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Introduction The power is generated by using different sources and in Papua New Guinea Hydro-power is the basic means

of electricity generation. By that means in mind, Ramu hydro- power is the main source of electricity generated for the people of the Highlands and Momase Regions where a lot of business activities are of paramount concern for service delivery and Economic growth in the country. In that perspective, this project will basically talk about a Zenang Chicken Factory establishment in Vanimo, where PNG Power has to transmit Power from YonKi to a 1000km distance to Vanimo Zenang Factory. Hence, this project has taken the initiative to discuss on the following issues. 1. How and why 11000 volts generated at Yonki and how are multiple generators synchronous? Acceptable f Hz in PPL? 2. How and best practice to transport GENERATED (voltage) power at Yonki to Vanimo1000km and a Sub- station required? 3. The Zenag chicken factory to be powered at Vanimo.
1.0 How and why 11000 volts generated at Yonki?

At Ramu 1 Hydro Power Station there are three generators currently in operation out of the five. They all have a rating of 11kV. It is standardized by the manufacturer of the turbines. The turbines output voltage of 11kV depends on the following factors such as; flow rate, efficiency rating of the generator, load from the main load centers. 1.1 How are multiple generators synchronous? Synchronization requires that the generators are producing alternating current at the same frequency. Therefore, in order to synchronize multiple generators, the frequency must be matched, and the outputs of the generators must be in phase with each other that is all must operate at the same frequency (50Hz)if both conditions are not met, extremely large currents will flow through the generators, potentially tripping circuit breakers within the network and damaging the electrical appliances and equipment. The electrical device that is used to synchronize generators is called a synchroscope. 1.2 Acceptable frequency (Hz) in PNG Power Limited In PNG, PNG Power Limited uses an acceptable standard frequency of 50Hz PNG nationwide.

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2.0 How and best practice to transport GENERATED (voltage) power at Yonki to Vanimo- 1000km and a Sub- station required? The best way to transport power from Yonki to Vanimo assuming the distance between 1000km is to build a substation at Yonki and one at Vanimo. That is because when transmitting AC over longer distances, there will be a lot of loss along the line. Since the length of the line is proportional to the resistance (loss). So the substation must be there to step-up and restore the power back to its original rating before it is being transported again for the rest of the journey to Vanimo factory. The diagram below shows a simple illustrative summary of the entire system in the generation, Transmission and distribution. The questions basically give a general overview of Electrical Power System. Firstly from generation to transmission and distribution and finally to Load end where the factory will be built.

Fig 1.10 shows the generation source at Ramu, the Transmission Line to Vanimo and Finally the Load end.

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3.0 Zenag chicken factory to be powered at Vanimo The Zenag Chicken factory will have the following equipment in place in the factory. The equipments must be connected to the power supply in three or single phase as required by each Equipment. But the Power supply into the factory will be in three phase 4 wire at a voltage rating of 415V. The equipments are listed as follows: Connect - 20 fans 100 * 60 W light 10 industrial fans 6 Butcher 7 cold storage walk- ins

Then we have to determine to do the following tasks. 3.1 Industrial Consumer The connection made to Zenang chicken Factory is a three phase connection on a voltage rated of 415V from a supply of 11KV from a substation after it has been step- done to the rated voltage level as stated. The three phase power supply entering the factory is at 415V after the step- down transformer reduces the voltage from 11kV to 415V. It is from a Delta to Wye connection to the load as depicted in fig1.1 and fig.1.10. The three phases line enters the factory and provides three phase power supply to the following equipment: 1. Industry Fans 2. Butcher 3. Cold Storage Walk-ins (Freezers) From the three phase power supply, only 20 Fans and 100*60 watts lights are provided power in a single phase, since they require a 240V as standardized in the equipment. The circuit diagram shown below in Fig.1.11 and Fig.1.12 respectively is standardized design for such a Factory. They are design by our selves, as required by the project.

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3.2 Circuit designing for this Industrial consumer The three phase line is going into the Zenange Factory from an 11KV to 415V

Fig .1.11 shows a typical connection of three phase line entering a factory as depicted above on the levels

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3.3 The typical wiring connection Design in the factory for the Butcher and the Lights and Fans The Butcher is connected in three phase and the lights and fan are connected in single phase line.

2core +E

4core +E To Load is from a Delta Wye TX connection from a three Phase line.

Fig.1.12 shows a typical connection of a three supply to the Butcher and a single phase supply to the Lights and Air Fan (since both are connected by the same line).

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The Fig.1.12 will have the same layout for the other three phase and single phase equipment connection as for the butcher and lights and fans. 3.4 Load Calculation Non Domestic Load calculation Industrial Load Since in Papua New Guinea we use the Australian standard, the calculations of the Loads for the given appliances are as follows. Table1.1. shows the overall load calculations for the given appliances. Equipment Calculation Load Group 100 Light A [(100*60W)/240V)]* 0.75 =18.75 A (single Phase)

20 Fans (window)

A (Foot [(20*200W)/240V)]*.75 = 16.67A (single note C) Phase) (Heater C (Full (20*1322W)/415V= 63.71A (3 phase) connected) D (Full ( 6*5500W)/415V = 79.52A (3 phase) connected load)

Industrial cooler)

Fans

Butcher (Rolling Machine)

7Cold storage (freezers)

Walk

ins C Full (7*1800W)/415V connected = 30.36A (3 Phase ) Load (18.75+16.67+63.71+79.52+30.36)A 209.01A =

Total Load Demand

Therefore, Maximum Demand / Load = 209.01 A The Load demand in the factory is 209.01A as calculated and tabulated above.

3.5 Protection Devices circuit breakers There is always a circuit breaker required for the protection of any equipment in any building from sudden increases in current due to faults in the transmission line. Therefore, in this case
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circuit breaker required is determined by the Maximum Load demand calculated and is given above. The approximated circuit breaker in this regard is a 212A circuit breaker needed to be installed in the first pole of the fuse box whether the circuit breaker is a 4pole, 8pole and 16 pole industrial applications depending on the number of loads it is carrying. In this project it would have 8 to 16 pole circuit breakers as required and later inclusion of the loads for further extension. 3.6 Monthly Charges The monthly charges are applied to the type of consumption the customer is categorized into its consumption type. In this case it is an industrial consumer; therefore, the rate would be in the industrial consumption rate. Since the maximum load is known and wattage specifications are known we can make a rough calculation of a monthly charges base on the 2012 Electricity Tariffs. Total Wattage = (100*60W) + (20*200W) + (20*1322W) + (6*5500) + (7*1800) = 6000W+4000W+26,440+ 33,000+12,600 = 82,040Watts All Energy ( kw/toea) = 82.040kW*.6086 = K49.9295 Maximum Demand (kina per kVA per month) Single Phase = (18.75+16.67) ^2 * 240 = 301,098.34 W Three Phase = (209.01-35.42) ^2 * 415 = 12,505,397.56W Total Wattage = 12,806,495.90W = 12,806.4959kW Therefore Maximum Demand = 12,806.4959kW*0.7414 =K9, 494.74 Total Amount = K49.9295 +K9, 494.74 =K 9,544.66 + VAT (10%) = K10, 499.126 / Month. This is the rough estimation of the amount payable to PNG POWER at a monthly base.

3.7 Safety The safety is of paramount concern in any factory and Zenang factory in Vanimo will have all the requirements in the safety situations. The safety on the equipment protections is the paramount concern; therefore, the main switch, circuit breakers and automatic circuit trippers will be installed as required in AS/NZ 3000:2007 on wiring systems for safety services in complying with section 3, and be installed in accordance with the requirements of Clause 7.2.
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3.8 Cable type The type of connection cable should be 4 core + E for the three phase connection and 2 core + E for single phase connection. This explanation is depicted on fig.1.10. Types of wiring system and installation of wiring system s is extracted from AS/NZ 3000 section 3 and comply with Table 3.1 of section 3. Conclusion The project has made us so impressed to know much about the Generation, Transmission and Distribution for load connection. It has made us to know how maximum load is calculated, the necessary industrial wiring design and safety requirement in the wiring as in installation of circuit breakers, maximum load estimation per kina in kilowatt-hour and type of cable layout in the factory wiring design.

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Reference Australia/ New Zealand Standard , Electrical Installations, AS/NZ 3000:2007

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