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WELDING DEFECTS

BY
SURENDRA SINGH

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Discussion P i t Di i Points
Classification of metals Effect of alloying elements Weld Defects

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Classification of Metals
Metals M l Ferrous metals Steels Plain carbon steels Low carbon steels Medium carbon steels High carbon steels Low alloy steels
High alloy steels Stainless & T l steels St i l Tool t l

Non-ferrous metals Cast Irons Grey Iron y White Iron Malleable & Ductile Irons

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Cast Iron
Alloy of iron and carbon content 2 4% 2-4%. Higher strength and hardness but ductility is low. Cannot be rolled in the from plate or sheet. Can be made ductile by addition of element Mg. Higher fluidity

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Types of Cast Iron


Gray cast iron y
Ferrite

Contain 2.5 - 4% C and 1.0 3% Si Pearlite ASTM A48

Graphite Nodules

Ductile cast iron


Contain 2.5 - 4% C, 1.02.5% 2 5% Si and 1 0 2% Mg 1.0 ASTM A536

Ferrite

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White cast iron


No graphite, white in colour. Cementite It contain upto 2-4% C, 3% Cr, 0.9 1.40% Si Pearlite and 0 25 0 55 % M d 0.25 0.55 Mn

Tampered Nodules

Malleable cast iron


Produced by annealing HT of white cast iron ASTM A47

Ferrite

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Classification of Steel
Steel: An alloy of the metal iron with carbon. 0.01 1.4% C is considered as the general range for steels Steels are classified into 1. 1 Low Carbon Steel 0 01 0 3% Carbon 0.01 0.3% 2. Medium Carbon Steel 0.3 0.6% Carbon 3. High Carbon Steel 0.6 1.4% Carbon Plain carbon steels contain only iron & carbon as main alloying elements, traces of Mn, Si, Al, S & P may also be present

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Low Carbon Steel


It contain upto 0 3%C often 0.3%C, alloyed with 0.4%Mn Weak due to ferrite and pearlite microstructure. Flat rolled product such as sheet and plate. Easily formable, weldable formable weldable, machinable. ASTM A36

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Medium Carbon Steel


It contain upto 0 3 0 6%C 0.3-0.6%C, with 0.6-1.65%Mn Higher strength and hardness but ductility is low Microstructure shows 50 50% 50-50% ferrite and pearlite phase. Used in shaft axles gears shaft, axles, gears, crankshaft, railways wheels and axles etc.

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High Carbon Steel


It contain upto 0 6 1 4%C 0.6-1.4%C and alloyed with 0.30.9%Mn 0 9%Mn Highest hardness and strength but low ductility ductility. Microstructure shows cementite (white portion) in the matrix of pearlite. Screw drivers, hammers, rope wires, springs etc.

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Stainless Steel
Types
Austenitic Stainless Steel Ferritic Stainless Steel Duplex Stainless Steel Martensitic Stainless Steel Precipitation Hardened Stainless Steel

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Austenitic Stainless Steel


Face Centered Cubic Face-Centered structure (FCC), also called 18 8 SS 18-8 SS. Non-magnetic, S f but extremely workSoft hardenable. P Prone to SCC and IGC t d Widely used ASS is 304, 316, 347, 316 347 321 etc t

Electrolytic Oxalic Acid

ASTM No. 7

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Ferritic Stainless Steel


Body Centered Cubic Body-Centered (BCC) structure, Major alloying element are 14-28 %Cr and 0.1% C. Ferromagnetic Ferromagnetic, Soft and not very workhardenable, hardenable Resistance to SCC and IGC. IGC Best suited for high temperature application
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Duplex Stainless Steel


Contain 50 50 % 50-50 austenite and ferrite Phase Major alloying element 18 28% 18-28% Cr and 4 5-8% Ni 4.5 8% Ferromagnetic Highly corrosion resistant in marine environment Type 329 widely used
NaOH + Potassium Ferricyanide 100X

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Martensitic Stainless Steel


Body Centered Cubic Body-Centered (BCC) structure, Major alloying elements 11.5-18% Cr and higher C upto 0 1% 0.1%. Ferromagnetic, Hard and brittle brittle, Type 410 and 416 widely used MSS MSS.

HCl+Picric Acid+Ethanol

100X

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Effect of alloying elements


Carbon
Prime and essential element in steel Increase in carbon content will increase hardness and strength but reduce ductility

Aluminum
Alloyed to steel mainly as grain refiner. Also act as de-oxidised agent upto some extent.
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Chromium
Sharply increases corrosion resistance at high concentrations (> 12%). Improves hardenability, strength and wear resistance upto some extent (<5%). (<5%)

Titanium
Carbide stabilisation to form titanium carbide, more resistant to IGC. Added upto 0 23 to 0 60 in SS 321. 0.23 0.60 321

Molybdenum
Improves resistance to pitting corrosion (2-3%) Provides high temperature strength, hardness and creep resistant. resistant
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Nickel
Increases s e g , impact s e g a d toughness a low c eases strength, pac strength and oug ess at o and high temperature, it also act as grain refiner(>8%). Provide ductility, formability as well as weldability in small concentration. t ti

Manganese g
Improves the depth of hardness, toughness and wear resistance. (<1.6%). Control solidification cracking. Substitute for Ni.

Sulphur
It improve the machinability but high concentration cause brittleness or solidification cracking (<0 030%) (<0.030%).
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Silicon
Act as deoxidizer agent (<0.8%) and provide machinability. Increases strength but excessive amount reduce ductility

Phosphorus
Added with sulphur to improve machinability (<0.045%). It greatly reduce ductility and toughness

Vanadium
Used as a de-oxidant

Tungsten
Mainly alloyed to high speed tool steels for providing wear resistance at high temperature temperature.
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Weldability W ld bilit
Weldability can be defined as the ability of a material to be welded by most of the common welding processes, Poor weldability generally results in the occurrence of some sort of cracking problem CEN = C + Mn + Cr + Mo + V + Cu + Ni
6 5 15

If CEN 0.45 : Good Weldability 0 45 If CEN > 0.45 : Poor Weldability


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Weld: A union b t i between materials caused b h t and or pressure t i l d by heat, d Joint: A configuration of members fi ti f b

Welding Defects f

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Common Weld Types

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Common Joint Types

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Single B tt Weld Preparation Butt

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Double sided weld preparation

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Weld Defects
Defects detected by visual inspection

Cracks Solid inclusions Surface and profiles g (setMisalignment ( up irregularities) Gas pores and porosity
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Lack of fusion Mechanical damage Parent material damage Miscellaneous

Cracks
Cracks that may occur in welded materials are caused generally b many f t ll by factors and may b classified b shape d be l ifi d by h and position, cracks are classed as planar defect.

Classified by Shape Longitudinal Transverse Branched

Classified by Position HAZ Centreline Crater Fusion zone Parent metal

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Cracks

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Main Cracks T pes in Welding Types


Hydrogen induced cold cracking (HICC) Solidification cracking ( g (hot cracking) g) Lamellar tearing Intercrystalline cracking or corrosion

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Hydrogen Induced Cracking


The four essential factors for cracking to occur Susceptible grain structure: Martensite Hydrogen >15ml/100gm of weld f ld Temperature less than 200oC Stress

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HIC Macrostructure

Prevention of HIC y g g process Use low hydrogen welding p Bake or heat the welding electrode before welding Preheat the metal to remove moisture Reduce stress by heat treatment

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Solidification Cracking
Occurs during weld solidification process Steels with high sulphur impurities content (low strength at elevated temperature) Requires tensile stress Occur longitudinally down the centre of weld

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Lamellar Tearing
M i l occur i rolled Mainly in ll d steel plate Higher concentration of impurities or inclusion such as sulphides or silicates Reduction in through thickness ductility y

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Intercrystalline cracking
Occur mainly in austenitic stainless steels, due to the formation of chromium carbide along the grain boundary
Line of sensitization

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Gas Ca ities Cavities


Gas pore < 1.5mm Dia Blow hole > 1.5mm Dia

Loss of gas shield g Damp electrodes Contamination Arc length too large Damaged electrode flux Moisture on parent material

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Gas Cavities

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Solid Inclusions Incl sions


Slag inclusions are defined as a non-metallic inclusion caused by b some welding process ldi

Entrapment of slag between passes p Slag is caused by inadequate cleaning q g Other inclusions include tungsten and copper g pp inclusions from the TIG and MAG welding process

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Tungsten Incl sion T ngsten Inclusion


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Lack of Fusion
Poor welder skill Incorrect welding current/voltage or low t/ lt l heat input. High travel speed Incorrect inter-run inter run cleaning

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Lack of root penetration


Low amps/volts Large root face/ small root gap t Fast travel speed p Incorrect electrode angle Contamination

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Root Defect

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Lack of side wall f sion all fusion


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Profile Defects

Poor cap profiles and excessive cap reinforcements may lead to stress concentration points at p the weld toes.

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Miscellaneous Miscellaneo s Defects


Excessive current Damp electrodes D l t d g g Long arc length Contamination Wrong selection of shielding gas

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Miscellaneous Miscellaneo s Defects


A id t l striking of Accidental t iki f the arc onto the parent material Faulty electrode holder Poor cable insulation Poor access to work

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Undercut Underc t
An irregular g g groove at the toe of a weld run in the parent metal

Excessive amps/volts Excessive travel speed d Excessive weaving g Electrode dia too large

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Cap Underc t Undercut

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Excessive Root Penetration


Root penetration bead in excess in accordance with the relevant specification used

Root faces too small Root gap too large Excessive amps/volts Slow travel speed Lack f L k of welder skill ld kill Use of unsuited electrode in welding position

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Burn Through B rn Thro gh


Al localized collapse of th weld pool d t excessive li d ll f the ld l due to i penetration resulting in a hole in the root

High Amps/volts Small S ll root f t face Large root gap Slow Travel Speed Lack of welder skill

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Root Defects

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Crater Pipe
Crater pipe is a shrinkage defect and not a gas defect

Too fast a cooling rate Lack of welder skill C Contamination i i

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Crater Pipe

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Set-up Irregularities Set p Irreg larities


Li Linear misalignment i i li t is measured from the lowest lo est plate to the highest point of the cap Angular misalignment is measured in degree g

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Linear Misalignment

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Exercise 1

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Exercise 2

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Exercise 3 E i

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Thank You

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