Paper 3-Febrero 009

ELECTRICAL GENERATION HYBRID SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY ENERGY CONVERSION IN ALTERNATIVE POWER GRID TOPOLOGIES
Ing.William Ernesto Camilo Reynoso,DEA, Msc. ITLA-CREA, Dominican Republic, wcamilo@itla.edu.do

Dr. Luis Joyanes Aguilar, Phd. luis.joyanes@upsam.net pontifical university of Salamanca, Spain

RESUMEN
This project of electrical generation hybrid system grid, with : solar paddles, wind mills, biodigestors and thermoelectrical generators by thomson effect is development in order to improve the quality energy conversion in alternative energies power system topologies. The investigation focuses in the design and construction of self-sustaining houses of the ecological type to be respecting the environment and the society, as well as to reach to being self-sufficient in the basic requirements of electrical energy. With the use of combustible gas source, as well as Aeolian energy and power plants producing, solar efficient and of low cost; in sequence to that they can be acquired by the thickness of the population that is of limited resources. This way we can use the resources already we have, and are being wasted; besides going to us preparing to be replacing our dependency of petroleum; that to say of mass media: it only has left about 20 years of existence. Due to the resounding fall of the quality of life waited for the coming years, if we continued the present model of consumption of fuels derived from petroleum and invasive and harmful construction to the ecosystem; we are ourselves forced in the Dominican Republic and other parts of the world to develop innovating proposals as far as materials. We must make designs of construction where our tropical island potentialities take advantage of the great solar irradiation and great densities of wind during the year. Our then investigation part of the social fact of the deficiency of electrical energy that supports to the national population like society or organized being of citizens; then our country has a deficit average of electric power of about 300 daily MW. The Dominican Republic is a net import petroleum country with an annual invoice of a U.S. $6,300,000,000. More than 300.000 homes they do not have access to the power network electrical networks. The Dominican Republic owns a great wind potential of up to 10.000 MW as it can be observed in the Aeolian Atlas of the Dominican Republic, elaborated by the National laboratory of Renewable Energies of the United States of North America (NREL). In addition it is counted on a privileged geographic position as far as solar reception, with significant coastal extensions to implement systems of alternative energies in the sea, with high proportion of mountainous regions with multiple pronounced fluvial and pending channels. Through this project to design, to develop and to operate hybrid grid of Alternative power plants of small and median power, it would be helped to mitigate the national power deficit and would prepare that us to face the imminent fuel depletion derived from petroleum. Description of the action I) Innovating typology in the conformation of a network of ecological alternative Power plants: 1. - Nature of the nonconventional power plants. 2. - pentagonal morphology for the basic elements of our enmeshes (ecosustainable Network of sources of solar-Aeolian origin). 3. - Characterization of the particularitities of each one of the components of the Network. II) Nature of the nonconventional power plants of our network: a) connections series-parallel for the photovoltaic panels, according to the intensity of the solar irradiation (regulation by modulation of the width of pulses, PWM). b) integration of semiconducting bismuth modules closed atmosphere tellurium of solar concentration (solar furnaces) of Thomson effect.

• Solar:

c) Refrigeration or electronic air conditioning; using the thermoelectric effect (Thomson-Peltier). • Aeolian: a) ecosostenibles aerogenerators made of recyclable pieces. b) Supertoberas of: 1) aerogeneración 2) air conditioning by Venturi effect • Ecological gas (eco-gas): a) production of controlled Biogas enzymatically b) production of Hidrogas by electrical dissosciation of the water with coal electrodes. II) Innovation: The storage of the energy produced by the photovoltaic modules, the aerogenerators and the termogeneradores of the network (that at the moment was not consumed by the user); it would be realised through: 1. -) Batteries of deep cycle, and 2. -) In cylinders reinforced, where gas would be compressed to 3000 psi, like chemical storage. Chemical storage: Compressing to a high pressure the gas obtained from electrical no conventional energies; that substantially reduces the volume, allowing the possible gas transfer to electrical plant for powering like cogeneration; and for feeding vehicles for transporting students.

III)

Proposed Alternative Energies New Grid Tipology

Sustainability of the action

The money wasted in poor power plants and petroleum dependence system ; could be used to maintain hybrid electrical system to improve our living way and to ensure our country future. Also the actual building form of construction are not friendly models with the surroundings and the nature, because their closed design, with little ventilation and absence entrance to the solar light. On the other hand the present houses are not independent in electrical power, water and gas. We observe then a deficiency of science to give answers to those needs of social and economic nature. LEGAL FOUNDATIONS FOR WORKS IN DOMINICAN PROJECTS OF ALTERNATIVES ENERGIES. ( EXONERATIONS AND ADVANTAGES ). LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAME General law of Electricity (125-01) Art.112. Paragraph The energies renewable will have preference to be connected and dispatched to the network. Exoneration of taxes during 5 years for the import of equipment and machineries, previous certification of the Secretariat of State of Industry and Commerce. Tributary Hydrocarbon law (112-00) It creates a bottom to promote and to finance projects of renewable energies and programs of energetic efficiency in the Dominican Rep. Presidential decree 1277-2000 It allows the operation deprived of hydroelectric mini-power stations until a capacity of 1 MW. Opportunities with the Bottom of National Interest (Law 112-00) CONTAINED IMPORTANT ASPECTS IN THE LAW OF INCENTIVES TO THE E.R. The equipment and machineries used in the production of nonconventional energies will be exonerated of payment of taxes of import by a period of 10 years. Priority to the generators by renewable means will occur him to contract and to dispatch energy in comparison to the conventional generators, and it will be pleased a price by kWh replaced equivalent to the cost of opportunity or the cost avoided including the fuel costs, capital, operation and maintenance to them that the generating deprived public or could incur if they had to generate the energy conventional combustible they themselves using. In the cases where due to a reduction in the international prices of petroleum, the price by kWh required by the producers with renewable energies to maintain the balance of their businesses exceeds the sale prices of the producers of energy by conventional means, until a maximum of 20%, the State will absorb the difference through bonds. From this reality our investigation is born to give answers to the reclamation indicated above. Our proposal tries on contributing to the Country with a innovative design of house that manages their electrical energy, air conditioning, water and gas; through the incorporation on the ceilings of the buildings of photovoltaic solar paddles and supernozzles for shot forced to the hot air, and supernozzles for the generation of electricity by mills installed in the narrow end of the same. Our methodology and techniques of investigation try on a study of the exploratory scientific type. Engineering Considerations

All the renewable energy sources (except tidal and the geothermal one), and even the energy of fossil fuels, come, in last term, of the sun. The sun radiates 174.423.000.000.000 kWh of energy per hour towards the Earth. In other words, the Earth receives 1.74 17 x 10^ W of power. Around a 1 to a 2 percent of the originating energy of the sun it is turned into Aeolian energy. This supposes an energy around 50 to 100 times superior to the turned one into biomass by all the Earth plants. The hot air is lighter than the cold air, reason why it will raise until reaching an approximated height of 10 km and it will extend towards the north and the south. If the globe did not rotate, the air simply would arrive at the North Pole and the South Pole, later to descend and to return to the Equator. • 1) The power emitted by the Sun on the surface of the sphere that it has to the Sun as its center and the radius average of the terrestrial trajectory is of 1,37 kW/m 2. The power affects a circular disc with an area of 1,27 10 x ^14 m 2. The emitted power to the Earth is, therefore, of 1,74 17 x 10^ W. • • 2) In average, the net primary production of the plants is around 4,95 xs 10^ 6 calories by square meter and year. This the global net primary production, that is to say, the amount of available energy in all the later links of the nutritional chain/energetics. The area of the Earth surface is of 5,09 10 x ^14 m 2. Therefore, the amount of net power stored by the plants is of 1,91 10 x ^13 W, which is equivalent to the 0,011% of the emitted power to the Earth. It can find the factor of conversion between the units energetics calories and Jules. CONSIDERED AEOLIAN POTENTIAL OF THE DOMINICANA REPUBLIC In the national territory 1482 earth km2s are considered about with wind potential of good to excellent, that is to say around 3% of the total surface of the country (48.442 km2s). Using considering of 6 MW by km2, we would be speaking of a capacity of installation of 8.892 MW and about 21 delivery of Gigavatios-hour (GWh) per year. We have 20 provinces with wind potential of at least 100 MW, and 3 provinces with at least 1000 MW. This without taking into account factors like existence from lines of communication, reduction by land exclusion, besides lost enters a 15% a 20% by instability of the wind and others. If the considered one takes place with moderate wind potential (appropriate for applications rural) the area is increased to but of 4400 km2s, (9% of the total surface). With these winds the Aeolian potential is increased to about 26.400 MW and availability of 42,9% energy of Gigavatios-hour (GWh) per year. In this scheme province with at least 1000 MW of Aeolian potential is 11 and the rest (except 3 provinces they have potential of at least 100 MW).

TECHNICAL SUBJECTS GRID DESIGN

HYBRID SYSTEM OF ELECTRICAL GENERATION GRID WITH SOLAR PADDLES, WIND MILLS, BIODIGESTORS AND THERMOELECTRICAL GENERATORS BY THOMSON EFFECT, IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY ENERGY CONVERSION IN ALTERNATIVE ENERGIES POWER SYSTEM TOPOLOGIES.

Proposed Alternative Energies New Grid Tipology Our study Case Technical calculations for equipping with nonconventional energy the electrical systems of the Technological Institute of the Americas, ITLA.

ITLA’s distribution facilities layout

Aerial ITLA’s buildings picture

ITLA’s Project area layout I) Technical considerations: 1) Solar area of irradiation in ceilings and means maintenance: 3,908.98 + 1.705,6 = 5.614,58 Mts2 , Power of maximum solar irradiation (1 kw/Mts2) = 5.614,58 KW = 5,6 MW. 2) Maximum area considered to prepare photovoltaic solar paddles and small aerogenerators. Considering 1,3 Mts2 by panel of 175 W, 24v. for a total of 4, 312 panels and one maximum power of 754,6 KW. 3) Amount of selected photovoltaic panels for this project: 728 panels to 175w, 24v, c/u. for a total of photovoltaic power to settle of: 127,400 W. (127,4 KW). For services of: water pumping, illumination, Central telephone offices, Computer centers and multimedia, alarm systems, among others. 4) Amount of small 400 aerogenerators of w, 24v selected, by its robustness and facility of handling in case of storms: 32 mills of 0.4 KW c/u, for a total of Aeolian power of: 12,8 KW. For services of: external illumination to the corridors and areas. These requiren of 8 batteries of 12v, 855 Ah, For backup Aeolian (2 by c/u of the 4

buildings), and of 4 3 inverters of kva, 24v, for service of lights in the corridors of the 4 buildings of the ITLA, a Aeolian inverter of backup of 10 hours per day, for each building. 5) Amount of biodigestors to be fed by the dung of the 4.250 people, who inhabit to the ITLA using the sanitary services: considered to replace of combustible gas cafeteries and others. 724,43 are Mts3 from atmospheric biogas, under pressure equivalent a: 95,7 gallons of diesel oil per day; from 16 biodigestores, 110 gallons c/u. = 1.760 gallons. (1.320 gls of dung + 440 gls for the gas chamber). 6) Determination of the power available, the hours available and the demand of recommended power, the load of backup, the investors, batteries, regulators of load, etc. a) From the 728 175 photovoltaic panels of w, 24v, 4,95 Amperes by c/u, to settle, 127,4 KW; that they would give 182 panels us for each building, for 31.85kw for each one of the four buildings of the ITLA. From using is determined there 4 investors of 30 KW, one for each building at issue. b) The 4 investors could be: Soletria PV powered PVP 30 KW, 208-480 volts, 3 pHs., 60 Hertz, (USD$23,235.00 c/u); 295-600 VDC, 109 Dc Amperes, nominal input operating range. c) For these conditions for c/u of the 4 inveeters they are required: (26 batteries of 12v, 855 Ah); what they imply 26x12=312 VDC, (within voltage input operanting range), with a capacity of delivery of backup in 5 hours of: 855/5=171 Amperes. (within the amperage input range); For the four buildings they would be: 26x4=104 batteries of 12v, 855Ah.( For solar using power). d) The rank of operation of the inverters is of 5 hours by direct conduction photovoltaic lot but 5 hours of backup of the batteries; that 10 hours would be on watch. e) The adjustment of each one of the 4 buildings with 182 panels: 14x (13 panels x 24v) would give the 312 volts us, and (14x 4,95 A = 69,3 Amperes); A 50% (34,65 Amperes) necessary to handle a demand of 10 KW by 5 hours and to store in the batteries the other 50% (34,65 Amperes); in order to have other 5 hours with the same demand of 10 KW; for a total of 10 hours giving 10 KW, for the use of the basic systems of the ITLA. Delivering 20 KW by space of only 5 hours, and few moments with 30 KW could be demanded about. (Due to the requirements of voltage for the PWM of the inverters); ( 4 building x 20 Kw x 5 Hrs= 400 KWHr/day.= 12,000 KWHr/month). 7) Our project can avoid the emission to The Earth atmosphere of 110 kg of CO2 per day, 3,312 kg of CO2 per month, and 39,744 kg of CO2 per year, and contribute to the global nonheating. ( Fuel Oil emission = 276 grams of CO2/KWHr). Considering our 400 KWhr per day produced by the solar system. Measurements of Power in a normal day average: In ITLA’s power distribution system: Building 1 Apparent power (k VA) 103.7 Active power (k w) 33.2 Power Factor (PF) 0.32

2 3 4 Total

128 135 104.9 471.6

93 108 80.77 314.97

0.73 0.8 0.77 0.66

Power chart average

ELEMENTS OF OUR GRID SYSTEM: Biomass an Biodigestor facilities

Biomass cycle ( organical material feeding the biodigestor)

Functional design of the installation of the domestic biodigestor

Horizontal alternative design of a domestic biodigestor for biogas production (1)

Horizontal alternative design of a domestic biodigestor for production of biogas (2) with enzymatic control of the production of the methane by solar control of the temperature of the process

Details for the storage cave and of biogas

Prototype of the biodigestor of 110 gallons

Lateral view of an super toberes aerogeneration system desing for our campus. 1

Lateral view of an super toberes aerogeneration system desing for our campus. 2

Front view of an super toberes aerogeneration system desing for our ITLA’s Campus.

Solar reflector

Semiconductor material for thermoelectric function INTERCONNECTION PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATION WITH THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK STUDY. An example for each 4 ITLA’S building Solar Circuitry

INVERTERS SPECIFICATIONS Description: • Utility Interactive Renewable Energy • Utility interactive, three-phase inverter, with models ranging from 30 kW to 225 kW. Multiple inverters may be paralleled for larger power installations. • Designed for cost-effectiveness, high performance, easy installation, and reliability. • Advanced MPPT technology maximizes PV array output (not for use with batteries). • Revolutionary switching technology utilizes insulated gate bi-polar transistors (IGBT), greatly reducing power losses during the conversion process. • Meets all applicable UL, IEEE, and NEC codes. • Listed by the CEC in California and by NYSERDA in New York. • Automatic operation includes start-up, shut-down, self-diagnosis, and fault detection. • Features • Efficient design, with over 95% peak efficiency for the inverter, and overall efficiency including transformer losses, in excess of 93%. • Digital Signal Processor (DSP) based controls with self-diagnostics and LCD for display of operating status. • Inverter shut off and reset toggle switch. • Over- and under-voltage and frequency protection, shutting down the inverter in compliance with UL1741. • Anti-islanding protection - prevents back-feeding inverter-generated power to the grid in the event of a utility outage. • User definable power tracking matches the inverter to the array, as well as adjustable delay periods to customize system shut-down sequences.

EXAMPLES OF SOLAR RESOURCES CONSIDERATIONS

CONCLUSIONS As results of our project we hope to develop an hybrid system technology to improve our ITLA’S electrical sytem, becoming in an example for Dominican Republic, about how we must work, to have a better world without dangerous emissions to our atmosphere. BIBLIOGRAFY: 1. G. S. Nolas, J. Sharp and G. H. J., Thermoelectrics, basic principles and new materials developments, Springer 2001. 2. G. D. Mahan, B. C. Sales and J. Sharp, Thermoelectric materials: new approaches to an old problem, Physics Today, Vol. 50 (1997), pp. 42. 3. K. Matsubara, Development of a high efficient thermoelectric Stack for a waste exhaust heat recovery of vehicles, Proc 21st International Conference on Thermoelectrics- Long Beach (CA) USA, 2002, pp. 418. 4. C. A. Domenicali, Stationary temperature distribution in an electrically heated conductor, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 25 (1954), pp. 1310. 5. W. M. Yim and A. Amith, Bi-Sb alloys for magneto-thermoelectric and thermomagnetic cooling, Solid-State Electron., Vol. 15, No. 10 (1972), pp. 1141. 6. O. Yamashita and S. Tomiyoshi, Effect of annealing on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride compounds, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 42 (2003), pp. 492. 7. H. Goldsmid, Thermoelectric refrigeration, 1964 8. Z. H. Dughaish, Lead telluride as a thermoelectric material for thermoelectric power generation, Physica B, Vol. 322 (2002), pp. 205. 9. J. W. Sharp, Some properties of Ge-Te based thermoelectric materials, Proc 22nd International Conference on Thermoelectrics, La Grand Motte, France, 2003, pp. 267. 10. ficha internacional de seguridad para el telurio: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn0986.html 11. B. Abeles, D. S. Beers, G. D. Cody et coll., Thermal conductivity of Ge-Si alloys at high temperatures, Physical Review, Vol. 125 (1962), pp. 44. 12. O. Yamashita and N. Sadatomi, Thermoelectric properties of Si1-xGex (x<0.10) with alloy and dopant segregations, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 88, No. 1 (2000), pp. 245. 13. G. A. Slack, in Thermoelectric Handbook- Ed. Rowe DM- Chemical Rubber Company, Boca Raton FL (1995), pp. 407

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