You are on page 1of 5

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, OPERANT CONDITIONING, AND SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY _____________

A Written Output on Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Practice Presented to Mrs. Mary Day E. Florano College of Nursing University of Eastern Philippines University Town Catarman, Northern Samar

_____________

In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Nursing

_____________

Submitted by: Dalimocon, Maria Neze E.

Situation:

Tonton,

is

14

year

old

boy

and

his

friends

are

smoking. His friends have been convincing him to smoke. Tonton has seen a lot of people smoking. His parents have told him the harmful effects of smoking, yet his friends are very important to him and he values their opinions. He is processing all the information in his mind (cognitive). One day he tried to smoke with his friends (behavior), he started to cough and had an unpleasant experience

(consequence). When he got home his mother punished him. All these consequences will again be processed in his mind and will affect his future behaviour. Tonton may choose never to smoke again or he may try second or third time.

Classical Conditioning A) Behavioral component is considered Significant stimulus necessarily evokes an innate, often reflexive, response. Pavlov called these the unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR), respectively. If the neutral stimulus presented along with the unconditioned stimulus, it would become a conditioned stimulus(CS). If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to the CS. Pavlov called this the conditioned response (CR).

Operant Conditioning Individual modifies the occurrence and form of its own behavior due to the association of the behavior with a stimulus

Social Learning Theory People learn through observing others behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors. Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Bandura mentions a number of motives: a. past reinforcement, ala traditional behaviorism. b. promised reinforcements (incen tives) that we can imagine. c. vicarious reinforcement -seeing and recalling

B) Behavior is based on rewards/consequences

Positive reinforcement (Reinforcemen t): occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a stimulus that is appetitive or rewarding, increasing the frequency of that behavior. Negative reinforcement (Escape): occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by

C) Codnitive process is considered

Investigate the apparent similarities between extinction and habituation and to try to give a coherent explanation for the two phenomena

the removal of the model being an aversive stimulus, reinforced. thereby increasing that Negative motivations are behavior's frequency. there as well, giving you Positive reasons not to imitate punishment (Punishment) someone: (also called "Punishment by d. past punishment. contingent stimulation"): e. promised occurs when a behavior punishment (response) is followed by a (threats). stimulus, such as f. vicarious introducing a shock or loud punishment. noise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior. Negative punishment (Penalty) (also called "Punishment by contingent withdrawal"): occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of a stimulus. Analyzes the internal or This theory recognizes that mental events of learning, just because something which includes the transfer has been learned, it does of learning, teaching not mean that it will problem solving and learning result in a change in how to learn skills. behavior.

Classical Conditioning A) Behavioral component is considered Tonton paired his friends with smoking. He values the opinion of his friends. His friends are convincing him to smoke so he did as what they have told him to do. After he smoked, he coughed and had an unpleasant experience with smoking. He was also punished by his mother. He processed all the information in his mind and due to the unpleasant experience he may not smoke again.

Operant Conditioning Tonton is not a smoker. One day he tried to smoke and this would indicate that he had a change in his behaviour. Thus making smoking as the stimulus.

Social Learning Theory

B) Behavior is based on rewards/consequences

C) Codnitive process is considered

Tonton is surrounded by his friends who are smoking. He has seen a lot of people smoking. His environment is composed mostly by smokers. This triggered him to smoke. This change in behaviour He had experienced was negatively enforced vicarious punishment when by his mothers his mother punished him punishment and the and when he started unpleasant experience he coughing due to smoking had with smoking. and had an unpleasant experience with it. He, again processed all Tonton may choose never to these data. Because of the smoke again or he may try occurence negative second or third time. reinforcement regarding the change in behaviour he had acquired, he may withdraw this change.