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KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


PERUNDURAI, ERODE-638 052 (An ISO 9001:2000 autonomous institution affiliated to anna university,coimbatore)

A combination of EGR and Urea- SCR to reduce NOx in a Hydrogen dual fueled DI Diesel engine

Presented by: B.E THIRD YEAR Email address: jeiyyekhumar@gmail.com PH.NO: 9500384398 M.MANOJ HARI G.M.JEIYYEKHUMAR

1 A combination of EGR and Urea- SCR to reduce NOx in a Hydrogen dual fueled DI Diesel engine , hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen and Abstract particulate matter have been released to the atmosphere. There exist a close In the present work, a single cylinder water cooled DI diesel engine was converted to operate on dual fuel mode with hydrogen in Timed Port Injection (TPI) technique. recirculation and Both exhaust gas selective catalytic A cooled relationship between fuel used and the engine emission. The main sources of emission from the engine are from engine exhaust system and other from the crankcase. The former is the main cause of air pollution. The main constituents of the engine exhaust gases are unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon-dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. reduction technology were combined to reduce the NOx emission. replacement EGR (31C) was used and the EGR rate was varied from 0% to 20% in steps of 5%. In SCR technology aqueous urea solution containing 32.5% of urea (weight basis) was used as a reducing agent. Experimental study was conducted using Calcium oxideManganese oxide combined metal oxide as a catalyst. 1. Introduction Over the past centuries huge amount of air pollution like carbon monoxide, Diesel engines are the main prime movers for public transportation vehicles, stationary power generation units and for agricultural applications. So it is very important to find a best alternate engines. fuel, which emits fewer pollutants to the atmosphere from diesel

In this regard hydrogen is receiving considerable attention as an alternative source of energy to replace

2 the rapidly depleting Its clean petroleum burning hold catalytic tablets in wire mesh setup. The performance and emission characterization of the modified system is compared with the base reading of hydrogen as well as diesel. 1.1 Hydrogen Engine Emission The most important advantage of hydrogen fueled engine is that they emit fewer pollutants than comparable diesel fueled engine. For hydrogen fueled engine the principal exhaust product are water vapor and NOx. Emission such as HC, CO, CO2, SOx and smoke are either not observed or are very much lower than those of diesel engine. Small amount of hydrogen per oxide may be found in the exhaust of the hydrogen operated engine. Unburnt hydrogen may also come out of the engine, but this is not a problem since hydrogen is nontoxic and cannot involve in any smog producing reaction. NOx are the most The experimental work comprises of development of hydrogen injection setup for port fuel injection, EGR connections by modifying the intake and exhaust piping, injection setup for urea solution and fabrication of SCR catalytic Oxides of Nitrogen is a converter and three cylindrical plates to combination of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) 1.2 Oxides of Nitrogen significant emission of concern from a hydrogen engine. resources. characteristic provides a strong incentive to study its utilization as a possible alternate fuel. In the present work, a single cylinder water cooled DI diesel engine was

converted to operate on dual fuel mode with hydrogen in Timed Port Injection (TPI) technique. A cooled replacement EGR was used and the EGR rate was varied from 0% to 20% in steps of 5%. In SCR technique aqueous urea solution containing 32.5% of urea by weight was used as reducing agent. Calcium oxideManganese oxide combined metal oxide is used as a catalyst. In combined metal oxide catalysts, calcium oxide was binder, with a weight ratio of 85:15. An electronic control system was used to control the injection timings of hydrogen and urea solution injection.

3 and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which will occur in engine exhaust. Nitrogen and Oxygen at relatively high temperature around 1200 K. Therefore, the reason for formation of oxides of Nitrogen is as follows, High temperature Availability Oxygen The high temperature generated of Hydrogen is stored on a highpressure storage tank at a pressure of 150 bar having a capacity of 7 cubic meter (0.5 kg) of hydrogen, A double stage pressure regulator was used to control the hydrogen from the cylinder. The pressure is reduced to the range of 1-3 bar based on the flow requirements. The hydrogen from the pressure regulator was passed through a shut off valve, which can be closed if any back fire results in the hydrogen flow line. during combustion some N2 is converted to NO in the presence of O2. The higher peak combustion temperature leads to more Oxides of Nitrogen. Nitrogen Oxide is the predominant oxide of Nitrogen generated inside the engine cylinder. Oxidation of atmospheric Nitrogen is the principal source of Nitrogen Oxide (NO). Figure 2.1 Experimental setup with a combination of EGR and urea-SCR 2. Experimental Setup The experiment is conducted on a single engine. cylinder, naturally aspirated, water cooled, direct injection diesel The specification of the test engine is given in Appendix-1. 2.1 Hydrogen Injection Setup for NOx reduction-2D View 1.Hydrogen 2. Pressure regulator 3. Control Valve 4. Digital mass flow meter 5.Flame trap 6.Flame arrestor 7.

Hydrogen PFI 8. Air Surge tank 9.Engine 10. Electrical Dynamometer 11. EGR Control Valve 12. Cooled EGR with Exhaust gas cooler 13. Urea injector 14.SCR Catalytic converter

4 injector by using control valve. The hydrogen after passing through the shut off valve is allowed to pass through the digital mass flow controller. It measures precisely the flow rate of hydrogen in standard litres per minute. The specification of DFC was given in the Appendix-2. impurities the Since the hydrogen hydrogen is passed The ECU controls the operation of fuel injector. The injector and IR sensor terminal is connected to the ECU wheres the positive and negative terminals from the ECU are connected to the 12 V battery. The ECU is having the control of injector opening and duration through input from the IR sensor. Based on the presetted timing and duration the injector will be opened for injection and closed after injection. The power supply for opening the injector was 4A and for holding the armature to inject the fuel was 1A. The layout of the experimental setup Figure 2.2 Photographic View showing Hydrogen and Urea Flow line The hydrogen from the flame arrestor is passed to the hydrogen port fuel with a combination of EGR and UreaSCR system is shown in the figure 2.1. The photographic view of Hydrogen and Urea flow line is shown in the figure 2.2. flow to the injector should be free from through the filter. Then it is passed to the flame trap. The flame trap acts as a non-return valve and also it indicates the hydrogen flow in the form of gas bubbles inside the trap. Then it is passed to the flame arrestor, consists of bursting diaphragm, which punctures of when the pressure built on the system exceeds 10 bar during backfire conditions. The flow line also consists of vent line in order to remove the excess hydrogen in the fuel line during the engine shut off time. The port injector was placed in the engine head 13 mm above the intake valve. The injector was a Quantum make gas injector, which can adopt the flow of hydrogen, LPG and CNG.

5 the other is to measure the exhaust gas composition. Figure 2.3 Photographic View of Experimental setup with combined EGR and Urea-SCR The Photographic View of the Figure 2.4 Cooled EGR System The exit of the cooler is connected to the engine intake pipe through EGR filter and EGR valve. The temperature of the gas leaving the cooler is measured 2.2 EGR Setup Cooled EGR was used through out this project, for this a well designed exhaust gas cooler was used. The cooler was capable of cooling the exhaust gas to 30C for all load condition. The exhaust of the engine was divided into two lines, one is let to atmosphere, this line consist of an exhaust throttling valve. The outer line was feed to the exhaust gas cooler, before the dividing point two tapping is given one is to measure the exhaust gas temperature and On the other hand the intake system air surge tank was connected with an orifice meter to measure the intake air flow. After the mixing point of exhaust gas and intake air to tapping are provided with needle valves to measure the intake charge temperature and to measure the charge composition of the intake charge. The schematic of Cooled EGR system is shown in figure 2.4. before it enters the intake system. The EGR filter was basically a mineral wool filter in a wire mesh. experimental setup with combined EGR and Urea-SCR is shown in the figure 2.3

6 2.3 SCR Setup The main parts of the SCR catalytic converter are urea injection system and SCR catalytic converter. 2.3.1 Urea Injection System 2.3.2 SCR Catalytic Converter The SCR catalytic converter consists of a catalyst that will enhance the NO x reduction mechanism. CaO-MnO2 is used as a catalyst. Since combined metal oxide catalysts are difficult to be coated in the substrate, it was decided to use it in the tablet form. 2.5. The SCR The pump and the injector used in the urea injection system was Tata Indica fuel pump and the Assy gasoline solenoid operated injector. The pump was driven by DC motor. The outlet of the pump was connected to a pressure reduction line, where the pressure was reduced in three stages from maximum of 15 bar to 1 bar. The return line of the pressure reducer was connected back to the pump. The outlet of the pressure reducer was connected to the injector. The Urea injector and the pump were controlled by using an electronic control unit. The injector was placed axially to the SCR catalytic converter at a distance of 450 mm before the converter for complete mixing of NH3 and NOx before it reaches the converter. The optimum position of the injector is chosen based on the conversion of the urea into ammonia. Catalytic converter is shown in figure All dimensions are in mm Figure 2.5 SCR Catalytic Converter 2.3.3 Catalyst Preparation Calcium oxide is mixed with the metal oxides (MnO2, Fe2O3) in the ratio of 85:15 by weight basis and the mixture is calcined in air at an optimum temperature of 573 K or 623 K.

7 17 mm is maintained between these plates to reduce the flow restriction and to reduce the back pressure. Each plate is given a back up at both ends to prevent the misplacement of the Figure 2.6 Photographic View of CaO-MnO2 (White) combined metal oxide Catalytic tablets Calcium oxide acts as a supporting metal for the catalysts which gets adsorped in the pore volume of the metal oxides thereby increasing the surface area for the reaction to take place. The mixture was pressed in a CADMECH Rotary 16 station tablet machine at a load of 7.5 tonnes to make it into tablets. The tablet profile is elliptical with 19/9 and 5mm thickness. The weight of each tablet is 0.8 g. The Photographic View of CaO-MnO2 Catalytic tablets are shown in figure 2.6. 3.2.5 SCR-Substrate Design The prepared tablets are arranged in a cylindrical plate of thickness 10mm. Two tablets are placed in each hole provided in the plates in a criss-cross manner. Totally three plates are used, each consisting of 30 tablets. A gap of
Figure 2.8 SCR Catalytic Converter with Wire Mesh Setup 3-D View

tablets due to exhaust gas pressure and vibration. This will increase the efficiency of the setup as a whole. The design specifications of the wire mesh setup is shown in Appendix-2. Figure 2.7 Photographic View of Wire Mesh Setup with Cylindrical Plates Photographic in the view of Wire 2.8. The mesh design substrate with cylindrical plates is shown Figure specifications of the wire mesh substrate is given in the Appendix.

8 3. Test Procedure Before starting the engine the of gas bubbles. By switching on the ECU Hydrogen injection starts. Due to this there will be a sudden change in the sound. The exhaust gas emissions were measured by using Qrotech gas analyzer, the specification was given in Appendix4. The time for 10cc diesel consumption was noted. The value of peak cylinder pressure was got from the charge amplifier and the pressure crank angle was printed from the oscilloscope. After getting the CO2 emission in the exhaust gas, the amount of CO2 to be sent into the intake system for the required EGR The hydrogen leak detector was switched on and the circuit connection for the ECU with the battery was connected. The hydrogen leak detector was used to detect the leak in the hydrogen flow line. It was capable of measuring the hydrogen leak in the range 0-2000 ppm. The details about the leak detector were given in the Appendix -3. The regulator of the hydrogen cylinder was opened and line pressure was set at 1.5 bar. The required flow rate was set at the digital mass flow controller. The hydrogen flow can be visualized in the flame trap in the form For SCR application, initially NOx emission using EGR was noted and based on these values the amount of urea to be injected were calculated. The engine was allowed to run at a constant speed of 1500 rpm and the urea injector was placed in a graduated glass tube to find the flow rate of the urea. The rate was calculated. The EGR valve was opened until the desired CO2 level was reached. The exhaust gas temperature, engine coolant temperature, and the cooled exhaust gas was noted using temperature indicator. lubricating oil level, water level in the flame trap and in flame arrestor and fuel level in the diesel tank were checked. The cooling water flow rate both for engine cooling and EGR unit was fixed at a uniform flow of 400 lpm.

The engine was cranked and started by releasing the decompression lever. The engine was allowed to reach steady state and then the speed of the engine was set at 1500 rpm. The engine was allowed to warm up for 10 to 15 minutes.

9 duration of injection was noted for different ratios to get the required flow rate and this durations were noted for future settings. 4.1.1Brake thermal efficiency The engine was allowed to run on the dual fuel mode, based on the load the duration of the injection was fitted. Then the exhaust valve in the SCR line was opened and allowed to flow over the catalyst in the converter at the same time the urea injection was started. The emission from the catalytic converter was measured. The back pressure was measured by U-tube manometer and the time required for 10cc consumption of diesel was noted. 4. Results and Discussion Table 4.1 Optimized Injection data for port fuel injection INJECTION PARAMETER Start of injection of hydrogen Injection duration of hydrogen Hydrogen flow rate Diesel start of injection 7.5 lpm 23BTDC Figure 4.1 Variation of Brake thermal efficiency with Load 30 crank angle
30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 0 25 50 Load,% 75 100

4.1 Hydrogen dual fuel operation with EGR Figure 4.1 shows the variation of brake thermal efficiency with respect to different load at various EGR rate. The efficiency of the hydrogen dual fuel operation is quite higher than the diesel fuel operation over the entire load range. Using EGR technology, efficiency drops down as the EGR rate increases. Efficiency drops down at the full load condition, this is due to incomplete combustion of the diesel supplied. At part load, the efficiency is fairly better than the diesel fuel operation for low EGR rates due to enhanced combustion.

VALUE 5BTDC

B ra k e T h e rm a l E ffic ie n c y
Diesel H2-Diesel w/o EGR H2-Diesel 5% EGR H2-Diesel 10% EGR H2-Diesel 15% EGR H2-Diesel 20% EGR

10 4.1.2 Brake specific energy consumption Figure 4.2 shows the variation of Brake specific energy consumption with respect to load for different EGR rate. It is reviewed that as EGR rate increases specific energy consumption increases of hydrogen fuel drops down and diesel contributes to the maximum.
30 27.5 B S E C , M J /k W h 25 22.5 20 17.5 15 12.5 10 0 25 50 Load,% 75 100

three effect called dilution effect, thermal effect and chemical effect.
19 17 N O x , g /k W h 15 13 11 9 7 5 0 25 50 Load,% 75 100

Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel

Diesel H2-Diesel w/o EGR H2-Diesel 5% EGR H2-Diesel 10% EGR H2-Diesel 15% EGR H2-Diesel 20% EGR

w/o EGR 5% EGR 10% EGR 15% EGR 20% EGR

Figure 4.3 Variation of NOx emission with Load 4.1.4 CO2 emission Figure 4.4 shows the variation of CO2 emission with respect to various EGR rate and load. The CO2 emission is Figure 4.2 Variation of BSEC with Load 4.1.3 NOx reduction Figure 4.3 shows the variation of NOx emission with different EGR rate and load. It can be observed that NOx emission without EGR is 13.73 g/kWh at full load condition. As the load comparatively lower than the diesel fuel operation for all EGR rate. The main reason for the reduction of CO2 is the replacement of hydrocarbon fuel by hydrogen.
14 12 10 C O 2, % vo l 8 6

4 2 0 0 25 50 Load,% 75 100 Diesel H2-Diesel w/o EGR H2-Diesel 5% EGR H2-Diesel 10% EGR H2-Diesel 15% EGR H2-Diesel 20% EGR

increases, NOx shoots up. By using EGR the NOx emission was brought down, the minimum of 5.30g/kWh at full load for 20% EGR rate. This is 61.3% less than the operation without EGR. The reduction in NOx emission is by Figure 4.4 Variation of CO2 with load

11 4.1.5 HC emission
4 S m o k e e m is s i o n , B S N 3.5 3 2 2.5 2 U B H C , g /k W h 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 25 50 Load,% 75 100

Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel

Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel


1.5 1 0 0 25 50 Load, % 75 100 0.5

w/o EGR 5% EGR 10% EGR 15% EGR 20% EGR

w/o EGR 5% EGR 10% EGR 15% EGR 20% EGR

Figure 4.7 Variation of Smoke Figure 4.6 Variation of HC emission with Load 4.1.7 Dilution effect of EGR 4.1.6 Smoke emission Figure shows the variation of oxygen Figure 4.7 shows the variation of Smoke emission with respect to different EGR rate and engine load. For hydrogen dual fuel operation smoke emission is less than the diesel fuel operation for all load range. By using the EGR smoke emission
O x y g e n c o n c e n t ra tio n , % v o l

emission with Load concentration in percentage volume of intake charge with load. concentration decrease The oxygen continuously with the load and EGR rate. This is due to the amount of excess oxygen content in the exhaust gas decreases as the load increases due to dilution effect.
25 20 15 10 5 0 0 25 50 Load, % 75 100

shoots up at higher load and drops down at light load compared to operation without EGR. Maximum smoke

emission can be observed with 20% EGR rate at full load condition. This is due to insufficient oxygen content for the last part of the diesel fuel.
Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel H2-Diesel w/o EGR 5% EGR 10% EGR 15% EGR 20% EGR

Figure 4.8 Variation of Oxygen concentration with Load

12 4.2.2 NOx reduction 4.2 Hydrogen dual fuel operation with EGR and Urea-SCR 4.2.1 Brake thermal efficiency Figure 4.9 shows the variation of Brake thermal efficiency with load for different EGR rates and ratios when combining both EGR and SCR technology. Figure 4.10 Variation of NOx emission It can be observed from the figure that for lower ratios there will be a reduction in Brake thermal efficiency due to lower quantity of urea being injected into the exhaust stream.
Diesel w/o EGR

20 N O x e m i s s i o n , g /k W h Diesel w/o EGR 5% EGR, = 0.9 5% EGR, = 1.0 5% EGR, = 1.1 10% EGR, = 0.9 10% EGR, = 1.0 10% EGR, = 1.1 15% EGR, = 0.9 15% EGR, = 1.0 15% EGR, =1.1 0 25 50 Load, % 75 100 20% EGR, = 0.9 20% EGR, = 1.0 20% EGR, = 1.1 12 8 4 0

4.2.3 HC emission16 with Load 4.2.3 UBHC emission


Diesel w/o EGR 5% EGR, = 0.9 5% EGR, = 1.0 5% EGR, = 1.1 10% EGR, = 0.9 10% EGR, = 1.0 10% EGR, = 1.1 15% EGR, = 0.9 15% EGR, = 1.0 15% EGR, = 1.1 20% EGR, = 0.9 20% EGR, = 1.0 20% EGR, = 1.1 2.8 2.3 U B H C , g /k W h 1.8 1.3 0.8 0.3 0 25 50 Load, % 75 100
30 B ra k e th e rm a l e ffic ie n c y , % 25 20 15 10 0 25 50 Load, % 75 100
5% EGR, = 0.9 5 EGR, = 1.0 5% EGR, = 1.1 10% EGR, = 0.9 10% EGR, = 1.0 10% EGR, = 1.1 15% EGR, = 0.9 15% EGR, = 1.0 15% EGR, = 1.1 20% EGR, = 0.9 20% EGR, = 1.0 20% EGR, = 1.1

Figure 4.11 Variation of UBHC emission with Load Figure 4.9 Variation of Brake

thermal efficiency with Load

13 4.2.4 Back pressure


5% EGR, = 0.9 5% EGR, = 1.0

effects of CO2 in exhaust gas recirculation on diesel combustion and emissions IMECH E 2000, vol.214 pp 405-419. 5. Lifeng Xu, Robert W. McCabe, Robert H. Hammerle. in (2002), selective NOx selfinhibition catalytic
B a c k p r e s s u re , c m o f w a te r 5.5 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 0 25 50 Load, % 75 100
5% EGR, = 1.1 10% EGR, = 0.9 10% EGR, = 1.0 10% EGR, = 1.1 15% EGR, = 0.9 15% EGR, = 1.0 15% EGR, = 1.1 20% EGR, = 0.9 20% EGR, = 1.0 20% EGR, = 1.1

reduction with urea (ammonia) over a Cu-zeolite catalyst in diesel exhaust, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 39 (2002), pp 51-63. 6. N. Saravanan, G. Nagarajan, K.M. Kalaiselvan, C. Dhanasekaran. (2007), An engine Energy. 7. Min Kang, Eun Duck Park, Ji Man Kim, Jae Eui Yie. (2007), Manganese oxide catalysts for NOx reduction with NH3 at low temperatures, Applied catalysis A: General 327 (2007) pp 261269. 8. Gabriela Carja, Yoshikazu Kameshima, Kiyoshi 9. (2007) NH3, Okada, Mn-Ce/ZSM-5 Applied Changalla.D as a new B. Madhusoodhana, superior catalyst for NO reduction with Catalysis Environmental 73 (2007) pp 60-64 10. Toshitaka Minami, Kouichi Takeuchi,

Naoki Shimazaki (1995) Reduction of Diesel 89-96 Engine NOx Using Pilot Injection SAE Paper No. 950611 pp experimental systems investigation exhaust on gas hydrogen as a dual fuel for diesel with recirculation technique, Renewable

Figure 4.12 Variation of Back Pressure with Load References

1. Atsushi Kayo, Tsutomu Yamaguchi, and Kozo Tanabe. (1983), The Effect of Preparation Method on the Acidic and Catalytic Properties of Iron Oxide, Journal of Catalysis 83, pp 99-106 (1983). 2. Samuel C. Homsy and Arvind Atreya. (1997), An Experimental Heat Release Rate Analysis of a Diesel Engine Operating Under Steady State Conditions, SAE Paper No. 970889, 1997, pp 101-108. 3. M Lapuerta1, J J Hernandez and F Gimenez. (2000) Evaluation of exhaust gas recirculation as a technique for reducing diesel engine NOx emissions, I MECH E 2000, Vol.214. pp 85-93. 4. H Zhao J Hu and N Ladommatos. (2000), In-cylinder studies of the

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