed of various parts jointed together in some definite manner to carry loads and Structural Steels A large number of steels that are suitable for load-carrying members in a variety of structures because of strength, economy, Strut A structural member used as a brace to resist axial forces. Stud A wood or metal vertical wall member to which exterior or interior covering material may be attached. It can be either load b Suction A partial vacuum due to wind loads on a building which cause a load in the outward direction. Sump Pan A metal deck accessory used at drain locations to close the opening where holes are cut in the metal deck. Superimposed Load Usually means a load that is in addition to the dead weight of the bar joists and bridging. Sweep The curvature of a structural member in the perpendicular transverse direction of its vertical axis. [Return to Glossary] [T]

Tagged End (T.E.) This is the end of a joist or joist girder where an identification or piece mark is shown by a metal tag. The member must be er Tangent Modulus The slope of the stress-strain curve of a material in the inelastic range at any given stress level. Tee A hot rolled shape with symbol T and is shaped like a "T". Tempory Structure Anything which is built which will not become part of the permanent structural system and will eventually be removed before Tensile Strength The longitudinal pulling stress a material can withstand without tearing apart or the maximum tensile stress the material can Tension A condition caused by the action of stretching or pulling of a component. Tensile Strength

Or ultimate strength, is the largest unit stress a material can achieve in a tensile test. Thermal Block A spacer which has a low thermal conductance. Thrust The horizontal component of a reaction or an outward horizontal force. Tie A rod, plate, or angle welded between a two angle web member or between a top or bottom chord panel to tie them togethe Tie Joist A joist that is bolted at a column. Tilted Joist A joist which is supported in a manner such that the vertical axes of the joist is not perpendicular with respect to the ground. Toe The outside points of each leg of a structural angle. Toe of Fillet 1) The end or termination edge of a fillet weld 2)The end or termination edge of a rolled section fillet. Toe of Weld The junction between the face of a weld and the base metal. Ton A unit of weight equal to 2000 pounds. Top Chord The top member of a joist or joist girder. Top Chord Bearing The bearing condition of a joist or joist girder that bears on its top chord seat. Top Chord Extension (TCX) The extended part of a joist top chord only. This type has only the two top chord angles extended past the joist seat. See Ove Torque Wrench A wrench containing an adjustable mechanism for measuring and controlling the amount of turning force exerted when used Torsion Loads A load that causes a member to twist about its longitudinal axis. Simple torsion is produced by a couple or moment in a plane TOS Abbreviation for 'Top of Steel'. Toughness The ability of a steel to absorb large amounts of energy without being readily damaged. Transverse Crossing from side to side or placed crosswise. Tribuitary Width or Area The design area which contributes load to a structural member. It is one half the distance between members on either side o Trimmer Joist One of the joists supporting a header. The header applies a concentrated load at that point on the trimmer joist. Truss In general, a structural load-carrying member with an open web system designed as a simple span with each member designe Tube A hollow structural steel member shaped like a square or rectangle used as a beam, column, or for bracing. Usually the nomin Turnbuckle A rotating sleeve or link with internal screw threads at each end and used to tighten or connect the ends of a rod. Turn-of-the-Nut-Method A method for pre-tensioning high-strength bolts by the rotation of the wrench a predetermined amount after the nut has bee

[Return to Glossary] [U]

UBC (Uniform Building Code) A minimum model regulatory code for the protection of public health, safety, welfare and property by regulating and control UL (Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.) A non-profit product safety testing and certification organization. Ultimate Load The force necessary to cause rupture. Ultimate Strength The maximum stress attained by a structural member prior to rupture which is the ultimate load divided by the orginial cross Ultimate Strength Design See LRFD. Unbraced Frame A frame providing resistance to lateral load by the bending resistance of the frame members and their connections. Unbraced Length The distance between points of bracing of a structural member, measured between the centers of gravity of the bracing mem Unbraced Top Chord The specific length where the top chord of a joist has no lateral bracing by deck, bridging, or any other means. Undercut A notch or groove melted into the base metal next to the toe or root of a weld and left unfilled by weld metal. Underslung Description of a joist which is suspended from upper support points where most of the mass of steel is below the actual supp Uniformly Distributed Load A load or force, for practical purposes, that may be considered constant over the entire length or partial length of the membe UNO Abbrevation for 'Unless Noted Otherwise'. Uplift The wind load on a member which causes a load in the upward direction. The gross uplift is determined from various codes a Uplift Bridging The bridging required by uplift design. Usually always required at the first bottom chord panel point of a K-Series, LH- or DLHUpstanding Leg The leg of a structural angle which is projecting up from you when viewing. [Return to Glossary] [V]

Valley The angle formed by two sloping sides of a roof. Value Engineering The application of the Scientific Method to the study of selecting the optimum or best system that meets the need of the cus Vapor Barrier A physical membrane which prevents moisture or water vapor from penetrating to the other side. Varying Distributed Load A load or force, for practical purposes, that may be considered varying over the surface of the member, for example a snow d VG-Type Joist Girder A type of Joist Girder where joists are located at panel points where vertical webs intersect the top chord only. This type of gi Vibration

The oscillating, reciprocating, or other periodic motion of a rigid or elastic body or medium such as a floor when its position o [Return to Glossary] [W]

W Shapes A hot rolled shape called a Wide Flange Shape with symbol W which has essentially parallel flange surfaces. Wall A vertical or near vertical structure which encloses or separates spaces and may be used to resist horizontal or vertical forces Wall Anchor A small piece of angle or other structural material that is usually bolted to a wall to which a starter joist or bridging angle is w Wall Covering The exterior wall skin consisting of sheets or panels. Washer A flat ring of metal with a hole in the middle used to give thickness to a joint or to distribute pressure under the head of a nut Weak Axis The cross section which has the minor principal axis. Weathering Steel A type of high-strength steel which can be used in normal outdoor environments without being painted. Should not be used i Web 1) The vertical or diagonal members joined at the top and bottom chords of a joist or joist girder to form triangular patterns o Web Buckling The buckling of a web plate. Web Configuration The arrangement of the actual web system of a joist or joist girder which can be shown with a profile view of the member. Web Crippling The local failure of a web plate in the region of a concentrated load or reaction. Welded Splice A splice between two materials which has the joint made continuous by the process of welding. Welding The process of joining materials together, usually by heating the materials to a suitable temperature. Weldability Is the ability of a steel to be welded without its basic mechanical properties being changed. Welding Washer A metal device with a hole through it to allow for plug welding of deck to structural steel. Wind Column A vertical member supporting a wall system designed to withstand horizontal wind loads. Usually between two main vertial lo Wind Load A force or lateral pressure in pounds per square foot that is applied to a member due to wind blowing in any direction. Windward The direction or side toward the wind. Opposite of leeward. Working Drawings The complete set of architectural drawings prepared by a registered architect. Working Load Also called service load, is the actual load that is acting on the structure. Working Point The point where two or more centroid lines of structural members intersect. WRC (Welding Research Council)

This organization conducts cooperative research in welding with interested scientific societies, government departments, and WSD (Working Stress Design) A structural design method whereby a structural element is designed so that the unit stresses computed under the action of WT A hot rolled structural tee shape with symbol WT which is cut or split from W Shapes. [Return to Glossary] [X] X-Brace Structural bracing which resembles the letter "X". [Return to Glossary] [Y]

Yield Point (Fy) Is that unit stress at which the stress-strain curve exhibits a definite increase in strain without an increase in stress which is le Young's Modulus See Modulus of Elasticity. [Return to Glossary] [Z] Z Section A structural section in the shape of a "Z" cold formed from a steel sheet. [Return to Glossary]

lude: headers, top chord extensions, extended ends, ceiling extensions, bottom chord extensions, sloped end bearings, bridging, bridging

ated companies dedicated to skill, integrity, an responsibility. The AGCA is the voice of the construction industry and is dedicated to impr United States.

eel industry in the United States. It was founded in 1921 with headquarters located in Chicago. One of their best known manuals is the M

me. Note that the chart is based upon assumptions of idealized conditions which seldom exist in real structures.

ation of the vibration.

ded member to reflect secondary values generated by the eccentricity of the load.

bers to a foundation or other support.

either bolting or welding.

t or less) where open web steel joists are impractical. They are usually used for short spans in skewed bays, over corridors, or for outrigge

r person for approval. The plans may include a framing plan, elevations, sections, and a material list.

allel with each other.

ing design or similar subjects and is licensed by the state as an architect.

ates. It is dedicated to the advancement of the individual civil engineer and the civil engineering profession through education.

esses computed under the action of working or service loads do not exceed specified allowable values. See Working Stress Design and Ela

industries worldwide.

stairway, elevator, etc.

mputer in both DOS and windows by Autodesk, Inc. Anything that can be drawn on a drawing board can be drawn by AutoCAD.

ing research and the needs of the industry.

pplication of welding and related joining disciplines.

area and is perpendicular to the plane of the section.

a complete-joint penetration groove weld.

down the roof from wind forces.

area of foundation large enough to prevent crushing of the concrete and usually secured by anchor bolts.

wo parallel components to tie them together and usually located at the middle of the member.

d property by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use, occupancy, location and maintenance of all bu

e to its longitudinal axis. These loads usually cause bending of the beam member. Some types of beams are simple, continuous, and cantil

o its longitudinal axis.

sonry, concrete, or steel support 2) A structural support, usually a beam or wall, that is designed by the specifying professional to carry re

onry or concrete supports. This plate transfers the joist reaction to the supporting structure and must be sized accordingly.

r when it is subjected to forces which cause it to bend.

bers of the section. moment at the section in in-lbs, 'I' is the moment of inertia of the section in inches^4, and 'c' is the distance from the neutral axis to the po

upport these members.

diagonal webs intersect the top chord.

osition, deflect then twist out of plane, or may remain in an undeflected configuration.

other description of each piece of material that is shipped to a jobsite. The receiver compares each item on this list to what is on the truck

achine usually on white paper with the lines and text being a blue color.

d property by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use, occupancy, location and maintenance of all bu a single, longer member.

used to support roof loads.

n underslung condition.

oint towards the end of the joist.

or example, pin, fixed, roller, or shear release.

ght or level.

ts, members, loads, and forces. Capital letters are placed in the spaces between truss members and between forces. Each member and lo

em of bracing.

h then in turn moves longitudinally on a runway made of beams and rails.

zontal Bridging and Diagonal Bridging.

d, either by welding or bolting. The ends of all bridging lines terminating at walls or beams shall be anchored thereto.

hord angles so that bridging may be attached.

gree farenheit.

lity of materials, and construction details for buildings for the protection of the public.

ure. See Specifying Professional.

a building code.

ral metal elements that are welded or bolted together.

nother member in forming a connection.

be used by itself or back to back with another C Section.

and used to measure thichness, distances between surfaces, and any internal or external diameter which is inaccessible with a scale.

p fabrication to compensate for deflection due to loading conditions. Note, this is in addition to the pitch of the top chord.

parapet meets the end of deck.

ot do. Usually the steel contractor furnishes a bent plate shim to provide level bearing for the seat.

member can bear on. and above a floor.

rd is extended from the first bottom chord panel point towards the end of the joist.

eam, column, joist, or joist girder.

moments of the areas on opposite sides of an axis about that axis is zero.

ognized testing facility in the field of welding. The welder must be certified to make certain welds under qualified procedures. The welder

signated by (C) and Miscellaneous Channels designated by (MC).

n the angles.

distance between walls or the distance between the edges of flanges of beams.

od and the other end a connection with a hole used for a pin or bolt attchment.

joist girder, or other structural member bears.

concrete cannot run out of the flutes of the deck.

machines without the use of heat.

ceilings, and mechanical or electrical components.

shear, from the main roof beams or girders to the foundation. These structural members carry loads parallel to its longitudinal axis.

h-thickness ratios of its compression element can not exceed the limiting width-thichness ratios designated in the AISC Manual.

ey act together to resist the load on the beam.

h the entire surface area of the supporting member and applied at a certain point on the structure.

ers. See also Splice.

ember to member as if there were no connections.

e doing of something specified, such as the building of a building or furnishing materials.

sibilities of the parties involved. of contract documents to build a building by.

g used in Metal Building construction.

up to the supporting structural member.

or to form a shelf or ledge for a structural member to bear on.

bottom chord of a joist or joist girder to increase the load carrying capacity of that member.

move and is used to lift heavy materials or to lift members that are to be erected in a structure.

istance is usually one inch. The actual crimped portion of the angle is only a few inches on each end and the end is inserted between top

Bill of Materials.

ed to remain permanently in place.

ns to joists, beams, purlins, or other structural members and can be galvanized, painted, or unpainted.

te, Type "N" Deep Rib, Type "A" Narrow Rib, Composite, Cellular, etc.

y resulting from forces or stresses.

d taken a some reference location, usually at the midspan of the joist or joist girder.

structural frame to behave as a truss to resist horizontal loads.

ottom chord of the next joist to form an 'X' shape whose l/r ratio cannot exceed 200. The bridging members are almost always connected

ffness and strength adequate to transmit horizontal forces to the resisting structural system.

r other structural members when properly attached to a structural frame.

member to form an S shape or has a reversal in curvature.

e to be connected by bolting.

o allow passage of a duct.

uctural steel has considerable ductility.

ds created by rapid movement.

of and the plane of the wall.

ough the centroid of the body it is applied to.

mber 2) An angle used around the sides of a floor to contain the concrete when it is being poured which is also called a Pour Stop.

the interior of the roof.

raction effects of the total frame on a compression member by using K factors to equate the strength of a framed compression member

between center of gravities of the bracing members. K values are given for several idealized conditions in which joint rotation and transla

al plastification takes place. See Moment of Inertia.

pporting member.

val of the force that produced it and the material returns to its original state.

process of welding.

used to transmit applied loads to the concrete.

d at the seat and ends at the first bottom chord panel point.

st bottom chord panel point.

e to continuous frame action which can be caused by wind, live load, or dead load moment.

rds the interior.

exual stess, shear stress, axial stress, torsional stress, etc. due to a series of load combinations.

esultant of all forces and moments are equal to zero. Three equations must be fulfilled simultaneously: Sum of the forces in the X-directio

ment (in inch-lbs) of a member carrying various loads.

embers in order to construct a structure.

d by the joist manufactures in a detailed mannner to permit proper erection of the joist and joist girders. See Framing Plan and Placing Pla

traction of the materials of a structure.

f the jost extension back into the joist maintaining the standard 2 1/2 inch end bearing depth over the entire length of the extension.

unching, welding, cleaning, and painting.

er and must always be greater than unity.

, it is the side that is opposite the side you see first.

ecorative trim or panel which projects from the face of a wall.

d not in a fabricators shop.

ttom chord panel to tie them together usually located at the middle of the member. See Tie or Plug.

as of coverage where full sheet coverage is impractical.

he member resistant to fire.

ion it has, such as membrane protection or spray on protection. There are hundreds of floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assemblies with their f

This type of support has no degrees of freedom. Three reactive forces exist at the rigidly fixed end. See also Rigid Connection.

bottom chord or a joist girder, or a column.

es in contact with a wall or chimney.

vent and control property loss through research, engineering, and education.

cordion and can be stored in a closet or pocket in a wall.

tributes loads from that member into the supporting soil.

d connections which maintain their original angular relationship under load without the need for bracing in its plane. See Rigid Frame.

for mechanical units, straiwells, etc.

d by the joist manufactures in a detailed mannner to permit proper erection of the joist and joist girders. See Erection Plan and Placing Pla

ive points of application.

ed in cycles per secong or Hz (Hertz).

sect the top chord only.

sloped roof.

say 3/12) and the bottom chord is straight or level.

hole across a set of holes, usually perpendicular to the joist or joist girder.

ch carries other members or vertical loads.

orting sheeting or paneling.

the load from a joist girder.

ally inserted between the top or bottom chord of a joist or joist girder.

tress does not exceed 22,000 psi or 30,000 psi depending on whether 36 ksi or 50 ksi yield steel was used.

ies another joist or joists. Usually made up of an angle, channel, or beam with saddle angle connections on each end for bearing.

nch, usually A325 or A490.

annot displace in any direction. Two mutually perpendicular reactive forces exist at the hinge and their lines of action pass through the ce sides intersect is called the 'hip'.

il or bridge crane.

a joist horizontally whose l/r ratio cannot exceed 300.

se one part of the section to slide past the other. ear on the section in lbs, 'I' is the moment of inertia of the section in inches^4, 'Q' is the statical moment about the neutral axis of the enti

e angles, channels, W Shapes, S Shapes, etc.

langes and equal web and flange thickness.

ed load into the inelastic range whose plot of load verses displacement is characterized by loops. The amount of energy dissipated during

promotion of uniform codes and standards.

s vehicles, craneways, etc.

shear, moment, reaction, etc.) in an element due to a unit load acting at the point corresponding to the particular ordinate being conside

d deformation results in a decrease in its load-resisting capacity.

nd locations of openings.

tress does not exceed 22,000 psi and was made from A36 steel.

f a circle around which it is attached

or welded during the fabrication process.

e Panel Point.

oofs utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel and is designed as a simple span member.

cities for a given span such as 16K5 or 24K10 where the first number is the nominal joist depth at midspan and the last number is the cho

le span supporting equally spaced concentrated loads of a floor or roof system acting at the panel points of the joist girder and utilizing ho

e first number is the nominal girder depth at midspan, 6N is the number of joist spaces on the span of girder, and 10.5K is the kip load on

e open web steel joists are impractical. They are usually used for short spans in skewed bays, over corridors, or for outriggers. It can be ma

a rolled shape.

er non-uniform loads.

maller areas for which each sheet is drawn. It can also show different sequences, phases, sheet number that area is drawn on, etc.

or hip and valley bearing conditions, canted seat conditions, and extreme skewed conditions.

rains of adjacent weld metal.

ction and twist.

ral movement.

h as a shed.

he wind blows. Opposite of windward.

upports a wall or any construction immediately above.

the life of the structure. They can be loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building. These loads do not include dead load, win

nent construction, environmental effects, differential settlement, occupants, and material objects.

-carrying capacities and live load-carring capacities of the joists for different span lengths. The table also gives the approximate weight pe

ed for. The loads include: dead load, live load, snow drift, concentrated loads, moments, etc. The design criteria include: deflection requir

ying capacities for a given clear span such as 18LH06 or 36LH10 where the first number is the nominal joist depth at midspan and the last

oofs utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel and is designed as a simple span member. These carry higher loads than a regular joist.

d extended to brace another member such as a beam, joist girder, frame, or wall.

n all appropriate load combinations have been applied.

as W, HP, or S Shapes.

ation, thus having the greatest flexural and axial compressive strength.

other separate part of the building goes at what location when being erected, i.e., J1, K25, L7, G12, or JG9. See Piece Mark and Part Numb ceramic blocks which is laid unit by unit and set in mortar.

the joints into one stress diagram.

pile and publish recommended design standards which will insure high quality metal buildings.

ch applies loads to joist or joist girders.

her forces and moments at the ends of a member are considered fixed to or released from the member's point of attachment.

signed for a certain loading. These components are mass produced and assembled in various combinations with other structural materials

al handling industry which includes the movement, storage, control, and protection of material and products throughout the process of th

mber and dimensions of pieces shipped, and the chemical compositional makeup of hot rolled structural steel members. It also indicates

yration, thus having the least flexural and axial compressive strength.

d by dividing the unit stress in ksi by the unit strain in in/in. For all structural steels, the value is usually taken as 29,000 ksi. This is also cal

bending stresses.

nnecting members.

in inches raised to the fourth power. It is a measure of the resistance to rotation offered by a section's geometry and size.

at moment transfer can occur.

nailed at 36 inches maximum on center.

d property by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use, occupancy, location and maintenance of all bu

, it is the side you see first and is closest to you.

epresents zero strain and therefore zero stress. The neutral axis is perpendicular to the line of applied force.

by proposing codes and standards, research, and education on fire related issues.

nce and develop standards.

os of its compression elements do not exceed the values designated in the AISC Manual.

would collapse under its own weight when not supported externally.

the member or bay.

lowable stresses in the design formulas may be increased 1/3 above the values otherwise provided.

ealth of the workers of America.

standing leg of one of the joist top chord angles. It then bears on a beam or wall and cantilevers across, similar to a top chord extension.

Top Chord Extension.

ctural members.

k out) because the center to center of beam is not true or the joists are to long.

deck for a roof or floor.

t or joist girder. See Joint.

he member can be sloped and still have parallel chords.

ection of the wall and roof.

ibed as pinned nor fixed.

and can be a bearing wall or a non-bearing wall.

loped chords meet. See also Apex.

ing performance of a building process or other specified activity.

ads or lateral loads on the wall.

nd shear forces. This type of support has one degree of freedom, it can freely rotate about its axis but it cannot displace in any direction. T

al column which comes in sizes of standard, extra strong and double-extra strong.

two joists have to have diagonal bridging and their top and bottom chords have to be laced together with structural members to provide

tal width. It also is defined as the angle that the top chord makes with the lower chord. There can be single or double pitched members.

s of the plan so that communication will be easier for the elevations of the building, sections, etc.

nd then using the yield stress as the maximum stress in any member.

ttom chord panel to tie them together usually located at the middle of the member. See Tie or Filler.

g weld is to transmit shear in a lap joint. See Slot Weld and Puddle Weld.

for a material within the elastic range. For structural steel, the value is usually taken as 0.3. It gradually increases beyond the proportiona

aken about an axis which is perpendicular to the plane of the other two axes.

ng is not permitted. It has rigidity and stability in its plane.

are ready for quick assembly and erection at a jobsite.

otects from rust for a limited time.

the web system configuration and bridging rows. See Side-View Diagram

n ends and usually coincides with the material yield point.

op chord or main frames of a building for support of the roof deck.

e area of the section could be concentrated and still have the same moment of inertia. e section in inches^2) expressed in inches.

pose of its maintenance.

r hot-rolling.

mposed on it.

zontal line made by the top surfaces of the two intersecting sloping roof surfaces.

End Support.

d connections which maintain their original angular relationship under load without the need for bracing in its plane. See Frame and Stabil

s mission is to advance standards, quality, safety, and general fitness for intended use of industrial steel storage rack systems.

place in one direction in the plane. Only one reactive force exists at a roller which acts perpendicular to the path of the displacement and

on the top chord of a joist. This angle should be designed to carry the reaction of the header or frame to the center of the joist and must

d property by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use, occupancy, location and maintenance of all bu

hed and parallel with each other.

of rain water.

struction practices applicable to cold-formed steel deck.

omote safety in the erection industry. distance from the top of the top chord to the bottom of the bearing seat angle or plate.

maximum bending stress within the elastic range. Formula: S=I/c where 'I' is the moment of inertia of the cross-section about the neutral a

ormations in a structural member due to the dynamic action of an earthquake. taps its own threads in a predrilled hole.

wing after the other. plate or angle welded near the end.

ment which connects successive floors and/or roof for elevators, dumbwaiters, mechanical equipment, etc.

the plastic moment Mp to the yield moment My.

n opposite directions parallel to their plane of contact.

ot induce any torsional stress in the cross section.

ion but allows movement in a direction perpendicular to the members longitudinal axis.

op chord of a joist which transfers shear from a concrete slab to the supporting member.

other description of each piece of material to be shipped to a jobsite. See also Bill of Ladding.

a shop to fabricate a product which includes all dimensions, materials, tolerances, etc.

en supports.

e standard size. the web system configuration and bridging rows. See Profile Drawing.

ertical loads.

rtical displacement with the ends of the member being free to rotate.

ooth continuous curve or arc.

t air or solvent welding of one sheet to the next or using thermoset membranes which are seamed with an adhesive.

nd engineering practice throughout the joist industry. The institute coopera Wtes with business and government agencies to establish ste

erpendicular to each other.

st, the top chord angles may be unbraced for design considerations.

eel which should be chipped away for inspection of a weld.

lues of a noncompact section.

ut the same axis of bending.

on expressed in inches of vertical rise per 12 inches of horizontal run, i.e. 3/12.

or 4 inches onto a wall.

f and possibly the wall above. joist girder cannot be specified from a load table.

ding or project.

ngineering, as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws. See Building Designer.

r ends by welding or bolting to form a single, longer member.

upply to which automatic sprinklers are attached that discharges water in a specific pattern for extinguishment or control of a fire.

n feet * number of pieces)divided by 100.

nd practice of prolonging the life of steel and concrete structures through the use of protective coatings. beam or joist. Usually this type of roof system cannot be counted on to provide lateral stability or support to the joist top chord.

pport. Also see Rigid Frame or Structure.

r joist girder to weld the bottom chord to or to restrain the bottom chord from lateral movement.

m of forces.

om the equations of equilibrium.

ains unknowns in excess of the number of equilibrium equations available. Additional equations must be written based on a knowledge of

to transfer shear. Usually a flat bar, plate, or angle welded perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the member.

io of the applied force to the corresponding displacement. surface of the floor next above.

which caused initial yielding after undergoing deformation at or just above the yield point.

ounds per square inch).

ading or sudden changes in geometry.

e definite manner to carry loads and resist forces.

tures because of strength, economy, ductility, and other properties. Strength levels are obtained by varying the chemical composition and

y be attached. It can be either load bearing or non-load bearing.

in the metal deck.

a metal tag. The member must be erected with this tagged end in the same position as the tagged end noted on the erection plan.

nd will eventually be removed before or after the completion of the structure.

imum tensile stress the material can sustain.

ttom chord panel to tie them together usually located at the middle of the member. See Filler or Plug.

ndicular with respect to the ground.

section fillet.

extended past the joist seat. See Overhang.

t of turning force exerted when used to tighten nuts and bolts.

ed by a couple or moment in a plane perpendicular to the axis.

e between members on either side of the member.

int on the trimmer joist.

mple span with each member designed to carry a tension or compression force. The entire structure act will act like a beam.

mn, or for bracing. Usually the nominal outside corner radius is equal to two times the wall thickness.

onnect the ends of a rod.

rmined amount after the nut has been tightened to a snug fit.

d property by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use, occupancy, location and maintenance of all bu

ate load divided by the orginial cross-sectional area of the member.

bers and their connections.

centers of gravity of the bracing members.

, or any other means.

nfilled by weld metal.

mass of steel is below the actual support points.

ength or partial length of the member.

t is determined from various codes and is generally a horizontal wind pressure multiplied by a factor to establish the uplift pressure. The n

panel point of a K-Series, LH- or DLH-Series joist and at other locations along the bottom chord as required by design.

stem that meets the need of the customer.

of the member, for example a snow drift.

ect the top chord only. This type of girder is used for ducts to pass thru since the joists do not interfere with their passage.

m such as a floor when its position or state of equilibrium has been changed.

lel flange surfaces. to resist horizontal or vertical forces or bending forces.

h a starter joist or bridging angle is welded or bolted to.

ute pressure under the head of a nut or bolt.

t being painted. Should not be used in corrosive or marine environments.

st girder to form triangular patterns or 2) The portion of a structural member between the flanges.

with a profile view of the member.

emperature.

. Usually between two main vertial load carrying columns.

wind blowing in any direction.

ieties, government departments, and any company using welded products.

esses computed under the action of working or service loads do not exceed the specified allowable values. See Allowable Stress Design an

hout an increase in stress which is less than the maximum attainable stress.

oped end bearings, bridging, bridging anchors, joist girder bottom chord bracing, or angle units (joist substitutes).

on industry and is dedicated to improving the quality of construction and protecting the public.

f their best known manuals is the Manual of Steel Construction.

d bays, over corridors, or for outriggers. It can be made up of two or four angles to form channel sections or box sections. Tube and chann

ession through education.

s. See Working Stress Design and Elastic Design.

an be drawn by AutoCAD.

y, location and maintenance of all buildings and structures within a jurisdiction.

ms are simple, continuous, and cantilever.

he specifying professional to carry reactions to the foundation

t be sized accordingly.

tance from the neutral axis to the point at which the stress is desired in inches.

em on this list to what is on the truck and signs the statement. See also Shipping List.

y, location and maintenance of all buildings and structures within a jurisdiction. Its serves primarily the North Central and Northeast Unite

between forces. Each member and load is then designated by the letters on opposite sides of it.

nchored thereto.

hich is inaccessible with a scale.

itch of the top chord.

der qualified procedures. The welder must be qualified for each position, type weld, electrode, and thickness of base metal that is to be w

parallel to its longitudinal axis.

gnated in the AISC Manual.

and the end is inserted between top or bottom chord members to be welded.

embers are almost always connected at their point of intersection.

ch is also called a Pour Stop.

h of a framed compression member of length L to an equivalent pin-ended member of length KL subject to axial load only.

ns in which joint rotation and translation are realized.

y: Sum of the forces in the X-direction must equal zero, sum of the forces in the Y-direction must equal zero, and the sum of the moments

ers. See Framing Plan and Placing Plan.

e entire length of the extension.

or roof-ceiling assemblies with their fire-resistance rating given in the Underwriters Laboratory Fire Directory.

ee also Rigid Connection.

ing in its plane. See Rigid Frame.

ers. See Erection Plan and Placing Plan.

ons on each end for bearing.

eir lines of action pass through the center of the hinge. See Pin Connection or Support.

ent about the neutral axis of the entire section of that portion of the cross-section lying outside of the cutting plane and 't' is the width at

e amount of energy dissipated during inelastic loading is indicated by the enclosed area within these loops.

he particular ordinate being considered. Influence lines for statically determinate structures are straight lines and for statically indetermin

dspan and the last number is the chord size. See Longspan Designation and Joist Girder Designation.

ints of the joist girder and utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel.

f girder, and 10.5K is the kip load on each panel point of the girder. The approximate dead load weight of the member is included in the k

rridors, or for outriggers. It can be made up of two or four angles to form channel sections or box sections. See Angle Unit.

er that area is drawn on, etc.

e loads do not include dead load, wind load, snow load, or seismic load.

also gives the approximate weight per foot of each joist designation.

sign criteria include: deflection requirements, load combinations, net uplift, one-third increase in allowable stress allowed or not, etc.

al joist depth at midspan and the last number is the section number. See Joist Designation and Joist Girder Designation.

igher loads than a regular joist.

r JG9. See Piece Mark and Part Number.

ber's point of attachment.

ations with other structural materials to produce a building.

roducts throughout the process of their manufacture, distribution, consumption, and disposal.

ural steel members. It also indicates physical properties, such as, yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, impact, and ultimate strengt

ly taken as 29,000 ksi. This is also called Young's Modulus.

n's geometry and size.

y, location and maintenance of all buildings and structures within a jurisdiction.

ss, similar to a top chord extension.

t it cannot displace in any direction. Two mutually perpendicular reactive forces exist at the pin and their lines of action pass through the

with structural members to provide stability for the whole structure, single or double pitched members.

ly increases beyond the proportional limit, approaching 0.5.

ing in its plane. See Frame and Stability.

eel storage rack systems.

to the path of the displacement and its line of action passes through the center of the roller.

e to the center of the joist and must rest on and weld to both top chord angles.

y, location and maintenance of all buildings and structures within a jurisdiction.

the cross-section about the neutral axis in inches^4 and 'c' is the distance from the neutal axis to the outermost fibers.

with an adhesive.

government agencies to establish steel joist standards and does continuing research of their products to maintain the integrity of their pr

ng Designer.

guishment or control of a fire.

pport to the joist top chord.

be written based on a knowledge of elastic deformations.

varying the chemical composition and by heat treatment.

nd noted on the erection plan.

act will act like a beam.

y, location and maintenance of all buildings and structures within a jurisdiction.

to establish the uplift pressure. The net uplift is the gross uplift minus the allowable portion of dead load including the weight of the joist

quired by design.

e with their passage.

alues. See Allowable Stress Design and Elastic Design.

substitutes).

ions or box sections. Tube and channel sections are also used. See Joist Substitute.

he North Central and Northeast United States.

hickness of base metal that is to be welded in the shop or field.

ect to axial load only.

al zero, and the sum of the moments about any point must equal zero for a two dimensional structure.

e cutting plane and 't' is the width at the cutting plane.

ght lines and for statically indeterminate structures the lines are curved and their construction involves considerable analysis.

ht of the member is included in the kip load. See Joist Designation and Longspan Designation.

tions. See Angle Unit.

wable stress allowed or not, etc.

irder Designation.

ngation, impact, and ultimate strength.

heir lines of action pass through the center of the pin. See Hinge Support.

outermost fibers.

s to maintain the integrity of their products.

oad including the weight of the joist and is the load that the specifying professional shall indicate to the joist manufacturer.

es considerable analysis.

he joist manufacturer.

Abutment the outermost end supports on a bridge, which carry the load from the deck Aluminum a lightweight chemical element (Al); the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust Anchorage a secure fixing, usually made of reinforced concrete to which the cables are fastened Aqueduct a bridge or channel for conveying water, usually over long distances

Arch Bridge a curved structure that converts the downward force of its own weight, and of any weight pressing down on top of it, into an

Arch Dam a dam with an arched shape that resists the force of water pressure; requires less material than a gravity dam for the same d

Architect a person who designs all kinds of structures; must also have the ability to conceptualize and communicate ideas effectively -Beam a rigid, usually horizontal, structural element Beam Bridge a simple type of bridge, composed of horizontal beams supported by vertical posts Bedrock the solid rock layer beneath sand or silt

Bend (v.) to curve; bending occurs when a straight material becomes curved; one side squeezes together in compression, and the o Bends (n.) see caisson disease Brace (n.) a structural support; (v.) to strengthen and stiffen a structure to resist loads Brittle characteristic of a material that fails without warning; brittle materials do not stretch or shorten before failing Buckle to bend under compression Buttress a support that transmits a force from a roof or wall to another supporting structure

Buttress Dam a gravity dam reinforced by structural supports

Cable a structural element formed from steel wire bound in strands; the suspending element in a bridge; the supporting element in Cable-Stayed Bridge a bridge in which the roadway deck is suspended from cables anchored to one or more towers Caisson a watertight, dry chamber in which people can work underwater Caisson Disease an affliction developed by people moving in and out of caissons quickly; also called the bends and decompression sickness Cantilever a projecting structure supported only at one end, like a shelf bracket or a diving board

Cast Iron a brittle alloy with high carbon content; iron that has been melted, then poured into a form and cooled; can be made into any Civil Engineer an engineer who plans, designs, and supervises the construction of facilities essential to modern life Cement a binding material, or glue, that helps concrete harden Coffer a sunken panel in a ceiling Cofferdam a temporary dam built to divert a river around a construction site so the dam can be built on dry ground Column a vertical, structural element, strong in compression

Compressed-Air Chamber the space at the bottom of a caisson into which air is introduced under pressure to exclude water so that excavation can take Compression a pressing force that squeezes a material together Concrete a mixture of water, sand, small stones, and a gray powder called cement Construction Manager -

a person who coordinates the entire construction process -- from initial planning and foundation work through the structure'

Continuous Span Beam Bridge simple bridge made by linking one beam bridge to another; some of the longest bridges in the world are continuous span bea Core central region of a skyscraper; usually houses elevator and stairwell Cut and Cover a method of tunnel construction that involves digging a trench, building a tunnel, and then covering it with fill Deck supported roadway on a bridge Deform to change shape Diversion Channel a bypass created to divert water around a dam so that construction can take place Dome a curved roof enclosing a circular space; a three-dimensional arch Downstream Face the side of the dam that is not against the water Dynamite a blasting explosive, based on nitroglycerin, but much safer to handle than nitroglycerin alone Electrical Engineer an engineer concerned with electrical devices and systems and with the use of electrical energy Embankment Dam a dam composed of a mound of earth and rock; the simplest type of gravity dam

Engineering a profession in which a knowledge of math and natural science is applied to develop ways to utilize the materials and forces o Environmental Engineer an engineer who designs and operates systems to provide safe drinking water and to prevent and control pollution in water,

Fire-Setting an ancient tunneling technique in which rock is heated with fire and then doused with cold water, causing the rock to fracture Force any action that tends to maintain or alter the position of a structure

Geodesic Dome a dome composed of short, straight pieces joined to form triangles; invented by Buckminster Fuller Geotechnical Engineer an engineer who evaluates and stabilizes foundations for buildings, roads, and other structures Gravity Dam a dam constructed so that its great weight resists the force of water pressure

Gunpowder any of several low-explosive mixtures used as a blasting agent in mining and tunneling; the first such explosive was black pow Iron a chemical element (Fe); one of the cheapest and most used metals

Joint a device connecting two or more adjacent parts of a structure; a roller joint allows adjacent parts to move controllably past o

Load weight distribution throughout a structure; loads caused by wind, earthquakes, and gravity, for example, affect how weight is Masonry a building material such as stone, clay, brick, or concrete Mechanical Engineer an engineer who applies the principles of mechanics and energy to the design of machines and devices Monolithic Dome a dome composed of a series of arches, joined together with a series of horizontal rings called parallels Movable Bridge a bridge in which the deck moves to clear a navigation channel; a swing bridge has a deck that rotates around a center point;

Nitroglycerin an explosive compound made from a mixture of glycerol and concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids, and an important ingredie Perimeter the distance around the outside of a shape Pier a vertical supporting structure, such as a pillar Pendentive a triangular shape that adapts the circular ring of a dome to fit onto a flat supporting wall Pile a long, round pole of wood, concrete, or steel driven into the soil by pile drivers

Pile Driver a noisy machine that repeatedly drops a heavy weight on top of a pile until the pile reaches solid soil or rock or cannot be pus

Plastic a synthetic material made from long chains of molecules; has the capability of being molded or shaped, usually by the applica Pressure a force applied or distributed over an area Reinforced Concrete concrete with steel bars or mesh embedded in it for increased strength in tension; in pre-tensioned concrete, the embedded

Richter Scale used to measure the magnitude of an earthquake; introduced in 1935 by the seismologists Beno Gutenberg and Charles Fran

Rigid (adj.) ability to resist deformation when subjected to a load; rigidity (n.) the measure of a structure's ability not to change sha Rock Tunnel a passage constructed through solid rock Shear a force that causes parts of a material to slide past one another in opposite directions Shear-Walls solid concrete walls that resist shear forces; often used in buildings constructed in earthquake zones Silt sediment particles ranging from 0.004 to 0.06 mm (0.00016 to 0.0024 inch) in diameter Soft-Ground Tunnels a passage constructed through loose, unstable, or wet ground, requiring supports to keep the walls from collapsing Span (n.) the distance a bridge extends between two supports; (v.) to traverse a specific distance

Spillway an overflow channel that allows dam operators to release lake water when it gets high enough to threaten the safety of a dam Spire an architectural or decorative feature of a skyscraper; the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat includes spires but not

Stable (adj.) ability to resist collapse and deformation; stability (n.) characteristic of a structure that is able to carry a realistic load w Steel -

an alloy of iron and carbon that is hard, strong, and malleable Stiff (adj.) ability to resist deformation; stiffness (n.) the measure of a structure's capacity to resist deformation Story floor of a skyscraper Strong (adj.) ability to carry a realistic load; strength (n.) the measure of a structure's ability to carry a realistic load Structural Engineer an engineer who investigates the behavior and design of all kinds of structures, including dams, domes, tunnels, bridges, and

Suspension Bridge a bridge in which the roadway deck is suspended from cables that pass over two towers; the cables are anchored in housings Tailings Dam a dam, usually made of earth and rock, used to contain mining waste

Tensegrity an array of tension cables and compression rods that supports a structure; invented by Buckminster Fuller student Kenneth S Tension a stretching force that pulls on a material Tension Ring a support ring that resists the outward force pushing against the lower sides of a dome Torsion an action that twists a material

Tower the vertical structure in a suspension bridge or cable-stayed bridge from which cables are hung; also used loosely as a synony Truss a rigid frame composed of short, straight pieces joined to form a series of triangles or other stable shapes

Tuned Mass Damper a mechanical counterweight designed to reduce the effects of motion, such as the swaying of a skyscraper in the wind or in a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) a mechanical device that tunnels through the ground

Tunnel Shield a cylinder pushed ahead of tunneling equipment to provide advance support for the tunnel roof; used when tunneling in soft

Unstable characteristic of a structure that collapses or deforms under a realistic load Upstream Face the side of a dam that is against the water Wood a common natural material strong in both compression and tension Wrought Iron an iron alloy that is less brittle than cast iron

ht pressing down on top of it, into an outward force along its sides and base

al than a gravity dam for the same distance

and communicate ideas effectively -- both in words and on paper -- to clients, engineers, government officials, and construction crews

s together in compression, and the other side stretches apart in tension

shorten before failing

n a bridge; the supporting element in some dome roofs

ends and decompression sickness

rm and cooled; can be made into any shape desired

t on dry ground

de water so that excavation can take place

ndation work through the structure's completion

n the world are continuous span beam bridges

en covering it with fill

s to utilize the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of all human beings

vent and control pollution in water, in the air, and on the land

ld water, causing the rock to fracture

he first such explosive was black powder, which consists of a mixture of potassium nitrate, sulfur, and charcoal

ent parts to move controllably past one another; a rigid joint prevents adjacent parts from moving or rotating past one another

ity, for example, affect how weight is distributed throughout a structure

es and devices

called parallels

k that rotates around a center point; a drawbridge has a deck that can be raised and lowered; a bascule bridge deck is raised with counter

furic acids, and an important ingredient of most forms of dynamite

hes solid soil or rock or cannot be pushed down any farther

ded or shaped, usually by the application of heat and pressure

-tensioned concrete, the embedded steel bars or cables are stretched into tension before the concrete hardens; in post-tensioned concre

sts Beno Gutenberg and Charles Francis Richter

a structure's ability not to change shape when subjected to a load

quake zones

p the walls from collapsing

nough to threaten the safety of a dam

Urban Habitat includes spires but not antennae when calculating the official height of a skyscraper

that is able to carry a realistic load without collapsing or deforming significantly

esist deformation

arry a realistic load

dams, domes, tunnels, bridges, and skyscrapers, to make sure they are safe and sound for human use

the cables are anchored in housings at either end of the bridge

uckminster Fuller student Kenneth Snellson

e hung; also used loosely as a synonym for the term skyscraper

her stable shapes

ng of a skyscraper in the wind or in an earthquake

nel roof; used when tunneling in soft or unstable ground

officials, and construction crews

rotating past one another

ule bridge deck is raised with counterweights like a drawbridge; and the deck of a lift bridge is raised vertically like a massive elevator

te hardens; in post-tensioned concrete, the embedded steel bars or cables are stretched into tension after the concrete hardens

vertically like a massive elevator

n after the concrete hardens

Glossary :

2D: A graphic representation that shows only two of an object's dimensions at one time, such as height and width, or width a

3D: A graphic representation that shows all three dimensions of an object at one time: height, width, and depth.

3D modeling (computer): A computer-based modeling system that allows the designer to create model geometry on an x-, y

A-frame: A structure, such as a house, with steeply angled sides that meet at the top in the shape of the letter A.

Above ground: Term applied to any utility that is brought into a property situated or taking place on or above the surface of t

Absorption: The process whereby one substance is physically taken into and included within another substance, as the absorp

Adjacency matrix: A matrix used to clarify the design parameters for the client by rating components of a project based on m

Aesthetics: Of or concerning how pleasing something is to the senses.

Alluvium: Clay, silt, gravel, or similar material deposited by running water.

Ampere: A measure of electrical current flow.

Anaerobic: Growing in the absence of oxygen, as in anaerobic bacteria in a septic tank.

Analyzed: Examined carefully and methodically; broken down for consideration of constituent parts.

Angle of Repose: The angle, measured from the horizontal, that granular material is stable while unsupported.

Architect: A person who designs and supervises the construction of buildings or other large structures.

Architecture: The profession of designing buildings and environments with consideration for their aesthetic effect.

Architectural styles: The design element of a structure that is identified by the distinguishing characteristics of the exterior.

Arterial: Roads that carry between 400 to 800 cars per lane per hour depending on businesses, parking, signs, and control sig

Aquifer: An underground geological formation or group of formations containing usable amounts of groundwater that can su

Artifact: An object produced or shaped by human craft, especially a tool, weapon, or ornament of archeological or historical i

Asymmetry: Lack of balance or symmetry.

Attorney: A person legally appointed by another to act as his or her agent in the transaction of business, specifically one qual

Azimuth: The horizontal angle reckoned clockwise from the north or south meridian.

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Backsight (BS): The reference point from which horizontal angles, vertical and horizontal differences are measured.

Baffle: A shield usually made of scrap material to keep insulation from plugging eave vents; also used to describe wind- or sou

Balance: A principle of design dealing with the relationship between the various areas of a structure as they relate to an imag

Barrier: Soil or vegetation blocking sound or sight lines.

Beam: A horizontal structural member that is used to support roofs or wall loads, such as a header.

Bearing points: A property boundary location identified by the distance from a fixed point and at an angle and direction relati

Bearings: would indicate a direction that is 56-degrees, 45-minutes from the south to the west. Directions with reference to o

Begin Vertical Curve (BVC): On an engineering drawing, the point at which the road transitions from an even slope to a vertica

Benchmark: A known reference point or location of known or assumed elevation and/or horizontal coordinates.

Bending: One of three major forces acting on a beam. It is the tendency of a beam to bend or sag between its supports.

Bending moment: A measure of the forces that cause a beam to break by bending. Represented by (M).

Bentonite: 1. A very fine grained clay formed from decayed glass particles in volcanic rock which forms a watertight bond whe

Berm: Mound of earth used as a barrier.

Bird's mouth: A notch cut into a rafter to provide a bearing surface where the rafter intersects the top plate.

Blocking: Framing members, typically wood, placed between joist, rafters, or studs to provide rigidity (also called bridging).

Blueprints: A generally accepted term for a set of printed drawings created by the Diazo reproduction process. Original bluep

Body Language: The gestures, postures, and facial expressions by which a person manifests various physical, mental, or emot

Bottom plate: The lowest horizontal framing member used in residential wall construction.

Boxes: A metal or plastic container equipped with clamps, used to terminate a conduit. Also known as an outlet box.

Bracing System: A method of reinforcing a structure to resist lateral loads.

Branch: A pipe or conduit that splits from a main to carry a utility to a group of structures.

Broadleaf: Plants having relatively broad rather than needle-like or scar-like leaves.

Bounds: A limit, "boundary" as used in the Metes and Bounds system for the legal description of property.

Bubble diagrams: Freehand sketches used to determine room locations, flow of traffic, and spatial relationships. They are the

Building Codes: Legal requirements designed to protect the public by providing guidelines for structural, electrical, plumbing,

Building Inspectors: Individuals who inspect new construction to make sure that the methods and materials meet local and na

Building section: A type of drawing showing an object as if it had been cut through from the peak of the roof to the base of th

Building Structure: The arrangement of parts to form a whole. A building structure's primary function is to support and redire

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Caisson: A watertight structure within which construction work is carried on under water.

Cantilever: Projected construction that is fastened at only one end.

Cantilever beam: A long piece of wood or metal used to support a structure; a horizontal beam that is fastened only at one en

Cartography: The study of map making.

Cartographic surveying: Plotting the points necessary to make a map.

Cast iron: A heavy metal pipe typically used to convey potable water supplies.

Catchbasin: A device used to capture sediment, nutrients, metals, and hydrocarbons suspended in runoff from impervious su

Ceiling: The upper interior surface of a room.

Ceiling joist: The horizontal member of the roof which is used to resist the outward spread of the raters and to provide a surf

Chipboard: A flat construction material, made by using flat chips of wood bonded with formaldehyde glue; sometimes referre

Chord: The upper and lower members of a truss which are supported by the web.

Circuit: The various conductors, connections, and devices found in the path of electrical flow from the source through the com

Circuit Breaker: An electrical safety switch that automatically opens a circuit when excessive amperage occurs.

Circulation: Overall flow of people and goods on a site.

Civil engineer: A person trained in the design and construction of public works projects, such as highways, bridges, sanitation

Clamp screw: A mechanism that locks a surveying instrument in a horizontal or vertical position.

Clean-out: A special fitting that allows access to drainage lines for removing obstructions that develops in those lines.

Client: A person who employs another professionally; a customer.

Closed Traverse: A collection of Traverse lines that return to the POB (Point of Beginning) or other Control Point; the boundar

Codes: A body of laws regulating land use, development, and construction.

Collar: Horizontal ties between rafters near the ridge to help resist the tendency of the rafters to separate.

Collectors: Local roads that can generally carry 100-250 cars per lane per hour.

Colloidal: Made up of very small particles, which remain suspended in water. A typical example is clays.

Color: An integral part of design and decorating which helps distinguish exterior materials and accents shapes.

Columns: Vertical, beam members which are responsible for supporting compressive loads and transferring those loads to th

Commercial Structure: Any building intended for carrying out a business or service.

Common practices: Procedures that are widely accepted by a group of people as the preferred way to accomplish certain tas

Community: Organized political or social body; a body of people in the same locality.

Competitions: Contests used to show or expose work to different forms of evaluation and comparisons to alternate solutions

Complex beam: Beam with a non-uniform load at any point on it, having supports that are not located at its end.

Component: A part of a mechanical or electrical complex.

Compression: A force that crushes or compacts.

Conclusion: The close or last part; the end or finish.

Conductor: Any material that permits the flow of electricity.

Construction Management Engineering: A profession that is responsible for managing and providing quality control, reviewin

Constructive criticism: Comments serving to improve or advance; providing a helpful critical judgment expressed with knowle

Consumption-Based Methodology: One of two suggested systems that can be used to establish utility allowances. (See also e

Continuous beam: A beam having three or more supports.

Continuous foundation: A base on which something rests; poured or fabricated in one complete form, such as a concrete fou

Contour: Lines on a map showing the topographical outlines of the physical characteristics of the land or a line that joins poin

Contour Interval: The elevation change between adjacent contours.

Contractor: A person responsible for directing a project or a portion of the work on a project as in the case of a subcontractor

Control: Any station for which position coordinates and/or elevation is already known, and from which the positions or eleva

Cooling Degree Days: A measure of the severity of the summer in a given locality: the more cooling degree days, the hotter th

Coordinate geometry: A mathematical system that locates points using x- and y-values and angles.

Corner post: The built up vertical section of wall framing used to provide stability and nailing surface at the intersection of wa

Cornice: The part of the roof that extends out from the wall; sometimes referred to as the eave.

Covenants: Binding agreements that list restrictions for the use of property by its owners.

Cripple stud: An upright piece of wood that is cut at less than full length used in wall construction

Critical buckling load: Large compression load that causes a column to become unstable, resulting in a sudden lateral deflecti

Critique: A critical review or commentary.

Cross bracing: Boards fastened diagonally between structural members, such as floor joists, to provide rigidity.

Culture: Range of customs, beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a religious, social, or racial group.

Culvert: A transverse drain used to conduct water under roadways.

Curb Cut: A break or opening onto a road from private property.

Curve length (L): The length of a curve on a road between the Point of Curve and Point of Tangency.

Cut and Fill: A plan to remove (cut) excess soil or add (fill) soil to low spots.

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Data Collector: A portable computer usually sized to hold in one hand that automatically records observations made with a to

Datum: A reference point for starting a survey.

Deciduous: A type of tree, shrub, or vine that drops all of its leaves in winter.

Dead load: Unchanging or dead weights a structure must support (i.e., roof, beams, flooring).

Deflection: Description of the stiffness of a beam by its tendency to bend under a load.

Deformation: Change of shape as a result of forces being applied to an object.

Deed restrictions: Limitations placed on the owner of property for its usage.

Degree of curve (D): The angle within the Delta angle of a curve that has a chord of 100 feet along the curve. Provides inform

Delta Angle (?): The inclusive angle of a curve Measured from PC to PT.

Design: To plan, create, or devise; may refer to the results of the planning, creating, and devising.

Design brief: Summary of a design project that includes brief descriptions of the following: initial problem, identification of ne

Design elements: Parts that make up an end-product that satisfies a set criteria or constraints.

Design Temperature Differential: The difference between the indoor temperature in winter and the outdoor design temperat

Detail drawing: Enlargements of specific areas of a structure that are typically drawn where several components intersect or

Determinant beam: A beam with three support reaction forces that can be determined by applying the three equilibrium equ

Developer: Any property owner, or any person or group with written authorization from the property owner, who intends to

Development: A piece of property of land that has been changed by the addition of improvements.

Diazo reproduction: Diazo prints, also known as blue-line prints, are made by passing an ultraviolet light through a translucen

Dimensions: Distances between points that delineate relationships between design elements.

Diatomaceous earth: Soft earth formed from the shells of diatoms.

Dispersement: Separation of a quantity.

Displays of Work: Public exhibits of work to allow others to learn about a project and to receive peer evaluation.

Distribution main: The primary trunk line used for distributing water, gas, or electricity within a specific area or region.

Distribution panel: A section or division of a wall where the conductor from the meter base is connected to individual circuit b

Drain: A pipe or channel by which liquid is drawn off.

Drainage: A system or plan to remove water from a site.

Drip edge: Molding at the edge of a roof designed for effective water shedding and for directing water away from the exterio

Driveway: A private road providing access from a public way to a building.

Ductile iron: A heavy metal pipe typically used to convey potable water supplies.

Ductwork capacity: The cubic feet per minute of airflow (abbreviated CFM) the ductwork is capable of handling.

Dutch hip: A type of roof shape that combines features of a gable and a hip roof.

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Easement: Right of way across someone's land; typically utility lines are placed in easements.

Eave: The lower part of the roof that projects from the wall (also see cornice).

Ecology: Study of the relationships between living organisms and their surroundings.

Economics: The production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services.

Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM): A means or method of measurement that uses electronics at a distance.

Effluent: The discharge of water or wastewater from a treatment process or processes.

Egress: Exits or a way out of.

Electric Meter: A Kilowatt hour measuring device provided by the power company used for billing purposes.

Electrical plan: The display of all of the circuits and systems to be used by the electrical contractor during installation.

Electrical systems: The means of supply, transmission, and distribution of power to a site.

Elements of art: The basic principles of art, such as design, color, symmetry, or proportion.

Elevation: A point's height above an adopted datum, such as mean sea level (MSL).

Elevations: Orthographic drawings that show one side of a building's interior or exterior.

End Vertical Curve (EVC): Point where the vertical curve ends and the road has an even slope again.

Energy: The ability to do work; types include heat, light, sound, chemical, nuclear, mechanical, electrical.

Energy Codes: A set of rules that are intended to regulate the design and construction of an energy system.

Energy resources: The supply that provides energy that is converted into usable power; source types include solar, wind, nucl

Energy Systems: A means of delivering a structure's power enabling it to do work; it can be by onsite conduction, convection,

Engineered beam: A long, thick piece of wood created from smaller wood pieces improving upon the normal capabilities of co

Engineering-Based Methodology: One of two suggested systems that can be used to establish utility allowances. (See also co

Engineering surveying: A measurement to show size, boundaries, utilities, and topography of a site.

Environment: External surroundings.

Environmental Engineer: A sub-discipline of civil engineering that deals with the treatment of chemical, biological, and/or the

Environmentally Friendly: Designing and constructing buildings from renewable materials such as wood from managed forest

Ethical: Being in accordance with the accepted principles of right and wrong that govern the conduct of a profession.

Equilibrium: State of balance achieved when the forces acting on a structural member are equal to zero.

Evergreen: Plants having foliage that remains green all year.

Exterior: Outside the boundaries of the floor plan.

Eye-contact: Direct visual contact with another's eyes.

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Facilities: A structure, equipment, or service that is designed to meet a need; i.e. restroom.

Fascia: A horizontal board nailed to the end of rafters or trusses to conceal their ends.

Feeder: Local streets, Cul-de-sacs, or loops that service neighborhoods.

Fiber bending stress: The measurement of structural members used to determine their stiffness. Represented by (Fb).

Fine adjusting screw: A mechanism that when tightened or loosened makes fine adjustments of surveying equipment in the v

Finish floor: A floor that has been prepared with a smooth finish suitable for use that may or may not have a sealant applied.

Finishes: Final treatments that are applied to a design or construction element.

Fittings: A general term that usually refers to various piping parts such as tees, valves, fixtures, or elbows.

Fixed beam: A beam with both supports fixed, allowing no rotation at the restrained ends.

Fixed support: A support that totally restrains the beam, sometimes called a fixed end.

Fixtures: Plumbing, electrical, or other trade areas for personal finish devices that are fastened to the structure and become p

Floating foundation: A system and slab formed in one fabrication.

Floor: The inside bottom surface of a room; sometimes refers to a story in a building.

Floor joist: A horizontal structural member used in repetitive patterns to support floor loads.

Floor Plan: A sectional drawing to show a floor from a point four feet above the finished floor level.

Floor plan symbols: Representations used in floor plans to describe items that are associated with living in the home, such as

Flow Rate: The rate at which water or wastewater moves through a treatment system or pipe network.

Foam core board: Model building material; a thin piece of foam sandwiched between two pieces of posterboard.

Foliage: Plant leaves, especially tree leaves, considered as a group.

Footings: Lowest member of a foundation system used to spread the loads of a structure across supporting soil.

Force: A push or a pull on an object.

Form: A principle of design that is described by lines and geometric shapes. For best results, the form of a structure should be

Foresight (FS): The station or location to which a horizontal angle (relative to the backsight), vertical difference, and horizonta

Foundation: System that supports and transfers to the ground a building's loads; may include footings, piers, pilings, foundati

Freeway: A road with limited access that generally handles between 1,000-1,300 cars per hour per lane.

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Gable: A type of roof with two sloping surfaces that intersect at the ridge of the structure.

Gallons per day: A flowrate unit (gpd), which is typically, used for water distribution and wastewater management systems.

Gallons per minute: A flowrate unit (gpm), which is typically, used for water distribution and wastewater management system

Gambrel: A type of roof formed with two planes on each side of the ridge. The lower pitch is steeper than the upper portion o

Geodetic surveying: Mathematical determination of exact locations of geographical points, shapes, and sizes.

Geotechnical Engineering: A profession that analyzes subterranean rock and soil in order to determine load bearing capabiliti

Girder: A horizontal support member at the foundation level.

Global Positioning System (GPS): A surveying technology using specialized radio receivers tuned to signals from military navig

Grade beam: The designation of the quality of a manufactured piece of wood.

Grading: Act of changing a property's topography for a purpose.

Green space: Land that consists predominantly of unsealed, permeable, 'soft' surfaces, such as soil, grass, shrubs, and trees.

Ground: An electrical connection to the earth by means of a rod.

Groupings: A number of plants placed in an arrangement within a landscape for maximum impact and appeal.

Gussett: A metal or wood plate used to strengthen the intersection of structural members.

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Hard water: Drinking water, usually from a groundwater source, that is high in dissolved minerals, most commonly calcium, m

Head loss: Energy loss in hydraulic systems.

Header: The upper portion of a door or window frame.

Heat Loss: The rate of heat transfer in British Thermal Units (BTU) per hour from occupied space to the outdoors. Losses occu

Heating Degree Days: A measure of the severity of the winter in a given locality: the more heating degree days, the colder the

Heckling: To try to embarrass and annoy (someone speaking or performing in public) by questions, gibes, or objections; badge

Height of Instrument (HI): The vertical distance from the station mark to the center of the trunnion axis of the total station or

Hip: The exterior edge formed by two sloping roof surfaces.

Holding Pond: A fabricated containment area for holding storm run-off.

Horizontal Alignment: Tangency established between straight-a-ways and curves on roads.

Horizontal orientation: A view of an object that shows its width.

Horizontal shear: One of three major forces acting on a beam; it is the tendency of the fibers of a beam to slide past each oth

Hydraulic detention time: The average amount of time a particle of water stays within a treatment vessel. The hydraulic dete

Hydrogeologist: Scientists who study groundwater occurrence and movement.

Hydrographic: Relating to features of a body of water or the study of the flow of water.

Hydrology: The study of the properties and characteristics of earth's water. Back to Top

Impact loads: Dynamic forces applied by live loads; because they are considered related to live loads, they are generally taken

Indeterminant beam: A beam with more than three support reaction forces. The three equilibrium equations are not sufficien

Indigenous: Originating and growing or living in an area or environment.

Influent: Water or wastewater, partially or completely treated, or in its natural state that flows into a reservoir, tank, treatm

Infrastructure: Basic installations, such as roads, railways, or factories that determine the economic power of a country, city,

Ingress: Entrances or a means to enter.

Inlet: A narrow passage for water to enter a system.

Interior: Within the boundaries of the floor plan.

Interviews: A verbal process to inform and provide suggestions for improvement.

Introduction: Something spoken, written, or otherwise presented at the beginning of a presentation or written piece; used in

Irrigation: A process to supply something, such as dry land with water by means of ditches, pipes, or streams; to water artifici

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Jack stud: A wall member that is cut shorter than other studs to allow for an opening, such as a window (also called a cripple

Jamb: The vertical member of a door or window frame.

Journal: Daily record or collection of writings, sketches, and research that express the design process.

Junction box: A metal or plastic container that protects electrical wiring splices in conductors or joints in a run.

Juried presentation: A showing or viewing of something that has been assessed by a group of judges or evaluators.

Jury: A panel of individuals that assess a design project with a formal presentation.

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Kaolin: A fine, white clay used in ceramics and refectories and as a filler or coating for paper and textiles. This clay is formed b

King stud: A full-length piece of wood placed at the end of a header.

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Land: A solid part of the earth's surface, ground, or soil.

Land surveying: The process of measuring and locating physical entities on a plot of land to obtain a legal description.

Landscape design: The aesthetic improvement of land with the use of existing resources and the addition of plant material as

Landscape horticulturist: A person whose profession is the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants for

Landscaping: The improvement of a plot with the responsible use of existing and new plant material.

Lateral: Of, relating to, or situated at or on the side.

Lateral loads: Sideways directed loads sustained by a structure that may be caused by winds or seismic activity.

Layout: Arrangement of design components to satisfy the design requirements.

Least squares: A method of determining the curve that best describes the relationship between expected and observed sets o

Legal description: A written passage or statement that describes property; may be one of three types: metes and bounds, rec

Lending institution: Organization that is in the business of providing monetary funds for individuals or companies needing fun

Leveling base: A foundation or area designed to level surveying instruments prior to use; four leveling screws are used.

Leveling Rod or Target rod: A device with a graduated scale in 1/10ths or 1/100ths of feet that is focused on through the tele

Liquid Limit: Minimum moisture content at which the soil will flow upon application of a sheering force.

Line: A sense of direction or movement in the design of a structure which helps to relate it to the site and the natural surroun

Line-of-sight: An imaginary line from the eye to a perceived object.

Live load: Changing (live) weights on a structure in need of support, such as people, furniture, rain, or snow.

Load: Weight a structure must support.

Load paths: The direction a force will follow along structural members to reach its foundation and ultimately the ground supp

Long span: A one-story structure with a span greater than 12 to 15 m and large free spaces between columns.

Lot size: The number of square footage in a plot of land that is under consideration for development.

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Main: The public pipe or wire that conveys a utility from one point to another.

Maintenance: The work of keeping something in proper condition; upkeep.

Management: People in charge of carrying out the administration of business.

Manhole: An entry through which a person may gain access to an underground or enclosed structure.

Mansard: A four-sided, steep-sloped roof.

Materials: The products that are used to protect the exterior of the building from weather, such as roofing, wall coverings, do

Mat (Raft) foundations: A foundation used when soil bearing is relatively low or where loads are heavy in relation to soil-bear

Meridians: Lines of longitude used in legal property descriptions.

Meter: An instrument used to measure electrical quantities.

Metes: Measurements used to identify the boundaries of a property.

Micaceous: A mineral that crystallizes in thin, flexible layers resistant to heat.

Minute: A measurement of 1/60th of a degree, where 360 degrees equals a circle.

Models: A model, or mock-up, is a three-dimensional representation of an architectural design solution that is used to help co .

Modulus of elasticity: The degree of stiffness of a beam. Represented by (e).

Moment: Tendency to rotate about a point determined by the product of a force multiplied by the distance from this force to

Monument: A known reference point on an immovable object used to reference topographical data usually identified by a br

Multi-Family: Distinction given in building codes to a structure where more than one family unit would reside.

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NAD 27: The North American Datum of 1927 is a horizontal reference datum.

NAD 83: The North American Datum of 1983 is a horizontal reference datum, which superseded NAD 27.

National Geodetic Survey (NGS): A federal government activity that is responsible for national programs in geodesy and geod

Native plants: Plants, which are indigenous to a particular area.

NAVD 88: The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 is a vertical reference datum, which superseded NGVD 1929.

NGVD 29: The National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 is a vertical reference datum.

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Outlet: An electrical receptacle which allows current to be drawn from a system.

Overhang: The horizontal measurement of the distance the roof projects from a wall.

Overhang beam: A beam supported with two supports, one or both supports are not located at the end of the beam.

Overview: A broad, comprehensive view; a summary or review.

Ownership: Having legal authority over something; i.e. land or buildings.

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P & Z Board: Local planning and zoning committee that is comprised of community individuals who make decisions governing

Panel box: The electrical enclosure where the service is connected to the individual circuits in the structure.

Parallels: Lines of latitude used as a reference point in legal descriptions of property.

Particle board: A formed panel consisting of particles of wood flakes, chips, and shavings and bonded together with synthetic

Peer evaluation: Process of checking another's work against the requirements that have been given and giving constructive fe

Peer Review: A method that enables reflection and revision of work completed.

Perspective Drawings: A type of pictorial drawing that provides the illusion of depth by converging all horizontal lines which r

pH: Measure of acidity.

Photogrammetry: The science of obtaining reliable information about physical objects through the use of recording, measurin

Pier: Any of various vertical supporting structures, such as a pillar, supporting an arch or roof or buttress.

Pile foundations: Deep foundations acting like large nails that are hammered into the soil wit/;h pile drivers to deliver the stru

Pile: A heavy beam of timber, concrete, or steel, driven into the earth as a foundation or support for a structure.

Piling: A structure composed of piles.

Pin support: Type of structural member connection usually metal.

Pitch: Slope (comparison of rise over run) of a roof.

Plagiarize: Act of using another author's work without giving proper credit; literary theft.

Plan: Top view in an engineering drawing.

Plastic Limit: The lowest moisture content at which a soil can be rolled into a thread 1/8 inch in diameter. Sands are non plas

Plat: A map of part of a city or township showing some specific area, such as a subdivision made up of several individual lots.

Platy: A flat particle having one dimension relatively small in relation to the other two.

Plot: A small piece of ground; a measured area of land; a lot.

Plot Plan: Layout of a parcel of land.

Point of Beginning (POB): The first point in an engineering project referenced to a bench mark, such as 0+00.

Point of Curve (P.C.): The Station Point where a curve begins.

Point of Intersection (P.I.): The Station Point where two road grades or transit lines intersect.

Point of Reference (POR): A location of known or assumed elevation and/or horizontal coordinates.

Point of Reverse Curve (PRC): The Station Point where two curves meet and change direction.

Point of Tangency (PT): The Station Point where a curve ends and a Straight-a-way begins.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe: Pipe that is constructed with a polymer formed by polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer, s

Poorly Graded: Soil classification where there is only one size, uniformly graded, or a soil that contains only a few differently s

Portfolio: A written record of the development of a project from inception to completion. The three types of portfolios are fo

Position: The coordinates, in a horizontal reference system, which identify a station mark or feature. Latitude and longitude, a

Potable water: Raw or treated water that is considered safe to drink.

Pounds per Square Inch (PSI): A unit of pressure measurement.

Precast Concrete: Concrete building components which are formed and cured at a factory and then transported to a work sit

Pressurized: Result of pressure being exerted upon something.

Prevailing winds: Direction from which the wind most frequently blows in a given area of the country.

Principles of design: The basic rules or standards that determine a good design, such as form, function, and aesthetics.

Prism: Reflecting device used with a total station or other electronic distance measuring instruments.

Private: Structure or property development that has restricted or limited access for certain groups of people.

Private Force Main: A privately owned utility pipe, conduit, or line that is under pressure.

Private utilities: Any gravity sewer, force main, sewage treatment plant or water or electrical supply system that serves reside

Profile: The elevation (or front view) of property showing the vertical information created if a vertical slice is taken through th

Project: An undertaking that is usually large and encompasses planning, execution, and presentation to varying degrees as ad

Project notebooks: Notebooks documenting an undertaking that is evidence of design process, research, and final implement

Property Owners: Legal possessors of land.

Propped beam: A beam with two supports and one end is fixed.

Proportion: A principle of design that deals with the size and shape of areas and their relationship to one another.

Protractor: A measurement device that is graduated in degrees and minutes and that is used for measuring horizontal angles

Public: Structure or property development that is intended for the use of all people.

Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW): Municipal owned water treatment or wastewater treatment facility.

Public Sanitary Sewer System: Community owned wastewater system.

Public Water System: Community owned potable water distribution system.

Pump stations: Pumps, typically housed in buildings, which add energy to water distribution and sanitary sewer systems.

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Radius (R): The perpendicular distance between the Transit line and the center of the curve, measured from the Point of Curv

Rafter: The inclined structural member of a roof system designed to support roof loads.

Realtor: A person whose business is selling and leasing property; an estate agent.

Regulators: Persons in a position to control the flow or distribution of entities.

Regulations: Rules or ordinances that must be followed in the design of a structure or property development.

Reinforcement bars (rebar): Rods that are used for compressive strength; that is, the bar absorbs the push force.

Reinforcing rods: Rods that are used for tensile strength; that is, the rod absorbs the pull force.

Relief: The elevations or inequalities of a land surface giving it three dimensional qualities.

Renderings: Pictorial drawings that illustrate a design's details.

Residential Structure: Any structure used for living purposes.

Resources: Things needed to get a job done. The basic technological resources are tools and machines, materials, informatio

Restrictions: Constraints that limit what can be done.

Rhythm: A principle of design that describes the illusion of flow or movement created by having a regularly repeated pattern

Ridge: The uppermost area of two intersecting roof planes.

Ridge board: A horizontal member that rafters are aligned against to resist their downward force.

Right-of-Way (ROW): The strip or area of land around a state highway granted easement or fee paid to a local, state, or feder

Rise: The amount of vertical distance between one tread and another.

Riser: A water supply pipe that extends vertically one story or more to carry water to fixtures.

Roller support: Joint connection that allows for movement of a structural member.

Roof system: Primary system located on the top of a structure that protects its interior from the natural elements.

Rough Opening: The unfinished opening between framing members allowed for doors, windows, or other assemblies.

Run: The horizontal distance of a set of steps or the measurement describing the depth of one step.

R-value: Measurement of thermal resistance used to indicate the effectiveness of insulation.

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Scale: 1. A measuring device used to draw a proportionately reduced representation of a design. 2. A mineral deposit left by

Schedule Key: Sets of letters and numbers enclosed in geometric shapes that are used to cross reference a feature on a draw

Schedules: Written lists of similar components and their specifications, such as windows and doors.

Scissor truss: A roof truss design characterized by two crossing diagonal bottom chords that are frequently used when a vault

Seasonal wind pattern: A design of natural origin of how the wind flows during different seasons of the year.

Section Detail: A vertical cut through the road to show construction details.

Section Modulus: The moment of inertia divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fiber of the cross sectio

Sections: Views that are formed by slicing a structure or part of a structure along a cutting plane line to show interior details.

Seismic load: Earthquake related forces that must be accounted for in the structural design; specified in the building codes.

Self-assessment: An assessment technique used to enhance learning and understanding through self-evaluation.

Septage: The biodegradable waste from septic tanks and similar treatment systems. Septage includes the sediments, water, g

Septic: An anaerobic condition of water and wastewater.

Septic System: A method to handle raw sewage on site; consists of piping from the structure to the tank, a tank to hold sewag

Service: A facility providing the public with the use of something, such as water or transportation.

Service entrance: An entry to a structure or property that is used for delivery of goods and removal of refuse; usually located

Service line: A pipe or conduit conveying a utility from a distribution main to the meter or entry point of any individual prope

Setback: The minimum legal distance from a property line or street where improvements to a site can be built or the minimu

Settling: To cause to sink, become compact, or come to rest; to cause (a liquid) to become clear by forming a sediment; to sta

Shear: Stress that occurs when two forces from opposite directions are acting on the same member; tends to cut a member j

Sheathing: A covering material placed over walls, floors, and roofs that serves as a backing for finishing materials.

Shed: A small structure, either freestanding or attached to a large structure used for storage or shelter.

Shock waves: Compressed waves that travel from an earthquake's hypocenter at different velocities impacting structures on

Sight Distance: The farthest point a driver can see around obstacles.

Sill: A horizontal wood member placed at the bottom of walls and opening in walls.

Silt: Sedimentary material less than .05mm in size.

Simple beam: A beam with a uniform load evenly distributed over its entire length and supported at each end.

Single Family: Distinction given in building codes to a stand alone structure where only one family unit would reside.

Single-phase: Producing, carrying, or powered by a single alternating voltage.

Site: An area of land generally one plot or construction lot in size. The term site is synonymous with plot and lot.

Site Location: Physical placement of a property and its surrounding vicinity.

Site Orientation: The placement of a structure on a property with certain environmental and physical factors taken into consi

Site plan: A map of a piece of land that may be used for any number of purposes. It shows the relationship between a structu

Sizing: Process of choosing the correct structural member necessary to carry specific loads in a design.

Shrubs: Woody plant smaller than a tree with several stems rising from the same root.

Slope: The relationship of the rise to the run expressed as a proportion or a percent, for example 1/10 or 10%.

Sketches: A collection of freehand drawings that communicate an idea; three types: program, design, and thumbnail.

Sketching: An effective means of communication that utilizes freehand drawing.

Soffit: A lowered ceiling, typically found in kitchens, halls, and bathrooms to allow for recessed lighting or HVAC ducts.

Soil Perc Test: A method to determine the permeability of the soil.

Soil pH: The measure of acidity of the soil.

Soil stack: Any vertical pipe in a waste water system.

Solar Orientation: A way of indicating the exposure to the sun. Solar orientation provides for excellent exposure to the sun. S

Sound Orientation: A way of indicating the exposure to sound. Sound orientation includes determining the sounds that the cl

Space allocation: The allocation of square footage based on the functional needs within an area.

Space planning: The process of listing functions to be performed within a design and developing relationships as to their place

Span: Horizontal distance between two supporting members.

Spatial relationship: The proportion of space and objects and how they relate to one another.

Specification Manuals: Reference materials specific in nature which provide additional information that is not given in the wo

Spread foundation: Foundation where the structural load is spread out over a broad area under a building utilizing horizontal

Stable: The condition of a structural member that has been designed to handle the loads it will carry to prevent failure.

Static Head Pressure: The water pressure within a pipe when the water is not moving.

Statics: Branch of mechanics dealing with the forces that produce a state of equilibrium.

Station: A location sometimes called a Station Point, at the intersection of two Traverse lines. Stations are usually sectioned i

Storm Drain: A drain designed to collect surface water runoff.

Stormwater Retention Areas: Manmade areas for the collection of storm water.

Strain: To alter the relations between the parts of a structure or shape by applying an external force; deform.

Stress: Live or dead load acting on a structural member that results as the material resists the external force; internal force pe

Structural Engineer: A profession that studies and understands the basic principles that define and characterize the behavior

Structure: Something made up of interdependent parts in a definite pattern of organization; an interrelation of parts as deter

Subfloor: The flooring surface that is laid on the floor joint and that serves as a base layer for the finished floor.

Subsurface: Soil conditions below ground.

Summary: A statement or presentation of the main points in a condensed form; concise.

Supply: Input line into an area of a structure.

Swale: A man made depression or low lying land feature used for drainage (i.e., a ditch).

Symmetry: (1) Exact correspondence of form and constituent configuration on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane or ab

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Tangent Line: A single contact point or along a line; touching but not intersecting.

Telescope: An instrument that contains the lens focusing adjustment and cross hairs for sighting.

Telescope level: A spirit (air bubble in fluid encased in a glass cylinder) level used for leveling the instrument.

Tension: Forces that cause a material to stretch or pull apart.

Terrain: The characteristic of land on which the proposed structure will be placed.

Test boring: The process of removing a small diameter core of soil and earth to determine the subterranean features and com

Texture: A principle of design which refers to the roughness or smoothness, including reflective properties, of a material or o

Three phase: Electrical supply utilizing 4 wires with three lines, each 120 out of phase with the others. Used for commercial o

Timeline: Sequential listing of information according to the dates it took place or should take place.

Top plate: The upper horizontal framing member used in residential wall construction, frequently being doubled to provide fo

Topography: The configuration of a surface including its relief and the position of its natural and cultural features.

Total dynamic head (TDH): The pressure within a pipe system with the water in motion. TDH = Static head minus head loss.

Total Station: An electronic surveying instrument that combines angles and distance-measuring capabilities in a single unit.

Traffic flow: The route that people follow as they move from one area to another.

Transit Line: The path or center line of a road.

Transmission Main: The main trunk of a utility system.

Transportation Engineering: A profession that designs and analyzes transportation systems, such as highway construction, rai

Trap: A device for sealing a passage against the escape of gases, especially a U-shaped or S-shaped bend in a drainpipe that p

Traverse: A series of lines of known length connected by known angles.

Tree canopy: The outer limits of a tree's foliage shown from directly overhead.

Tributary width: The accumulation of loads that are directed to a structural member; always half the distance between the be

Trimmer: Joists or rafters that are used to frame an opening in a floor, ceiling, or roof.

Tripod: A three-legged stand that provides a stable mounting base for a surveying instrument.

Truss: A rigid framework, to support a roof or bridge; made from shorter components connected in triangles with pin connec

Turning Points: The stations used when surveying. Also called Traverse Stations or Station Points.

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Ultraviolet Disinfection: A final treatment method in which partially treated effluent is exposed to ultraviolet light to kill path

Underground: Any utility located below the ground level.

Unity: A principle of design related to the commonality of the design or decorating pattern that ties a structure together.

Universal accessibility: A design to provide access with the mobility limited person in mind; Americans with Disabilities Act (A

USCS: Unified Soil Classification System.

USDA hardiness map: A map of the United States that shows the range of temperatures in zones for vegetation growth; used

Utilities: Any service provided by an offsite supplier.

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Valley: The internal corner formed between two intersecting roof structures.

Vellum (tracing paper): Drafting paper that is specially designed to accept pencil or ink.

Vent stack: Any vertical pipe in a waste water system whose purpose is to provide a pathway for built up gasses.

Vertical alignment: Tangency between a vertical curve and a road with an even slope.

Vertical Curve (VC): The transition created when a road travels over a hilltop or down a valley and up again.

Vertical orientation: A view of an object that shows its height.

Vertical shear: A stress acting on a beam, that causes a beam to drop between its supports.

Viable: Capable of success or continuing effectiveness; practicable.

Viability analysis: Evaluation process that takes into account the factors that will influence and determine the successful impl

Vibrations: Quick forward and backward motions.

View Orientation: A visualization of mountains, city lights, water, or even a developed site, such as a golf course; is optimized

Volt: The unit used in measuring electrical pressure.

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Wall Section: A partial section that shows only typical roof, wall, floor and foundation information for one typical wall rather

Waste Treatment Engineering: The profession that is responsible for designing and analyzing waste water treatment facilities

Wastewater: The spent or used water from an individual household, a community, or commercial establishment, which conta

Water Management Engineering: A profession that studies the use of hydraulic and hydrologic principles to design drainage s

Watt: A unit of electrical power, which is composed of both voltage and amperage.

Weatherhead: Special fitting used to attach an electrical service line to a building or structure.

Webs: Interior members of the truss that span between the top and bottom chord.

Well-Graded: Soil classification where there are a variety of particle sizes present.

Wetlands: Environmentally sensitive lands that have a large concentration of water on it that filters surface water back into t

Wind break: A hedge, fence, or row of trees serving to lessen or break the force of the wind.

Wind load: A wind load is dynamic in nature because wind pressure, direction, and duration of wind are constantly changing.

Wind Orientation: Involves determining prevailing winds, which should be taken into account in the placement of a home or b

Working drawings: The set of plans from which a structure will be built. Working drawings are the vehicle by which the design

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Zenith Angle: The angle, measured in the vertical plane, between straight up (zero) and the target of observation. The horizon

Zoning: Clarifications for property development that govern the design and use of buildings, structures, and utilities within a m

such as height and width, or width and depth, or height and depth.

eight, width, and depth.

o create model geometry on an x-, y-, and z-axis system.

he shape of the letter A.

ng place on or above the surface of the ground.

hin another substance, as the absorption of water by soil.

components of a project based on most desirable features and placement.

tuent parts.

ble while unsupported.

ge structures.

for their aesthetic effect.

hing characteristics of the exterior.

esses, parking, signs, and control signals.

amounts of groundwater that can supply wells and springs.

ament of archeological or historical interest.

ion of business, specifically one qualified and licensed to act for plaintiffs and defendants in legal proceedings.

differences are measured.

ts; also used to describe wind- or sound-deadening devices.

a structure as they relate to an imaginary centerline; sometimes referred to as symmetrical or equally proportioned.

t and at an angle and direction relative to that point.

e west. Directions with reference to one quadrant of a compass used to identify property boundaries in the metes and bounds system. Ex

itions from an even slope to a vertical curve.

horizontal coordinates.

nd or sag between its supports.

esented by (M).

k which forms a watertight bond when compacted. One form of it, Sodium Bentonite, absorbs water and swells to about 20 times its orig

rsects the top plate.

ovide rigidity (also called bridging).

reproduction process. Original blueprints were created by a wet chemical process that caused the background to be blue and any lines or

sts various physical, mental, or emotional states and communicates nonverbally with others.

Also known as an outlet box.

ption of property.

nd spatial relationships. They are the first step in the design process used to represent spatial relationships and placement of circulation f

s for structural, electrical, plumbing, and mechanical areas of a structure.

hods and materials meet local and national code requirements.

the peak of the roof to the base of the foundation in order to show interior construction.

mary function is to support and redirect loads and forces safely to the ground. It constantly withstands forces of wind, effects of gravity, vib

beam that is fastened only at one end and extends beyond a supporting surface.

pended in runoff from impervious surfaces before being conveyed to a storm sewer network or to another water-quality treatment system

ad of the raters and to provide a surface on which to mount the finished ceiling.

ormaldehyde glue; sometimes referred to as wafer board; term used in the construction industry for Oriented Strand Board (OSB). OSB wa

low from the source through the components and back to the source.

sive amperage occurs.

such as highways, bridges, sanitation facilities, and water treatment plants.

that develops in those lines.

) or other Control Point; the boundaries of a property.

afters to separate.

ample is clays.

s and accents shapes.

ds and transferring those loads to the foundation of a structure.

eferred way to accomplish certain tasks.

d comparisons to alternate solutions.

e not located at its end.

d providing quality control, reviewing contracts, ordering materials, and hiring and scheduling sub-contractors for a structural engineering

ical judgment expressed with knowledge.

tablish utility allowances. (See also engineering-based methodology.) This method is based on actual consumption data from utility bills o

mplete form, such as a concrete foundation.

cs of the land or a line that joins points of similar elevation.

ject as in the case of a subcontractor; usually a legally binding agreement is signed and a bond posted to ensure completion.

nd from which the positions or elevations of unknown stations are determined.

ore cooling degree days, the hotter the summers. Cooling degree days (CDD) are the difference between 65 degrees F and the daily mean

iling surface at the intersection of wall sections.

, resulting in a sudden lateral deflection of the column.

sts, to provide rigidity.

or racial group.

records observations made with a total station.

eet along the curve. Provides information on how tight the curve will be.

g: initial problem, identification of needs to solve the problem, factors/constraints to be considered.

ter and the outdoor design temperature in winter. The design temperature differential or design range is used in calculating the space he

ere several components intersect or where small members are required.

by applying the three equilibrium equations. If a beam has more than three support reactions, it is said to be indeterminate.

the property owner, who intends to improve or to construct improvements upon a given property.

ultraviolet light through a translucent original drawing to expose a chemically coated paper or print material underneath.

receive peer evaluation.

ithin a specific area or region.

ase is connected to individual circuit breakers, which are connected to separate circuits for distribution to various locations throughout th

recting water away from the exterior facing material.

k is capable of handling.

ctronics at a distance.

or billing purposes.

ontractor during installation.

anical, electrical.

an energy system.

ource types include solar, wind, nuclear, geothermal, fossil fuels, and hydroelectric.

be by onsite conduction, convection, radiation, or offsite mechanical means.

ng upon the normal capabilities of construction lumber. These products are composed of wood particles (veneer, wood chips, oriented st

ablish utility allowances. (See also consumption-based methodology.) This method is based on engineering calculations and other technic

nt of chemical, biological, and/or thermal waste, the purification of water and air, and the remediation of contaminated sites, due to prio

s such as wood from managed forests, earthen materials, and recycled products.

the conduct of a profession.

e equal to zero.

tiffness. Represented by (Fb).

ents of surveying equipment in the vertical or horizontal plane.

y or may not have a sealant applied.

tures, or elbows.

tened to the structure and become part of the property, such as, toilets, chandeliers, water faucets, doorbells.

ated with living in the home, such as doors, windows, cabinets and plumbing fixtures.

pipe network.

o pieces of posterboard.

e across supporting soil.

lts, the form of a structure should be dictated by its function.

ht), vertical difference, and horizontal distance are measured.

lude footings, piers, pilings, foundation walls, and slabs.

r hour per lane.

wastewater management systems.

and wastewater management systems.

ch is steeper than the upper portion of the roof.

ts, shapes, and sizes.

to determine load bearing capabilities essential for a safe and secure structure.

s tuned to signals from military navigation satellites to position survey stations.

uch as soil, grass, shrubs, and trees.

m impact and appeal.

minerals, most commonly calcium, magnesium, and iron.

d space to the outdoors. Losses occur through walls, ceilings, and floors of a structure, and through cracks around windows and doors. Th

e heating degree days, the colder the winters. Heating degree days (HDD) are the difference between 65 degrees F and the daily mean (a

questions, gibes, or objections; badger.

e trunnion axis of the total station or level.

bers of a beam to slide past each other in a horizontal direction. Represented by (Fv).

treatment vessel. The hydraulic detention time can be calculated by dividing the vessel volume by the flowrate.

to live loads, they are generally taken as a fraction of the live loads causing them.

quilibrium equations are not sufficient to solve for all of the reactions. If a beam has three support reactions, it is said to be determinate.

t flows into a reservoir, tank, treatment component or disposal component.

e economic power of a country, city, or town.

resentation or written piece; used in presenting a person.

es, pipes, or streams; to water artificially.

ch as a window (also called a cripple stud).

sign process.

tors or joints in a run.

up of judges or evaluators.

per and textiles. This clay is formed by the weathering of pegmatities or mica schists from the acids in ground water.

to obtain a legal description.

and the addition of plant material as needed.

es, flowers, or ornamental plants for decorative and functional alteration and planting of grounds.

ant material.

nds or seismic activity.

etween expected and observed sets of data by minimizing the sums of the squares of deviation between observed and expected values. It

f three types: metes and bounds, rectangular survey system, and lot and block.

ndividuals or companies needing funds.

; four leveling screws are used.

t that is focused on through the telescope.

sheering force.

it to the site and the natural surroundings.

iture, rain, or snow.

ation and ultimately the ground supporting the foundation.

es between columns.

evelopment.

ed structure.

er, such as roofing, wall coverings, doors, and windows.

oads are heavy in relation to soil-bearing capacities. This foundation type is essentially one large footing under an entire building, which di

design solution that is used to help communicate design concepts. The model can either be a physical model or a computer-generated mo

ied by the distance from this force to this point.

aphical data usually identified by a brass circle with data inscribed on it.

mily unit would reside.

erseded NAD 27.

tional programs in geodesy and geodetic surveying. NGS is a division under the National Ocean Service of the National Oceanic and Atmos

ch superseded NGVD 1929.

ated at the end of the beam.

duals who make decisions governing the development of property within the community.

its in the structure.

and bonded together with synthetic resin glue. Used for countertop or veneer panel underlayment.

been given and giving constructive feedback.

onverging all horizontal lines which represent the object's depth to a single vanishing point on the horizon (for one-point perspectives) or

rough the use of recording, measuring, and interpreting photographic images.

roof or buttress.

l wit/;h pile drivers to deliver the structure load into a greater mass of soil, or to deliver the loads to a stiffer soil or bedrock stratum.

support for a structure.

inch in diameter. Sands are non plastic and cannot be rolled.

n made up of several individual lots.

mark, such as 0+00.

rization of vinyl chloride monomer, sometimes called vinyl. The white PVC pipe is often found in structures and used for gravity pipe syste

that contains only a few differently sized particles, gap graded.

n. The three types of portfolios are formative, summative, and marketing.

k or feature. Latitude and longitude, and Northing and Easting are examples of position coordinates in systems used in surveying.

y and then transported to a work site for erection.

the country.

orm, function, and aesthetics.

instruments.

ain groups of people.

rical supply system that serves residential subdivisions or other groups of uses or structures and that is not owned and maintained by the

d if a vertical slice is taken through the property.

resentation to varying degrees as addressed in the scope.

ocess, research, and final implementation of the design solution.

ationship to one another.

used for measuring horizontal angles.

water treatment facility.

ion and sanitary sewer systems.

rve, measured from the Point of Curve.

operty development.

absorbs the push force.

and machines, materials, information, energy, capital, time, and people.

having a regularly repeated pattern of lines, planes, or surface treatments.

or fee paid to a local, state, or federal government agency.

rom the natural elements.

windows, or other assemblies.

design. 2. A mineral deposit left by hard water.

cross reference a feature on a drawing to its corresponding part on a schedule, often referred to as a tag.

hat are frequently used when a vaulted ceiling is desired.

seasons of the year.

the extreme fiber of the cross section. If a member is rectangular then S = bd / 6 (in3) is used in bending calculations, where b= width an

g plane line to show interior details.

gn; specified in the building codes.

through self-evaluation.

tage includes the sediments, water, grease, and scum pumped from a septic tank.

ture to the tank, a tank to hold sewage where bacteria breaks it down, and a drain field where liquid is dispersed.

nd removal of refuse; usually located at the rear.

r entry point of any individual property.

s to a site can be built or the minimum distance from the property lines to the front, rear, and sides of a structure.

me clear by forming a sediment; to stabilize.

me member; tends to cut a member just as scissors cut paper.

ng for finishing materials.

age or shelter.

nt velocities impacting structures on the earth's surface; intensity varies according to the type of soil the wave is traveling through.

upported at each end.

ne family unit would reside.

ymous with plot and lot.

and physical factors taken into consideration.

ws the relationship between a structure and its physical surroundings. Also known as a plot or lot plan.

ds in a design.

example 1/10 or 10%.

gram, design, and thumbnail.

cessed lighting or HVAC ducts.

s for excellent exposure to the sun. Solar access refers to the availability of direct sunlight to a structure or construction site.

s determining the sounds that the client will contend with and what other design components may be used to soften the sound impact, s

eloping relationships as to their placement taking into consideration the design criteria.

formation that is not given in the working drawings.

a under a building utilizing horizontal rebar mats to anchor the building as a whole or to anchor individual columns or sections separately.

it will carry to prevent failure.

ines. Stations are usually sectioned into 100 foot intervals with the hundreds separated from the tens and ones by a + sign. E.g. 3+27 wou

ternal force; deform.

s the external force; internal force per unit area of the member's cross section.

efine and characterize the behavior of physical objects subjected to forces and the designs of such things as bridges, buildings, dams, and

on; an interrelation of parts as determined by the general character of the whole.

r for the finished floor.

sides of a dividing line or plane or about a center or an axis. (2) Beauty as a result of balance or harmonious arrangement.

ling the instrument.

e the subterranean features and composition.

lective properties, of a material or object and its related physical and visual effects.

ith the others. Used for commercial or industrial utility; well suited to run heavy motors.

equently being doubled to provide for stiffness and for support of joists or trusses above.

ural and cultural features.

TDH = Static head minus head loss.

asuring capabilities in a single unit.

ms, such as highway construction, railways, airports, urban and suburban road networks, parking areas, and traffic control systems.

S-shaped bend in a drainpipe that prevents the return flow of sewer gas by means of a water barrier.

ways half the distance between the beam to be designed and the next bearing point.

nnected in triangles with pin connections.

xposed to ultraviolet light to kill pathogens and microorganisms.

rn that ties a structure together.

nd; Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1997 and the International Code Council have specified guidelines that are to be followed.

n zones for vegetation growth; used when identifying plant material to be used in landscaping.

hway for built up gasses.

alley and up again.

e and determine the successful implementation of a proposed project.

e, such as a golf course; is optimized in the site orientation.

ormation for one typical wall rather than the full structure.

zing waste water treatment facilities, such as sanitary waste, disposable waste, and water treatment facilities.

mmercial establishment, which contains dissolved and suspended matter that is harmful to human health and the environment. Wastewa

ologic principles to design drainage systems, detention and retention ponds, navigational waterways, dams, and lakes.

that filters surface water back into the aquifer; usually have developmental restrictions placed upon their usage.

ion of wind are constantly changing. To accommodate this with wind load, a standard is used. Wind loads are treated as lateral loading on

ount in the placement of a home or business.

gs are the vehicle by which the designer graphically conveys the final design solution. Their size is dependent upon the scope and nature o

he target of observation. The horizontal, therefore, is 90 degrees.

ngs, structures, and utilities within a municipality.

ly proportioned.

in the metes and bounds system. Example: (S 56 45' W)

and swells to about 20 times its original size. The other, Calcium Bentonite, does not change size. Bentonites are generally used to seal du

ckground to be blue and any lines or printing to be white.

nships and placement of circulation flow.

s forces of wind, effects of gravity, vibrations, and sometimes earthquakes.

other water-quality treatment system.

Oriented Strand Board (OSB). OSB was developed as an inexpensive replacement for plywood. It comes in several thicknesses only some o

ntractors for a structural engineering job.

consumption data from utility bills or checked meter readings. Data is used to estimate the amount of energy or water a household shou

d to ensure completion.

een 65 degrees F and the daily mean (average) temperature when the latter is more than 65 degrees F.

ge is used in calculating the space heating requirements of a dwelling unit under the engineering-based methodology.

d to be indeterminate.

material underneath.

on to various locations throughout the structure.

cles (veneer, wood chips, oriented strands, wafers, laminated dimensional lumber, and combinations thereof) bonded by long-lasting adh

eering calculations and other technical information that is used to estimate the amount of energy or water a household should reasonabl

on of contaminated sites, due to prior waste disposal or accidental contamination. Environmental engineers are also involved in pollution

racks around windows and doors. The heat loss depends on the structure size, construction, design, physical condition, amount of insulat

n 65 degrees F and the daily mean (average) temperature when the latter is less than 65 degrees F.

actions, it is said to be determinate.

n ground water.

een observed and expected values. It is a process used to determine the best fit of a line or curve (depending on whether a person is using

ng under an entire building, which distributes the load over the entire mat. A mat is called a raft foundation when it is placed deep enoug

l model or a computer-generated model of the design.

e of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) within the Department of Commerce.

rizon (for one-point perspectives) or to two vanishing points on the horizon (for a two-point perspective). Additional Information: In arch

a stiffer soil or bedrock stratum.

ctures and used for gravity pipe systems such as wastewater drains. Green PVC pipe is used for gravity sanitary sewers.

n systems used in surveying.

is not owned and maintained by the public utilities.

ding calculations, where b= width and d= depth. Does not work for I- shape.

is dispersed.

f a structure.

the wave is traveling through.

ure or construction site.

e used to soften the sound impact, such as droning road noise.

dual columns or sections separately. Spread foundation is sometimes called "footing foundations" or "spread footing" and is a frequent ty

s and ones by a + sign. E.g. 3+27 would be 327 feet from the Point of Beginning.

hings as bridges, buildings, dams, and stadiums.

onious arrangement.

as, and traffic control systems.

delines that are to be followed.

ealth and the environment. Wastewater requires treatment to remove bacteria and pathogens, either through an onsite decentralized wa

, dams, and lakes.

n their usage.

oads are treated as lateral loading on walls and in a downward pressure or uplift forces on roof planes.

endent upon the scope and nature of the project.

ntonites are generally used to seal dump sites, pond bottoms and other areas used to contain water or chemicals. 2. An absorbent alumin

es in several thicknesses only some of which are rated for sheathing or decks.

of energy or water a household should reasonably require.

ed methodology.

s thereof) bonded by long-lasting adhesives to ensure the structural integrity.

water a household should reasonably require.

gineers are also involved in pollution reduction, green engineering, and industrial ecology. Environmental engineering is the modern term

physical condition, amount of insulation in the walls and ceilings, the assumed indoor temperature, and various other factors.

pending on whether a person is using linear, non linear, damped, etc.) to a matrix of data points used in prediction.

dation when it is placed deep enough in the soil that the soil removed during excavation equals most or all of the building's weight.

tive). Additional Information: In architectural drawing, one-point perspectives are most commonly used for drawing room interiors; two-p

y sanitary sewers.

"spread footing" and is a frequent type of foundation utilized in low rise buildings.

er through an onsite decentralized wastewater treatment system or a centralized municipal sewage system, before it can safely be release

or chemicals. 2. An absorbent aluminum silicate clay formed from volcanic ash and used in various adhesives, cements, and ceramic fillers

ntal engineering is the modern term for Sanitary engineering. Some other terms in use are public health engineering and environmental h

nd various other factors.

d in prediction.

t or all of the building's weight.

ed for drawing room interiors; two-point perspectives are used most often to illustrate the exterior of a structure: and three-point perspe

ystem, before it can safely be released into the environment. Household wastewater includes liquid-solid mixtures from toilets, sinks, sho

dhesives, cements, and ceramic fillers.

alth engineering and environmental health engineering.

of a structure: and three-point perspectives are used for exterior illustrations that also require the illusion of height, such as in a tall buildi

solid mixtures from toilets, sinks, showers, bathtubs, washing machines, dishwashers, and other drains.

usion of height, such as in a tall building.