Rome and the Rise of Christianity, 600 BCE - 500 CE

The Rise of Rome From Republic to Empire Culture and Society in the Roman World The Development of Christianity Decline and Fall

The Rise of Rome

Objectives: 1.Discuss how the Romans conquered the plain of Latium, the Italian peninsula, and then the entire Mediterranean world 2. Explain how the Romans maintained control over their conquered lands

The Land and Peoples of Italy
The Apennine mountain range forms a ridge from north to south down the middle of Italy that divides west from east Large fertile plains, Po River valley in the north, and plain of Latium where *Rome is located

The Impact of Geography The Apennines are less rugged than the mountain ranges of Greece—the Italian peninsula was not divided in small, isolated communities—more land for farming leading to large population Rome was built on the Tiber River, built on seven hills, and easily defensible It was a natural crossing point for traffic in western Italy—a center for trade

The Peoples of Italy Indo-European peoples moved into Italy during the period from about 1500 to 1000 BCE *Latins lived in the region of Latium, herders and farmers who lived in settlements of huts Others settled Italy: Greeks and the *Etruscans

Greeks colonized southern Italy and eastern *Sicily; the Greeks passed on their alphabet and influenced sculpture, architecture, and literature Etruscans settled further north and came to dominate the region, including Latium—they launched a building project in Rome, ruling over the city

The Roman Republic Roman tradition states that early Rome was ruled by seven kings, the last of which were Etruscans In 509 BCE, the Romans overthrew the last Etruscan king and established a *republic—citizens rule through representation

War and Conquest

For the next two hundred years, the city was engaged in almost continuous warfare In 338 BCE Rome crushed the Latin states in Latium—the conquest gave the Romans control over a large part of Italy The Romans were at war with Greek cities, eventually conquering the south by 264 BCE To rule Italy, the Romans devised the Roman Confederation, allowing others to have full Roman citizenship—the conquered cities were allowed selfgovern

Why Rome Was Successful The Roman history *Livy (first century BCE) provided a number of stories to teach Romans the virtues that had made Rome great It showed that Romans were good diplomats and excelled in military matters through brilliant strategists and built colonies Roman roads to cities— means to easily deploy troops

The Roman State The Government of Rome Early Rome was divided into two groups: the *patricians (great landowners and the ruling class) and *plebeians (less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, merchants, farmers) Men in both groups were citizens and could vote— only patricians could be elected to government

chief executive officers were the *consuls (ran the government and led the Roman army) and *praetors (were in charge of civil laws) The Roman *Senate came to hold an important position in Rome—300 patricians served for life The *centuriate assembly elected chief officials and passed laws but the wealthiest citizens always had the majority

The Struggle of the Orders Strict segregation between patrician and plebeians— plebeians sought equality The creation of *the council of the plebs was created in 471 BCE filled with new officials called *tribunes of the plebs—protected the plebeians By 287 BCE, all male Roman citizens were supposedly equal under the law

Roman Law Rome’s first code of laws was the *Twelve Tables, which was adopted in 450 BCE As Rome expanded, legal questions arose that involved non-Romans; a body of laws emerged, considered natural, or universal laws—*Law of Nations Persons were innocent until proven guilty, trial by judge

Rome Conquers the Mediterranean Romans found themselves, as they expanded, faced with the Mediterranean power known as *Carthage, a North African Phoenician colony—dominate trading empire in the western Mediterranean By 264 BCE, Rome and Carthage reached an impasse

The First Punic War First war with Carthage began in 264 BCE (punicus, Latin for Phoenician) The Romans sent an army to Sicily, fighting over dominance of Sicily The Romans—a land power—created a navy to combat the sea based power

In 241 BCE, Carthage gave up all rights to Sicily and paid a fine to the Romans Carthage added new lands in Spain to offset their loss but the Romans encouraged the Spanish to rebel— picking a fight In response, *Hannibal struck back igniting the second phase of war

The Second Punic War Hannibal entered Spain, moved east, and crossed the *Alps with 46,000 men, horses, and 37 battle elephants (most did not survive) The Romans lost 40,000 in battle and Hannibal remained free to roam Italy—but lacked the ability to attack the major cities

Rome decided to invade Carthage rather than fight Hannibal— attacked Spain, driving the Carthaginians out —forcing Hannibal to be recalled The Battle of Zama, the Romans crushed Hannibal's forces

More Conquests Fifty years later, the Romans fought the Third Punic War 146 BCE, Carthage was destroyed—all cities burned and demolished, inhabitants were sold into slavery, and sowed salt in the fields— Africa became a Roman province Rome also battled the Hellenistic states, conquering Macedonia and the eastern Mediterranean

Objectives: 1.Discuss how the Romans conquered the plain of Latium, the Italian peninsula, and then the entire Mediterranean world 2. Explain how the Romans maintained control over their conquered lands

From Republic to Empire

Objectives: 1.Characterize the internal instability of the Roman Empire 2. Summarize the event in which Octavian, titled Caesar Augustus, was named emperor

Growing Inequality and Unrest The Senate had become the real governing body The Senate directed the wars of the third and second centuries BCE— both foreign and domestic policy Political offices were increasingly controlled by a small circle of wealthy and powerful families

The backbone of the Roman state and army had always been the small farmers—but many of them had become the landless poor Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus believed that the basic cause of Rome’s problems was this decline They took power and land from the wealthy to give to the poor—the senators assassinated the brothers

A New Role for the Army In 107 BCE, the Roman general Marius became consul and began to recruit his army Marius recruited volunteers from urban and rural poor who owned no property—he promised them land They pledge an oath of loyalty to the general and were not under government control

This new system of military recruitment placed power in the hands of generals Lucius Cornelius Sulla— waged war in Asia Minor; council of plebs tried to transfer power to Marius—civil war erupted Sulla won and seized power in Rome in 82 BCE and restored power to the Senate

The Collapse of the Republic The First Triumvirate Civil Wars (82-31 BCE)— *Crassus (rich Roman citizen), *Pompey (command in Spain), and *Julius Caesar (command in Spain) *Triumvirate, three people with equal power Crassus took command in Syria, Pompey in Spain, and Caesar in Gaul

Caesar was asked to lay down his command when Crassus died in 53 BCE The *Rubicon and the march on Rome Caesar took power, gave land to the poor, and increased the Senate to 900 members—in 44 BCE, assassinated

The Second Triumvirate Three men—*Octavian, *Antony, and Lepidus— commander of Caesar’s cavalry Octavian took the west; Antony the east Antony allied himself with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII At the Battle of Actium in Greece in 31 BCE, Octavian’s forces were destroyed Anthony’s forces—Cleopatra and Anthony committed suicide

The Age of Augustus

In 27 BCE, Octavian proclaimed the “restoration of the Republic” He gave power back to the Senate, but they insisted that he be awarded the title *Augustus—”revered one” and that he remain the *imperator for life He maintained a standing army of 28 legions (units of 5,000); auxiliary forces (130,000), and the praetorian guard (9,000) He failed in an attempt to conquer Germany—three legions under Varus were massacred by German warriors

The Early Empire Emperors of the Early Empire Augustus’ new political system allowed the emperor to select his successor from his natural or adopted family Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero followed Augustus— increased in power, taking authority from the senate The revolt against Nero

The “five good emperors”—Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius *Pax Romana for 100 years—external peace and state funded projects (education, aqueducts, bridges)

Extent of the Empire Trajan extended Roman rule into *Dacia (Romania), *Mesopotamia, and the *Sinai Peninsula Hadrian withdrew Roman forces from much of Mesopotamia, strengthened the fortifications and defensive walls along a line connecting the *Rhine and *Danube Rivers and England (to keep out the Picts and Scots)

Economic and Social Conditions

Internal peace from the Pax Romana led to high levels of trade Trade went beyond the Roman frontiers as well and included even silk goods from China Farming remained the chief occupation—latifundia (large faming estates) dominated farming Upper classes lived lives of leisure and luxury in villas; small farmers still became dependent on the larger farming lands owned by the wealthy

Objectives: 1.Characterize the internal instability of the Roman Empire 2. Summarize the event in which Octavian, titled Caesar Augustus, was named emperor

Culture and Society in the Roman World

Objectives: 1. Discuss how Roman culture and society were heavily influenced by the Greeks 2. Relate how the Romans spread both Greek and Roman contributions throughout the empire

Roman art and Architecture

The Romans adopted many features of the Greek style of art Reproductions of Greek statues became popular once the supply of originals works ran low Greek aimed for the ideal, Roman for the realistic—even if unpleasant Other forms: the vault, arch, and dome Concrete was used en masse Aqueducts built and network of 50,000 miles of road

Roman Literature

The high point (“golden age”) of Latin Literature was in the Age of Augustus *Virgil, the son of small landholder in northern Italy ear *Mantua The Aeneid—the ideal Roman (duty, piety, and faithfulness) *Horace—pointed out the vices of his age in his Satires *Livy, the most famous Latin prose writer writing History of Rome. He wrote in terms of moral lessons but focussed on the greatness of Rome

The Roman Family At the heart of the Roman social structure stood the family, headed by the *Paterfamilias—usually a male Romans raised their children at home and teachers were often Greek slaves Roman boys learned reading, writings, law, and physical training

Attitudes toward Women Weakness of females made it necessary for women to have male guardians For females married around 12 to 14 and men much later. Roman marriages were meant for life, but divorce was eventually introduced. Both parties could initiate a divorce, not just males

Changing Roles By the second century CE, the paterfamilias no longer had absolute power and could not sell their children into slavery Upper-class Roman women in the Early Empire had considerable freedom and were not segregated from males

Slavery The Use of Slaves

Slavery was common throughout the ancient world A small Roman farmer might possess one or two slaves and the rich would have many slaves Large numbers were captured in different wars They served as tutors, musicians, doctors, and artists, cooks, valets, waiters, cleaners, and gardeners Slaves built road and public buildings, and farmed the large estates of the wealthy

Slave Revolts Some slaves revolted against their owned The most famous slave revolt in Italy occurred in 73 BCE, Led by the gladiator *Spartacus He managed to defeat several Roman armies before being trapped and killed in 71 BCE, crucified with 6,000 of his followers

Daily Life in the City of Rome Living Conditions

Rome had the largest population of any city in the empire—one million in total Rome was over crowded and noisy, cart and wagon traffic Filth was thrown out of the upper-story windows; the rich had comfortable villas and the poor lived in apartment blocks called *insulae Fire was a constant threat (64 CE); high rent forced many to live in one room

Public Programs Temples, markets, baths, theaters Emperors provided food for the city poor; Entertainment was provided on a grand scale for the inhabitants of Rome Public spectacles were provided by the emperor as part of the great religious festivals celebrated by the state Circus Maximus, horse and chariot races attracted hundreds of thousands

Objectives: 1. Discuss how Roman culture and society were heavily influenced by the Greeks 2. Relate how the Romans spread both Greek and Roman contributions throughout the empire

The Development of Christianity

Objectives: 1.Describe the public preaching of Jesus, a Jew from Palestine 2. Summarize how Christianity spread throughout the empire and eventually became the state religion of Rome

Background: Roman Religion The official state state religion focused on the worship of a number of gods and goddesses (Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, and Mars) Observation of proper ritual by state priests brought them into a right relationship with the gods *Pax Deorum The Romans were tolerant of other religions, allowing the worship of native gods and goddesses

The Jewish Background By 6 CE, *Judaea had been made a Roman province and been placed under the direction of a Roman official called a *procurator Religious/political division: *Sadducees—cooperation with Rome *Pharisees—protect Jewish identity from Roman influence through close observance of the law

*Essenes—lived apart from from society through sharing goods in common *Zealots—violent overthrow of Roman rule Rebellion and destruction of *Jerusalem in 70 CE

The Rise of Christianity He taught that what was important was not strict adherence to the letter of the law but the transformation of the inner person Jesus voiced the ethical concepts— humility, charity, and love—that shape the value system of Western civilization He stirred controversy and ultimately crucified, condemned by Pontius Pilate; His followers claimed that he had risen from the dead

The Spread of Christianity Christianity began as a movement within Judaism *Simon Peter, a Jewish fisherman, had become a follower of Jesus *Paul, a highly educated Jewish Roman citizen who joined the movement later He founded communities throughout Asia Minor and along the shores of the *Aegean Sea

He taught that Jesus’ death made up for the sins of all humanity Later followers preserved the sayings of Christ and created the “gospels”—good news Later, letters, histories, and gospels were collected to form the *New Testament

Roman Persecution

Romans at first paid little attention to the Christians The Romans tolerated the religions of other peoples unless these religions threatened public order Christians as harmful to the Roman state because Christians refused to worship the state gods and emperors Christianity as an act of treason The roman government began persecuting Christians during the reign of Nero

The Triumph of Christianity The Romans persecuted Christians in the first and second centuries Christianity in the second and third centuries became more organized; *clergy and *laity Christianity proved attractive to all classes—especially to the poor and powerless; It stressed a sense of spiritual equality for all people

New persecutions emerged under Diocletian; Christianity ultimately prospered under *Constantine *edict of Milan, 313 CE *Theodosius the Great adopted Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire

Objectives: 1.Describe the public preaching of Jesus, a Jew from Palestine 2. Summarize how Christianity spread throughout the empire and eventually became the state religion of Rome

Decline and Fall

Objectives: 1. Explain why the Roman Empire gained a new lease on life under Diocletian and Constantine 2. Analyze how ferocious warriors from Asia and Germany finally brought an end to the Roman Empire

The Decline Political Upheavals
Following a series of civil wars, a military government under the Severan rulers restored order From 235 to 284, the Roman throne was occupied by whoever had military strength to seize it—22 emperors The empire was troubled by a series of invasions: Sassanids from the East and Germanic tribes into the Balkans, Gaul, and Spain

Economic and Military Problems Invasions, civil wars, and plague came close to causing an economic collapse of the Roman Empire A labor shortage created by *plague affected both military recruiting and the economy By the mid-third century, the state had rely on hiring Germans to fight under Roman commanders—little loyalty to the empire or emperors

The Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine During the third and fourth centuries, major changes occurred Two emperors, *Diocletian and *Constantine formed the late Roman Empire Diocletian (284 to 305) divided the empire into four units, each with its own ruler under one supreme of the four The army was enlarged to 500,000 (including Germans)—this size of forces drained the public funds

Extreme *inflation occurred —Diocletian issued a price edict in 301 (fixed wage and price controls) The emperors issued edicts that forced people to remain in their designated vocations Battle of Milvian Bridge Constantine moved the Capital from Rome to *Byzantium on the *Bosporus, naming it Constantinople

The Fall After Constantine, the empire continued to be divided into western and eastern parts The Western Roman Empire came under increasing pressure from invading tribes The *Huns migrated in, pressuring the *Visigoths, who moved south and west, crossing the *Danube River

In 410, the Visigoths sacked Rome; the *Vandals, poured into southern Spain and Africa and sacked Rome in 455 In 476, *Romulus Augustulus, the last Roman emperor deposed by the German army; the east continued to thrive

Han China and Roman Empire: Similarities across the Globe Both the Han dynasty in China and the Roman Empire lasted for centuries Both governed large areas; instituted and maintained laws Both empires experienced problems from acquiring too much land; built walls, forts, and troops Both fell to invaders

Objectives: 1. Explain why the Roman Empire gained a new lease on life under Diocletian and Constantine 2. Analyze how ferocious warriors from Asia and Germany finally brought an end to the Roman Empire

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