# Usman Institute of Technology

DC Motor Construction Manual
Electrical Machines

Name: Muhammad Umair Roll No: 10B-039-EE Section: A
This Document explains the construction of Single & Double coil DC motor for Lay Audience

Working Principle:
 A simple DC motor is the fundamental building block of all the simplest of Motors. It converts Electrical Energy into Mechanical Energy. All motors and generators make use of two basic principles:  When two poles of a magnet are brought close together then there will be either a repulsion force or an attraction force  When current flows in a conductor, a magnetic field is created around that conductor This motor works on the principles of Electromagnetism main two principles are as follows: Left Hand Rule:

Right Hand Rule:  When a current is passed through a coil a magnetic field is generated

A simple DC motor is perfect for understanding laws of magnetism & electromagnetism. This project is based on two motors: 1. Permanent Magnet DC Motor using one coil. 2. Permanent Magnet DC Motor using 2 coils separated by 90°

Description of Permanent Magnet DC Motor using one coil: This motor is fairly simple in structure & fairly easy in making because of have single coil in this structure two poles of the current conducting coil repel the fixed permanent magnet & similarly application of Left hand rule is also observed . Steps of Construction of Single Coil: 1. Coil used in this motor is of 21 SWG wire , this wire has been wound on D size battery/Cell for giving it a shape of coil. 2. Magnets are place 180° apart from each other. 3. Motor coil is placed between these magnets both of them are 90° apart with each other. 4. Power supply of 1.5 Volt battery is used . 5. For high speed & torque 9Volt DC power supply can also be used. Coil wound on D Size battery:

Wire wounded on D size battery for making it a coil having particular number of loops.

After winding:

Here is the Figure of Single Coil permanent magnet DC Motor:

Two magnets placed 180° apart with each other

Motor coil placed between magnets

Description of Permanent Magnet DC Motor using two coils: This motor is fairly simple in structure & fairly easy in making because of having two coils in this structure four poles of the current conducting coil repel the fixed permanent magnet & similarly application of Left hand rule is also observed. Simultaneously magnetic repulsion is observed on the Core of this motor, hence both principles are observed at each coil.

Steps of Construction of Two coils at 90° apart with each other: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Coil used in this motor is of 28 SWG wire . Magnets are place 180° apart from each other. Motor coil is placed between these magnets both of them are 90° apart with each other. Power supply of 9 Volt DC power supply is used. Below are the parts used in making this DC motor.

Parts Used in this motor:
Laminated Iron Sheets taken from tube light choke (sheets cut into 2 equal parts

Standard sized pencil for Rotor shaft

Plastic cover for holding winding & laminated sheets (Taken from Cutter blades box)

“I” shaped laminated iron core (Taken from 220-20V transformer)

Step 2: Iron Core Fixed in Plastic Box
Second coil would be wound in the same manner but that would be perpendicular to this Coil.

One coil wound like this:

Final Project Picture:

Warning: This Project involves uses of heavy & dangerous tools such as Drill Machine, Jigsaw machine; Parental supervision is must while using these machines.

Common Questions / FAQ:

What is meant by DC source? Ans. Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by
sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, What is motor? An electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. What is meant by commutator? Ans. A commutator is a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors or electrical generators that periodically reverses the current direction between the rotor and the external circuit What is meant by Core? Ans. A magnetic core is a piece of magnetic material with a high permeability used to confine and guide magnetic fields in electrical, electromechanical and magnetic devices such as electromagnets, transformers, electric motors, inductors and magnetic assemblies, For having strong magnetic field around core. What is meant by Coil? Ans. Coil is simple wire wounded on any surface , a coil must have some loops in it.

What is electromagnetism? Ans. Electromagnetism is the branch of science concerned with the forces that occur between
electrically charged particles. In electromagnetic theory these forces are explained using electromagnetic fields, Phenomenon involving Electricity & Magnetism. What is SWG stands for? Ans. SWG stands for standard wire gauge it defines the diameter of the wire / thickness of wire.