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**of wireless mobile nodes forming a self-configuring network
**

without using any existing infrastructure. Since MANETs are not

currently deployed on a large scale, research in this area is

mostly simulation based. Among other simulation parameters,

the mobility model plays a very important role in determining the

protocol performance in MANET. Thus, it is essential to study

and analyze various mobility models and their effect on MANET

protocols. In this paper we introduce a new framework for

simulation of mobility models in mobile Ad-Hoc networks. This

simulator can generate mobility traces in various mobility

models. The mobility traces can be customized for different

network simulators using XML and text output formats. User

friendly graphical interface and batch processing ability makes

our simulator one of the most efficient and useful mobility

simulators in this field of research. We also propose some new

features and parameters in mobility models to make the behavior

of our simulator supported mobility models more similar to real

world mobile node motions and fix some problems in last

proposed methods to generate mobility models.

Key Words— Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Mobility Models,

Mobility Simulator.

I. INTRODUCTION

A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a group of mobile

wireless nodes working together to form a network. Such

networks can exist without a fixed infrastructure working in an

autonomous manner and every mobile device has a maximum

transmission power which determines the maximum

transmission range of the device. As nodes are mobile, the link

connection between two devices can break depending on the

spatial orientation of nodes. Mobile ad-hoc networks have

numerous applications in sensor networks, disaster relief

systems and military operations. Some of the network

constraints in mobile ad-hoc networks are limited bandwidth,

low battery power of nodes, and frequent link unreliability due

to mobility [1].

In order to thoroughly simulate a new protocol for an

Ad-Hoc network, it is imperative to use a mobility model that

S. M. Mousavi is with the department of computer engineering, Sharif

University of Technology, e-mail: sm_mousavi@ce.sharif.edu.

H. R. Rabiee is with the department of computer engineering, Sharif

University of Technology, and Iran Telecommunication Research Center

(ITRC), e-mail: rabiee@sharif.edu.

M. Moshref is with the department of computer engineering, Sharif

University of Technology, e-mail: moshref@ce.sharif.edu.

A. Dabirmoghaddam is with the department of computer engineering,

Sharif University of Technology, e-mail: dabirmoghaddam@ce.sharif.edu.

accurately represents the mobile nodes that will eventually

utilize the given protocol. Only in this type of scenario it is

possible to determine whether or not the proposed protocol

will be useful when implemented. Currently, there are two

types of mobility models used in the simulation of networks:

traces and synthetic models. Traces are those mobility patterns

that are observed in real life systems. Traces provide accurate

information, especially when they involve a large number of

participants and an appropriately long observation period.

However, new ad-hoc network environments are not easily

modeled if traces have not yet been created. In this type of

situation it is necessary to use synthetic models. Synthetic

models attempt to realistically represent the behaviors of

mobile nodes without the use of traces.

The mobility model is designed to describe the movement

pattern of mobile users, and how their location, velocity and

acceleration change over time. Since mobility patterns may

play a significant role in determining the protocol

performance, it is desirable for mobility models to emulate the

movement pattern of targeted real life applications in a

reasonable way. Various researchers proposed different kinds

of mobility models, attempting to capture various

characteristics of mobility and represent mobility in a

somewhat 'realistic' fashion. Much of the current research has

focused on the so-called synthetic mobility models that are not

trace-driven.

A mobility model should attempt to mimic the movements

of real mobile nodes. Changes in speed and direction must

occur and they must occur in reasonable time slots. For

example, we would not want mobile nodes to travel in straight

lines at constant speeds throughout the course of the entire

simulation because real mobile nodes would not travel in such

a restricted manner.

Mobility pattern of the Mobile Ad Hoc Network, in many

previous studies, was assumed to be Random Waypoint

because of its relatively simple implementation and analysis.

However, in the future, MANETs are expected to be deployed

in various different scenarios and applications having complex

node mobility and connectivity dynamics. For example, in a

MANET on a battlefield, the movement of the soldiers will be

influenced by the commander. In a city-wide MANET, the

node movement is restricted by obstacles or maps. The node

mobility characteristics are very application specific [2,3].

In this paper, we introduce a framework to simulate several

synthetic mobility models that have been proposed for the

performance evaluation of Ad-Hoc network protocols.

MobiSim: A Framework for Simulation of

Mobility Models in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

S. M. Mousavi, H. R. Rabiee, M. Moshref, A. Dabirmoghaddam

Third IEEE International Conference on

Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007)

0-7695-2889-9/07 $25.00 © 2007

MobiSim Simulator [4] is a Java Based Software used to

generate mobility traces in various mobility models.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2

presents our mobility simulator structure and a brief

introduction to its Features. In section 3 we introduce our

mobility simulator supported mobility models and explain our

proposed schemes to make the mobility models more similar

to motion behavior of real world mobile nodes. And finally in

section 4 we discuss the conclusion and future works.

II. MOBISIM STRUCTURE

An overview on the mobility simulator structure is shown in

figure 1. The mobility simulator general workflow is:

1- Simulation Runner fetches simulation configurations

from properties and XML files.

2- Creates corresponding models, maps and simulation

objects.

3- If it was batch simulation it sets parameters according to

variables and runs each simulation for run Number times.

4- In each simulation first the model initializes position of

nodes.

5- In each time slot the model updates position of nodes. So

each model only should initialize and update position of

nodes.

Also some additional methods have been considered in

“Model” class to enable models to change the order of node’s

location updating and the painting mechanism and trace

outputs data. Traces can be written in plain text or XML, on a

file or on a network socket.

Figure 2 shows MobiSim main activities in batch simulation

as an activity diagram.

Figure 1: MobiSim general structure

Figure 2: Activity Diagram of MobiSim main activities in batch simulation

Graphical simulation also has a similar workflow. In order

to create graphical forms to manipulate maps, models, and

simulation parameters we implemented a component that

automatically gets these parameters and creates appropriate UI

forms. So the process of implementing new models became

more simple and independent from UI. The following list

shows information that one can get about each node in the

simulation in each time slot from the trace files:

Node number.

Position (x,y,z).

Speed: node’s speed in current time slot.

Direction Angle: Direction Angle of node’s movement in

current time slot.

Transition: defined by a source and destination point.

Start time: start time of current transition.

End time: expected finish time of current transition.

Pause time: planned pause time for current transition.

Transition speed: planned speed for current transition.

Source: source point position.

Destination: destination point position.

Movement time: time that the node expected to move to

reach destination position.

Transition length: distance between source and destination

point position.

The GUI can present some of these properties including

destination node and transition.

A. Simulator features

Current section lists some of the most important features of

MobiSim:

Graphical simulation (Animation).

Input XML configuration files (map and Model

configurations).

Batch simulation to run several simulations with several

variable parameters .

Graphical batch simulation scenario creator module.

Output formats (plain text, XML).

Customized outputs for network simulators like NS2,

Glomosim, OMNET++, …

Robust framework to add new models easily.

Trace viewer module to graphically view traces and create

footprint of generated traces.

Ability to zoom and change speed in graphical mode.

Ability to generate several traces with different columns of

data.

Ability to show and change attributes of models and nodes

graphical mode simulation.

8 implemented mobility model and 6 maps.

III. SUPPORTED MOBILITY MODELS

In this section we try to briefly introduce the implemented

mobility models and explain their parameters, algorithm and

properties and also explain our innovative proposed schemes

to make behavior of mobility models more similar to real

world motion of mobile nodes.

A. Random Waypoint

The Random Waypoint Model was first proposed by

Third IEEE International Conference on

Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007)

0-7695-2889-9/07 $25.00 © 2007

Johnson and Maltz [5]. Soon, it became a 'benchmark'

mobility model to evaluate the MANET routing protocols,

because of its simplicity and wide availability.

The implementation of this mobility model is as follows: as

the simulation starts, each mobile node randomly selects one

location in the simulation field as the destination. It then

travels towards this destination with constant velocity chosen

uniformly and randomly from ] , 0 [

Max

V , where the parameter

Max

V is the maximum allowable velocity for every mobile

node [6]. The velocity and direction of a node are chosen

independently of other nodes. Upon reaching the destination,

the node stops for a duration defined by the ‘pause time’

parameter. If 0 =

Pause

T , this leads to continuous mobility.

After this duration, it again chooses another random

destination in the simulation field and moves towards it. The

whole process is repeated again and again until the simulation

ends [3].

We used MobiSim to generate mobility traces for Random

Waypoint Mobility Models. Node Spatial Distribution of

Random Waypoint Mobility Model with 20 mobile nodes in

500m*500m simulation area, average speed=20m/s, and

maximum pause time=10s, for simulation time=100000sec is

shown in figure 3.

Figure 3: Spatial Node Distribution in Random Waypoint Mobility Model

As we can see in figure 3 spatial node distribution in

Random Waypoint is non-uniform and the node density is

maximum at the center region, whereas the node density is

almost zero around the boundary of simulation area. This

phenomenon is called non-uniform spatial distribution

problem in random waypoint.

B. Random Direction

The Random Direction model based on similar intuition is

proposed by Royer, Melliar-Smith and Moser [7]. This model

is able to overcome the non-uniform spatial distribution

problem. Instead of selecting a random destination within the

simulation field, in the Random Direction model the node

randomly and uniformly chooses a direction by which to move

along until it reaches the boundary. After the node reaches the

boundary of the simulation field it stops with a pause time T,

then it randomly and uniformly chooses another direction to

travel. This way, the nodes are uniformly distributed within

the simulation field [2,3].

Node Spatial Distribution of Random Direction Mobility

Model with 20 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area,

average speed=20m/s, and maximum pause time=10s, for

simulation time=100000sec is shown in figure 4.

As we can see spatial node distribution in the simulation

field is uniform. In comparison to spatial node distribution

shown in figure 3, Random Direction model does not have

non-uniform spatial distribution problem.

Figure 4: Spatial Node Distribution in Random Direction Mobility Model

C. Random Walk

The Random Walk model was originally proposed to

emulate the unpredictable movement of particles in physics. It

is also referred to as the Brownian Motion. Because some

mobile nodes are believed to move in an unexpected way,

Random Walk mobility model is proposed to mimic their

movement behavior [3]. The Random Walk model has

similarities with the Random Waypoint model because the

node movement has strong randomness in both models. We

can think the Random Walk model as the specific Random

Waypoint model with zero pause time.

However, in the Random Walk model, the nodes change

their speed and direction at each time interval. For every new

interval t , each node randomly and uniformly chooses its new

direction ) (t θ from ] 2 , 0 ( π . In similar way, the new speed

follows a uniform distribution from ] , 0 [

Max

V . Therefore,

during time interval t , the node moves with the velocity

vector )) ( sin( ) ( ), ( cos( ) ( ( t t v t t v θ θ . If the node moves according

to the above rules and reaches the boundary of simulation

field, the leaving node is bounced back to the simulation field

with the angle of ) (t θ or ) (t θ π − , respectively. This effect is

called border effect [8] or reflection rule.

Node Spatial Distribution of Random Walk Mobility Model

with 20 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area, average

speed=20m/s, for simulation time=100000sec is shown in

figure 5. As we can see spatial node distribution in the

simulation field is uniform.

Third IEEE International Conference on

Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007)

0-7695-2889-9/07 $25.00 © 2007

Figure 5: Spatial Node Distribution in Random Walk Mobility Model

D. Freeway

This model is proposed to emulate the motion behavior of

mobile nodes on a freeway [3]. The freeway map used in our

simulations is shown in Figure 6.

This model can be used in exchanging traffic status or

tracking a vehicle on a freeway.

In this model we use maps. There are several freeways on

the map and each freeway has lanes in both directions. The

differences between Random Waypoint and Freeway are the

following:

(a) Each mobile node is restricted to its lane on the freeway.

(b) The velocity of mobile node is temporally dependent on

its previous velocity.

(c) If two mobile nodes on the same freeway lane are within

the safety distance (SD), the velocity of the following node

cannot exceed the velocity of preceding node.

The inter-node and intra-node relationships involved are:

If node j is ahead of node i in its lane then:

| ) ( | | ) ( | ) ( , , ,

| ) ( | ()* | ) ( | | ) 1 ( |

,

t V t V SD t D t j i

t a random t V t V

j i j i

i i i

G G

G

G G

≤ ⇒ ≤ ∀ ∀ ∀

+ = +

(1)

Due to the above relationships, the Freeway mobility

pattern is expected to have spatial dependence and high

temporal dependence. It also imposes strict geographic

restrictions on the node movement by not allowing a node to

change its lane.

In our proposed simulation scheme the model has 4 new

parameters. This new parameters make our simulation scheme

more similar to real world motion of cars in a freeway.

1- Max acceleration which specifies the maximum

acceleration that a node can have in a time slot.

2- Fixed acceleration: it’s a Boolean parameter that

specifies whether a node should have fixed acceleration in

each transition or not.

3- Positive speed ratio: if the node can change its

acceleration in each transition, its acceleration will be random.

So this parameter specifies the weight of positive acceleration

to negative one.

The model’s map also has its special parameters that follow:

1- Points to make the freeway Map,

2- Number of lanes in each direction.

3- Horizontal space between lanes,

4- Horizontal space between lanes in opposite direction.

Node Spatial Distribution of Freeway Mobility Model with

20 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area and average

speed=20m/s, for simulation time=100000sec is shown in

figure 7.

Figure 6: Freeway Mobility Model Map

Figure 7: Spatial Node Distribution in Freeway Mobility Model

E. Manhattan

The Manhattan mobility model usually used to emulate the

movement pattern of mobile nodes on streets defined by maps.

It can be useful in modeling movement in an urban area where

a pervasive computing service between portable devices is

provided [3].

Maps are used in this model too. The map is composed of a

number of horizontal and vertical streets. Each street has two

lanes for each direction (north and south direction for vertical

streets, east and west for horizontal streets). The mobile node

is allowed to move along the grid of horizontal and vertical

streets on the map. At an intersection of a horizontal and a

Third IEEE International Conference on

Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007)

0-7695-2889-9/07 $25.00 © 2007

vertical street, the mobile node can turn left, right or go

straight. This choice is probabilistic: the probability of moving

on the same street is 0.5, the probability of turning left is 0.25

and the probability of turning right is 0.25. The velocity of a

mobile node at a time slot is dependent on its velocity at the

previous time slot. Also, a node’s velocity is restricted by the

velocity of the node preceding it on the same lane of the street.

The inter-node and intra-node relationships involved are the

same as in the Freeway model. Thus, the Manhattan mobility

model is also expected to have high spatial dependence and

high temporal dependence. It too imposes geographic

restrictions on node mobility. However, it differs from the

Freeway model in giving a node some freedom to change its

direction.

In proposed simulation scheme for Freeway and Manhattan

in [3] they did not describe the nodes behavior when it reaches

the simulation boundaries. In our simulation method when a

node reaches boundaries of the simulation area it chooses the

opposite lane and turns back on the opposite lane. This can

solve the simulation boundary problem. The Manhattan map

used in our simulations is shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Manhattan Mobility Model Map

Node Spatial Distribution of Manhattan Model with 20

mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area and average

speed=20m/s, for simulation time=100000sec is shown in

figure 9.

As we can see spatial node distribution in the simulation

field is not uniform and we have much more node density in

intersections in comparison with lanes. In our proposed

scheme, modes in this mobility model stop for a random pause

time between zero and a specified maximum pause time in

intersections and choose another destination so the node

density in intersections is much more. We added this pause

time to Manhattan Model to simulate behavior of cars in

intersections due to the traffic lights and pedestrian crossings.

Figure 9: Spatial Node Distribution in Manhattan Mobility Model

F. Gauss-Markov

The Gauss-Markov Mobility Model was designed to adapt

to different levels of randomness via one tuning parameter [9].

Initially each MN is assigned a current speed and direction. At

fixed intervals of time n; node’s movement occurs by updating

the speed and direction of each mobile node. Specifically, the

value of speed and direction at the nth instance is calculated

based upon the value of speed and direction at the

st

n ) 1 ( − instance and a random variable using the following

equation:

1

1

2

1

2

1

) 1 ( ) 1 (

) 1 ( ) 1 (

−

−

− + − + =

− + − + =

−

−

n

n

x n n

x n n

d d ad d

s s as s

α α

α α

(2)

Where

n

s and

n

d are the new speed and direction of the

mobile node at time interval n; α , where 1 0 ≤ ≤ α , is the

tuning parameter used to vary the randomness; s and d are

constants representing the mean value of speed and direction

as ∞ → n ;

1 − n

s and

1 − n

d are random variables from a Gaussian

distribution. Totally random values or Brownian motion are

obtained by setting α = 0 and linear motion is obtained by

setting α = 1 [9]. Intermediate levels of randomness are

obtained by varying the value of α between 0 and 1.

At each time interval the next location is calculated based

on the current location, speed, and direction of movement.

Specifically, at time interval n, an Mobile node’s position is

given by the equations:

1 1 1

1 1 1

sin

cos

− − −

− − −

+ =

+ =

n n n n

n n n n

d s y y

d s x x

(3)

Where ) , (

n n

y x and ) , (

1 1 − − n n

y x are the x and y coordinates

of the mobile node’s position at the

th

n and

st

n ) 1 ( − time

intervals, respectively, and

1 − n

s and

1 − n

d are the speed and

direction of the mobile node, respectively, at the

st

n ) 1 ( − time

interval [2].

Third IEEE International Conference on

Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007)

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We changed the specification that discussed in [9] so we do

not force away nodes from edges but when they reach the

border they reflect using the reflection rule we explained for

Random Walk mobility model. The model parameters are

memory factor (α), and random amplitude which is

represented with σ. If we set the memory factor to 1 the model

behavior becomes like Random Walk and if we set it to zero

model behavior becomes like Brownian Motion. Figure 10

shows traveling pattern of 5 nodes with 1 . 0 = a , 5 = σ and

average speed=20m/s.

Figure10: Traveling pattern of Mobile Nodes in Gauss-Markov Mobility

Model

Node Spatial Distribution of Gauss-Markov Model with 20

mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area and average

speed=20m/s, for simulation time=100000sec is shown in

figure 11.

As we can see the node spatial distribution in this mobility

model is similar to Random Walk node spatial distribution.

Figure 11: Spatial Node Distribution in Gauss-Markov Mobility Model

G. Probabilistic Random Walk

Chiang’s mobility model utilizes a probability matrix to

determine the position of a particular mobile node in the next

time step, which is represented by three different states for

position x and three different states for position y [10]. State 0

represents the current (x or y) position of a given MOBILE

NODE, state 1 represents the mobile node’s previous (x or y)

position, and state 2 represents the mobile node’s next

position. if the mobile node continues to move in the same

direction. The probability matrix used is where each entry

) , ( b a p represents the probability that a mobile node will go

from state a to state b. The values within this matrix are used

for updates to both the mobile node’s x and y position. In

Chiang’s simulator each node moves randomly with a preset

average speed. The following matrix contains the values

Chiang used to calculate x and y movements:

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

) 2 , 2 ( ) 2 , 1 ( ) 2 , 0 (

) 2 , 1 ( ) 1 , 1 ( ) 1 , 0 (

) 2 , 0 ( ) 1 , 0 ( ) 0 , 0 (

p p p

p p p

p p p

P (4)

These values are illustrated via a flow chart in Figure 12.

Figure 12: flow chart of the Probabilistic Random Walk model

With the values defined, a mobile node may take a step in

any of the four possible directions (i.e., north, south, east, or

west) as long as it continues to move. In addition, the

probability of the MN continuing to follow the same direction

is higher than the probability of the Mobile Node changing

directions. Lastly, the values defined prohibit movements

between the previous and next positions without passing

through the current location. This implementation produces

probabilistic rather than purely random movements, which

may yield more realistic behaviors. For example, as people

complete their daily tasks they tend to continue moving in a

semi-constant forward direction. Rarely do we suddenly turn

around to retrace our steps, and we almost never take random

steps hoping that we may eventually wind up somewhere

relevant to our tasks [2].

To force nodes to move in map region, we made an

innovative solution. When a node moves outside of region its

state will be changed to opposite state, it means if its state is 0,

it will be changed to 2 and vice versa. By this technique the

node comes back into region, and we can emulate the

reflection effect. Obviously the matrix values will be used as

parameters of this model.

Figure 13 shows traveling pattern of 5 nodes with average

speed=20m/s using probabilistic random walk model.

Third IEEE International Conference on

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Figure 13: Traveling pattern of Mobile Node s in Probabilistic Random Walk

Mobility model

Node Spatial Distribution of Probabilistic Random walk

Model with 20 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area

and average speed=20m/s, for simulation time=100000sec is

shown in figure 14.

Figure 14: Spatial Node Distribution in Probabilistic Random Walk Mobility

Model

H. Reference Point Group Model

In line with the observation that the mobile nodes in

MANET tend to coordinate their movement, the Reference

Point Group Mobility (RPGM) Model is proposed in [11].

One example of such mobility is that a number of soldiers may

move together in a group or platoon. Another example is

during disaster relief where various rescue crews (e.g.,

firemen, policemen and medical assistants) form different

groups and work cooperatively.

In the RPGM model, each group has a center, which is

either a logical center or a group leader node. For the sake of

simplicity, we assume that the center is the group leader. Thus,

each group is composed of one leader and a number of

members. The movement of the group leader determines the

mobility behavior of the entire group. Initially, each member

of the group is uniformly distributed in the neighborhood of

the group leader. Subsequently, at each instant, each node has

a speed and direction that is derived by randomly deviating

from that of the group leader. The movement in group

mobility can be characterized as follows:

¹

´

¦

+ =

+ =

angle ADR random t t

speed SDR random t V t V

leader member

leader member

max * * () ) ( ) (

max * * () | ) ( | | ) ( |

θ θ

(5)

SDR is the Speed Deviation Ratio and ADR is the Angle

Deviation Ratio. SDR and ADR are used to control the

deviation of the velocity (magnitude and direction) of group

members from that of the leader. So model parameters will be

ADR, SDR, initial distance (members initial distance from the

leader node), and group size which determines number of

group nodes [3].

We used Random Walk Mobility Model for motion

behavior of leader node in each group.

We also proposed a scheme to protect nodes to pass the

simulation regions. When the leader node reaches simulation

region it reflects using reflection rule we explained in Random

Walk Mobility Model and Group member nodes are bounded

to simulation region.

Figure 15 shows traveling pattern of 2 groups with 5 nodes

with average speed=20m/s, SDR=0.05, ADR=0.05, using

RPGM Mobility Model.

Figure 15: Traveling pattern of Mobile Nodes in RPGM Mobility Model

Node Spatial Distribution of RPGM Mobility Model with 2

groups with 10 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area

and average speed=20m/s, for simulation time=100000sec is

shown in figure 16.

As we can see the node spatial distribution is similar to

Random Walk Mobility Model because the leader node in

each node travels with Random Walk Mobility Model.

Third IEEE International Conference on

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Figure 16: Spatial Node Distribution in RPGM Mobility Model

IV. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS

In this paper we introduced a powerful java based mobility

simulator which can be used to generate mobility traces in

various mobility models with customized configuration. This

simulator can be used to generate mobility traces to be used in

different network simulators which do not support mobility

generation for mobile Ad-Hoc networks. User friendly

graphical user interface can help the users view and analyze

behavior of mobile nodes in each mobility model. Output

traces of this simulator can be generated in plain Text and

XML formats which can be easily used by different network

simulators.

For the future works we are working on the simulator to

support more mobility models like: Obstacle, Pathway,

Smooth Random, Column, Nomadic Community, Pursue and

other mobility models discussed in literature and also to

propose new features for our implemented mobility models to

make them more similar to motion behavior of real world

mobile nodes.

We are working on our simulator to make it capable to

simulate special moving entities like pedestrians, cars and

animals to be used in other research purposes like Robotics

and Intelligent Transportation Systems.

We are also working on a new software called Mobility

Analyzer which can be used to analyze mobility traces and

recognize their mobility patterns using learning based pattern

recognition methods.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to thank members of Sharif Digital

Media Lab (DML) for their invaluable cooperation.

This work was supported by Sharif Advanced Information

and Communication Technology Center (AICTC) & Iran

Telecommunication Research Center (ITRC).

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Third IEEE International Conference on

Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007)

0-7695-2889-9/07 $25.00 © 2007

Simulation Runner fetches simulation configurations from properties and XML files. … Robust framework to add new models easily. Figure 2 shows MobiSim main activities in batch simulation as an activity diagram. Glomosim. Movement time: time that the node expected to move to reach destination position. Source: source point position.z). XML). models.y. Start time: start time of current transition. Ability to zoom and change speed in graphical mode. Trace viewer module to graphically view traces and create footprint of generated traces. and simulation parameters we implemented a component that automatically gets these parameters and creates appropriate UI forms. Transition speed: planned speed for current transition.00 © 2007 . And finally in section 4 we discuss the conclusion and future works.Creates corresponding models. OMNET++. SUPPORTED MOBILITY MODELS In this section we try to briefly introduce the implemented mobility models and explain their parameters. Output formats (plain text. So each model only should initialize and update position of nodes.In each simulation first the model initializes position of nodes. Ability to generate several traces with different columns of data. Also some additional methods have been considered in “Model” class to enable models to change the order of node’s location updating and the painting mechanism and trace outputs data. III. to create graphical forms to manipulate maps. maps and simulation objects. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents our mobility simulator structure and a brief introduction to its Features. MOBISIM STRUCTURE An overview on the mobility simulator structure is shown in figure 1. The mobility simulator general workflow is: 1. Pause time: planned pause time for current transition. Simulator features Current section lists some of the most important features of MobiSim: Graphical simulation (Animation). Transition: defined by a source and destination point. Speed: node’s speed in current time slot.If it was batch simulation it sets parameters according to variables and runs each simulation for run Number times. End time: expected finish time of current transition. Destination: destination point position. So the process of implementing new models became more simple and independent from UI. Input XML configuration files (map and Model configurations). 4. In section 3 we introduce our mobility simulator supported mobility models and explain our proposed schemes to make the mobility models more similar to motion behavior of real world mobile nodes. Traces can be written in plain text or XML. In order A. The GUI can present some of these properties including destination node and transition. The following list shows information that one can get about each node in the simulation in each time slot from the trace files: Node number. Ability to show and change attributes of models and nodes graphical mode simulation.In each time slot the model updates position of nodes. Random Waypoint The Random Waypoint Model was first proposed by Third IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing. 8 implemented mobility model and 6 maps. Figure 1: MobiSim general structure Figure 2: Activity Diagram of MobiSim main activities in batch simulation Graphical simulation also has a similar workflow. algorithm and properties and also explain our innovative proposed schemes to make behavior of mobility models more similar to real world motion of mobile nodes. 3. on a file or on a network socket. Position (x. Transition length: distance between source and destination point position. Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007) 0-7695-2889-9/07 $25. A. Batch simulation to run several simulations with several variable parameters .MobiSim Simulator [4] is a Java Based Software used to generate mobility traces in various mobility models. 5. 2. II. Customized outputs for network simulators like NS2. Direction Angle: Direction Angle of node’s movement in current time slot. Graphical batch simulation scenario creator module.

Soon.Johnson and Maltz [5]. This model is able to overcome the non-uniform spatial distribution problem. Third IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing. Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007) 0-7695-2889-9/07 $25. Melliar-Smith and Moser [7]. Random Walk The Random Walk model was originally proposed to emulate the unpredictable movement of particles in physics. and maximum pause time=10s. for simulation time=100000sec is shown in figure 3. After the node reaches the boundary of the simulation field it stops with a pause time T. In similar way. For every new interval t . during time interval t . If the node moves according to the above rules and reaches the boundary of simulation field. the nodes change their speed and direction at each time interval. it again chooses another random destination in the simulation field and moves towards it. this leads to continuous mobility. average speed=20m/s. This way. in the Random Walk model. average speed=20m/s. the node stops for a duration defined by the ‘pause time’ parameter. because of its simplicity and wide availability. the leaving node is bounced back to the simulation field with the angle of θ (t ) or π − θ (t ) . and maximum pause time=10s. average speed=20m/s. each node randomly and uniformly chooses its new direction θ (t ) from (0. respectively.VMax ] . the new speed follows a uniform distribution from [0.00 © 2007 .3]. If TPause = 0 . Therefore. Node Spatial Distribution of Random Walk Mobility Model with 20 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area. B. each mobile node randomly selects one location in the simulation field as the destination. In comparison to spatial node distribution shown in figure 3. Figure 4: Spatial Node Distribution in Random Direction Mobility Model Figure 3: Spatial Node Distribution in Random Waypoint Mobility Model As we can see in figure 3 spatial node distribution in Random Waypoint is non-uniform and the node density is maximum at the center region. the node moves with the velocity vector (v (t ) cos(θ (t ). the nodes are uniformly distributed within the simulation field [2. for simulation time=100000sec is shown in figure 4. This phenomenon is called non-uniform spatial distribution problem in random waypoint. for simulation time=100000sec is shown in figure 5. v (t ) sin(θ (t )) . The implementation of this mobility model is as follows: as the simulation starts. As we can see spatial node distribution in the simulation field is uniform. The whole process is repeated again and again until the simulation ends [3]. C. Upon reaching the destination. Node Spatial Distribution of Random Direction Mobility Model with 20 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area. Node Spatial Distribution of Random Waypoint Mobility Model with 20 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area. It then travels towards this destination with constant velocity chosen uniformly and randomly from [0. 2π ] . However. then it randomly and uniformly chooses another direction to travel. where the parameter VMax is the maximum allowable velocity for every mobile node [6]. The Random Walk model has similarities with the Random Waypoint model because the node movement has strong randomness in both models. After this duration. whereas the node density is almost zero around the boundary of simulation area. Random Walk mobility model is proposed to mimic their movement behavior [3]. The velocity and direction of a node are chosen independently of other nodes. it became a 'benchmark' mobility model to evaluate the MANET routing protocols. Random Direction model does not have non-uniform spatial distribution problem. Random Direction The Random Direction model based on similar intuition is proposed by Royer. in the Random Direction model the node randomly and uniformly chooses a direction by which to move along until it reaches the boundary. This effect is called border effect [8] or reflection rule. We can think the Random Walk model as the specific Random Waypoint model with zero pause time.VMax ] . Because some mobile nodes are believed to move in an unexpected way. Instead of selecting a random destination within the simulation field. It is also referred to as the Brownian Motion. As we can see spatial node distribution in the simulation field is uniform. We used MobiSim to generate mobility traces for Random Waypoint Mobility Models.

Positive speed ratio: if the node can change its acceleration in each transition. 3. j (t ) ≤ SD ⇒| Vi (t ) |≤| V j (t ) | Figure 6: Freeway Mobility Model Map (1) Due to the above relationships.Horizontal space between lanes. 1. 4. In our proposed simulation scheme the model has 4 new parameters. east and west for horizontal streets). (c) If two mobile nodes on the same freeway lane are within the safety distance (SD). The mobile node is allowed to move along the grid of horizontal and vertical streets on the map. At an intersection of a horizontal and a Third IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing. The differences between Random Waypoint and Freeway are the following: (a) Each mobile node is restricted to its lane on the freeway. The freeway map used in our simulations is shown in Figure 6. Figure 5: Spatial Node Distribution in Random Walk Mobility Model D. Each street has two lanes for each direction (north and south direction for vertical streets. So this parameter specifies the weight of positive acceleration Figure 7: Spatial Node Distribution in Freeway Mobility Model E. It also imposes strict geographic restrictions on the node movement by not allowing a node to change its lane. the Freeway mobility pattern is expected to have spatial dependence and high temporal dependence. ∀t . 2. Manhattan The Manhattan mobility model usually used to emulate the movement pattern of mobile nodes on streets defined by maps. ∀j. (b) The velocity of mobile node is temporally dependent on its previous velocity. Freeway This model is proposed to emulate the motion behavior of mobile nodes on a freeway [3]. Maps are used in this model too. The map is composed of a number of horizontal and vertical streets. its acceleration will be random.00 © 2007 . the velocity of the following node cannot exceed the velocity of preceding node. The model’s map also has its special parameters that follow: 1. This model can be used in exchanging traffic status or tracking a vehicle on a freeway. 2. 3. In this model we use maps.to negative one. Node Spatial Distribution of Freeway Mobility Model with 20 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area and average speed=20m/s. Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007) 0-7695-2889-9/07 $25.Points to make the freeway Map. The inter-node and intra-node relationships involved are: If node j is ahead of node i in its lane then: | Vi (t + 1) |=| Vi (t ) | + random()* | ai (t ) | ∀i. for simulation time=100000sec is shown in figure 7.Fixed acceleration: it’s a Boolean parameter that specifies whether a node should have fixed acceleration in each transition or not. There are several freeways on the map and each freeway has lanes in both directions.Max acceleration which specifies the maximum acceleration that a node can have in a time slot. This new parameters make our simulation scheme more similar to real world motion of cars in a freeway. It can be useful in modeling movement in an urban area where a pervasive computing service between portable devices is provided [3].Horizontal space between lanes in opposite direction.Number of lanes in each direction. Di.

modes in this mobility model stop for a random pause time between zero and a specified maximum pause time in intersections and choose another destination so the node density in intersections is much more. y n ) and ( x n −1 . an Mobile node’s position is given by the equations: xn = xn −1 + s n −1 cos d n −1 y n = y n −1 + s n −1 sin d n −1 (3) Where ( x n . is the tuning parameter used to vary the randomness. the Manhattan mobility model is also expected to have high spatial dependence and high temporal dependence. Figure 9: Spatial Node Distribution in Manhattan Mobility Model F. In our proposed scheme. Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007) 0-7695-2889-9/07 $25. s and d are constants representing the mean value of speed and direction as n → ∞ . the probability of turning left is 0. The Manhattan map used in our simulations is shown in Figure 8. This choice is probabilistic: the probability of moving on the same street is 0. y n −1 ) are the x and y coordinates of the mobile node’s position at the n th and ( n − 1) st time intervals. Initially each MN is assigned a current speed and direction. Also. a node’s velocity is restricted by the velocity of the node preceding it on the same lane of the street. Third IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing.5. The inter-node and intra-node relationships involved are the same as in the Freeway model.25. Gauss-Markov The Gauss-Markov Mobility Model was designed to adapt to different levels of randomness via one tuning parameter [9]. right or go straight.25 and the probability of turning right is 0. The velocity of a mobile node at a time slot is dependent on its velocity at the previous time slot. However. s n −1 and d n −1 are random variables from a Gaussian distribution. Totally random values or Brownian motion are obtained by setting α = 0 and linear motion is obtained by setting α = 1 [9]. At fixed intervals of time n. In our simulation method when a node reaches boundaries of the simulation area it chooses the opposite lane and turns back on the opposite lane. respectively. respectively. and direction of movement. This can solve the simulation boundary problem. We added this pause time to Manhattan Model to simulate behavior of cars in intersections due to the traffic lights and pedestrian crossings. it differs from the Freeway model in giving a node some freedom to change its direction. Thus. In proposed simulation scheme for Freeway and Manhattan in [3] they did not describe the nodes behavior when it reaches the simulation boundaries. Specifically. Where s n and d n are the new speed and direction of the mobile node at time interval n. At each time interval the next location is calculated based on the current location.00 © 2007 .vertical street. Intermediate levels of randomness are obtained by varying the value of α between 0 and 1. at the ( n − 1) st time interval [2]. for simulation time=100000sec is shown in figure 9. speed. the value of speed and direction at the nth instance is calculated based upon the value of speed and direction at the ( n − 1) st instance and a random variable using the following equation: s n = as n −1 + (1 − α ) s + (1 − α ) 2 s xn −1 d n = ad n −1 + (1 − α ) d + (1 − α ) 2 d xn −1 (2) Figure 8: Manhattan Mobility Model Map Node Spatial Distribution of Manhattan Model with 20 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area and average speed=20m/s. and s n −1 and d n −1 are the speed and direction of the mobile node. at time interval n. the mobile node can turn left. where 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 . α . Specifically. It too imposes geographic restrictions on node mobility. As we can see spatial node distribution in the simulation field is not uniform and we have much more node density in intersections in comparison with lanes. node’s movement occurs by updating the speed and direction of each mobile node.

This implementation produces probabilistic rather than purely random movements. it will be changed to 2 and vice versa. or west) as long as it continues to move. the probability of the MN continuing to follow the same direction is higher than the probability of the Mobile Node changing directions. if the mobile node continues to move in the same direction. and random amplitude which is represented with σ. The values within this matrix are used for updates to both the mobile node’s x and y position. σ = 5 and average speed=20m/s.. state 1 represents the mobile node’s previous (x or y) position. The model parameters are memory factor (α). As we can see the node spatial distribution in this mobility model is similar to Random Walk node spatial distribution.2) p (0. south. and state 2 represents the mobile node’s next position. b) represents the probability that a mobile node will go from state a to state b. Figure 13 shows traveling pattern of 5 nodes with average speed=20m/s using probabilistic random walk model. north.00 © 2007 . By this technique the node comes back into region. Figure10: Traveling pattern of Mobile Nodes in Gauss-Markov Mobility Model Node Spatial Distribution of Gauss-Markov Model with 20 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area and average speed=20m/s. the values defined prohibit movements between the previous and next positions without passing through the current location. a mobile node may take a step in any of the four possible directions (i. If we set the memory factor to 1 the model behavior becomes like Random Walk and if we set it to zero model behavior becomes like Brownian Motion. east. which is represented by three different states for position x and three different states for position y [10]. we made an innovative solution. as people complete their daily tasks they tend to continue moving in a semi-constant forward direction. time step. for simulation time=100000sec is shown in figure 11. Figure 12: flow chart of the Probabilistic Random Walk model Figure 11: Spatial Node Distribution in Gauss-Markov Mobility Model G. Figure 10 shows traveling pattern of 5 nodes with a = 0. Lastly. In addition.2) (4) These values are illustrated via a flow chart in Figure 12.2) p ( 2.0) P = p (0. For example. The probability matrix used is where each entry p ( a. Third IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing. Obviously the matrix values will be used as parameters of this model. Rarely do we suddenly turn around to retrace our steps. When a node moves outside of region its state will be changed to opposite state. State 0 represents the current (x or y) position of a given MOBILE NODE. The following matrix contains the values Chiang used to calculate x and y movements: p (0.1) p (1. Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007) 0-7695-2889-9/07 $25. Probabilistic Random Walk Chiang’s mobility model utilizes a probability matrix to determine the position of a particular mobile node in the next With the values defined. and we can emulate the reflection effect.1) p (1.2) p (0.1 . it means if its state is 0. In Chiang’s simulator each node moves randomly with a preset average speed.1) p (0. which may yield more realistic behaviors.We changed the specification that discussed in [9] so we do not force away nodes from edges but when they reach the border they reflect using the reflection rule we explained for Random Walk mobility model.e.2) p (1. and we almost never take random steps hoping that we may eventually wind up somewhere relevant to our tasks [2]. To force nodes to move in map region.

Figure 15 shows traveling pattern of 2 groups with 5 nodes with average speed=20m/s. So model parameters will be ADR. One example of such mobility is that a number of soldiers may move together in a group or platoon. For the sake of simplicity. Figure 14: Spatial Node Distribution in Probabilistic Random Walk Mobility Model H. Initially. Reference Point Group Model In line with the observation that the mobile nodes in MANET tend to coordinate their movement. initial distance (members initial distance from the leader node). using RPGM Mobility Model. Thus. SDR is the Speed Deviation Ratio and ADR is the Angle Deviation Ratio. and group size which determines number of group nodes [3]. each group is composed of one leader and a number of members. each group has a center. SDR=0.g. we assume that the center is the group leader. Third IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing. policemen and medical assistants) form different groups and work cooperatively. each member of the group is uniformly distributed in the neighborhood of the group leader. the Reference Point Group Mobility (RPGM) Model is proposed in [11]. The movement in group mobility can be characterized as follows: | Vmember (t ) |=| Vleader (t ) | + random() * SDR * max speed θ member (t ) = θ leader (t ) + random() * ADR * max angle (5) Figure 13: Traveling pattern of Mobile Node s in Probabilistic Random Walk Mobility model Node Spatial Distribution of Probabilistic Random walk Model with 20 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area and average speed=20m/s. As we can see the node spatial distribution is similar to Random Walk Mobility Model because the leader node in each node travels with Random Walk Mobility Model. SDR. SDR and ADR are used to control the deviation of the velocity (magnitude and direction) of group members from that of the leader. each node has a speed and direction that is derived by randomly deviating from that of the group leader. at each instant. Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007) 0-7695-2889-9/07 $25. ADR=0.05. which is either a logical center or a group leader node. In the RPGM model. We also proposed a scheme to protect nodes to pass the simulation regions. Another example is during disaster relief where various rescue crews (e. We used Random Walk Mobility Model for motion behavior of leader node in each group. firemen. for simulation time=100000sec is shown in figure 14.00 © 2007 .. When the leader node reaches simulation region it reflects using reflection rule we explained in Random Walk Mobility Model and Group member nodes are bounded to simulation region.mobility behavior of the entire group. The movement of the group leader determines the Figure 15: Traveling pattern of Mobile Nodes in RPGM Mobility Model Node Spatial Distribution of RPGM Mobility Model with 2 groups with 10 mobile nodes in 500m*500m simulation area and average speed=20m/s.05. Subsequently. for simulation time=100000sec is shown in figure 16.

in Proc. A group mobility model for ad hoc wireless networks. [9] B. Liang and Z. and C. Heidemann. in IEEE Computer. Y. Siva Ram Murthy and B. [10] C. http://ce. March 1999. pp. 2003. P. Column. Fall. in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications(ICC). Y.00 © 2007 . M. vol. Mar 25-26. in Proc. ACM. Germany. A. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank members of Sharif Digital Media Lab (DML) for their invaluable cooperation.-C. Hong. Helsinki. Smooth Random. Jeff Boleng. We are working on our simulator to make it capable to simulate special moving entities like pedestrians. cars and animals to be used in other research purposes like Robotics and Intelligent Transportation Systems. vol 2. A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research. Moshref. K. Wireless Communication & Mobile Computing (WCMC): Special issue on Mobile AdHoc Networking: Research. Tracy Camp. We are also working on a new software called Mobility Analyzer which can be used to analyze mobility traces and recognize their mobility patterns using learning based pattern recognition methods. Manoj. Chiang. E. Trends and Applications. in Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking(Mobicom98). D. Varadhan. 1998. Broch. no. 59--67.-C. “MobiSim: a Framework for Simulation of Mobility Models in Ad-Hoc Networks. Bettstetter and C. Networking and Communications (WiMob 2007) 0-7695-2889-9/07 $25. Elsevier Journal of Ad Hoc Networks. GI Lecture Notes in Informatics. M. J. S. Jetcheva. D. Estrin. [2] Third IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing. 2002. Melliar-Smith. [11] X. P. [3] Fan Bai. PhD thesis. Wireless Network Multicasting. Mousavi. Royer. McCanne.S. K. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS In this paper we introduced a powerful java based mobility simulator which can be used to generate mobility traces in various mobility models with customized configuration. May 2000. Yu. and J. Breslau. [8] C. 483-502. Los Angeles. [6] L. Helmy. H. June 2001. 5. pp. and L. S. Haas. R. Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols. Ahmed Helmy. This work was supported by Sharif Advanced Information and Communication Technology Center (AICTC) & Iran Telecommunication Research Center (ITRC). Johnson. P-11. August 1999. Xu. 33. University of California. 2002. The Important framework for analyzing the Impact of mobility on performance Of Routing Protocols for Adhoc Networks. Moser. The Spatial Node Distribution of the Random Waypoint Mobility Model. German Workshop on Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (WMAN). 2004. October 1998. G. User friendly graphical user interface can help the users view and analyze behavior of mobile nodes in each mobility model. Wagner. Pei. Finland.edu/~sm_mousavi/mobisim. Advances in network simulation. no. Predictive distance-based mobility management for PCS networks. For the future works we are working on the simulator to support more mobility models like: Obstacle. 41-58. D. A. Maltz. Chiang.sharif. Nomadic Community. 383-403. Narayanan Sadagopan. no 5. Gerla. Huang. pp. ACM Intern. “A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols”. Pathway. M. and H. [7] E. M. Hu. Rabiee. Floyd. Vanessa Davis. Prentice Hall. Pursue and other mobility models discussed in literature and also to propose new features for our implemented mobility models to make them more similar to motion behavior of real world mobile nodes.Dabirmoghaddam. Output traces of this simulator can be generated in plain Text and XML formats which can be easily used by different network simulators. B. [4] S. Ulm.Figure 16: Spatial Node Distribution in RPGM Mobility Model IV.html [5] J. An Analysis of the Optimum Node Density for Ad hoc Mobile Networks. A. pp. In Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM). This simulator can be used to generate mobility traces to be used in different network simulators which do not support mobility generation for mobile Ad-Hoc networks. and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM). REFERENCES [1] C. M. Workshop on Modeling. Analysis.

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