PROJECT REPORT ON

AUTOMATIC METAL MINE DETECTING VEHICLE WITH WIRELESS VIDEO CAMERA
CONTENTS
1. ABSTRACT 2. 3. 4. OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT WORK ROBOTICS INTRODUCTION 5. BLOCKDIAGRAM AND ITS BRIEF DESCRIPTION 6. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS 7. COMPLETE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 8. DETAILS ABOUT IR SENSORS 9. DETAILED DESCRIPTION ABOUT VIDEO CAMERAS 10. DETAILS ABOUT MICROCONTROLLERS 11. SOFTWARE DETAILS 12. HARDWARE DETAILS 13. FABRICATION DETAILS 14.CONCLUSIONS AND REFERENCES

AUTOMATIC METAL MINE DETECTING VEHICLE

ABSTRACT
Although many systems are available to detect the metal mines, involves man power to carry the metal detectors and it is very difficult to search the largest areas like forests and deserts. To cover the complete area, lot of time is required and the search parties some times they may have to spend weeks together in the sites, and due to this they may loose patience. Keeping all these things in view, we decided to develop one search vehicle for detecting the metal mines in largest areas. The vehicle is designed as driverless, so human involvement is avoided for searching the metal mines. Rover technology is implemented in the system to make it as autonomous; in this concept the vehicle itself is detecting the objects and taking suitable decisions to avoid collisions with objects on its way. Depending up on the position of the object that is in front and its position, the vehicle it self takes diversion to avoid collision with it and moves forward. The vehicle can move in all directions like automobile vehicle, in addition it can find pits and valleys to avoid falling into it. The metal detector circuit designed with induction coil is arranged below the vehicle, such that whenever it finds metal object, vehicle stops there and video camera rotates, which is arranged at the front side of the vehicle and surrounding images are captured and transmitted to the nearest observing station for identifying the area. The monitoring station at remote place is equipped with television set along with its video receiver. The vehicle is designed with three stepper motors and the Microcontroller unit depending up on the information received from the optical sensors controls these motors. Heavy-duty battery is used to drive entire system including motors.

CHAPTER – 1
OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT WORK IN DETAIL:
This project is aimed to detect the presence of any metallic mine in the field, it can detect the explosives or bombs also, which are positioned under the ground. Detecting these kind of explosives manually with ordinary handheld portable metal detectors is quite dangerous, because terrorists are designing these bombs with advanced technologies, these bombs can be exploded in many ways like through mobile phones, using timers, using pressure sensors, using remote control, etc, and the technology facilitates that the terrorist can blast these bombs from anywhere from the world. Some times, while searching for the explosives, all of sudden it may blast, which leads to major damages. To save the lives of our hero’s (those who are searching for the explosives, generally called as bomb squad or search party) we need a special kind of metal detectors, by which squad can stay away from the explosives. In this regard this project work is taken up, which functions the performance of mobile Robot to detect metal mine or to detect any explosives that contains metallic objects like nails, balls, sharp metal pieces, etc. The system can be designed in two ways; a) one huge vehicle with high speed can be constructed for out door applications like search in jungles or deserts, b) one small vehicle (miniature) can be constructed for indoor applications. Here for the demonstration purpose a prototype module is constructed for detecting the metal mines, with slight modifications the same vehicle can be used for both the applications. This vehicle is designed to detect the metal, where as it cannot defuse the bomb.

Now a days detecting mines has become big task and involves lot of expenditure both in terms of manpower and time to reduce the over heads on the man power and time consuming process a technique is evolved using

and one stepper motor is used to rotate the video camera to capture the visual images. This provision is not there in demo module. Since the vehicle is equipped with wire less video camera and the concept is autonomous. An automatic vehicle is designed which can use in the extreme field condition such as forests. With little modifications. The metal mine detecting vehicle is designed with two stepper motors to move the vehicle. which provides 5V dc for all electronic and IC circuits. Here the battery is charged through battery charger and the required DC source to charge the battery is derived from main supply. 4Kbytes of flash programmable memory. but for the real operating system it is essential that the vehicle body should be constructed with solar panels. it can be utilized for other purposes also. The stepper motors are meant for precise movement and high resolution and good amount of torque. A dedicated regulated power supply unit also incorporated in the project work. deserts. the same system can be used . 128 bytes of data memory five interrupts and optimized 111 instruction set is used in the project work which can receive the information of movement of vehicle. drive the stepper motors for left and right directions and to change the direction for reverse movement etc. vehicle can be used with optimum mileage. When the vehicle is roaming in the forest. A Microcontroller based on ATMEL 89C51 which is an 8.bit Microcontroller with 32 I/O lines configured as four ports.. we can identify the terrorist campaigns and movement of animals. open terrains and hillocks.electronic circuits comprising both hardware and software. Since the system utilizes the re-chargeable battery. In order to use in the field conditions a battery-backed unit is designed and this battery can be charged through solar energy.

which are in front of the vehicle. it not only detects the object also these can detect the pits as well as valleys. Since it is a prototype module we have arranged only four sets of sensors. Typical sensors for this kind of task include optical sensors. In this project work one set of sensors is used for detecting the pits and valleys. bushes. mountain terrains. right) and reverse direction and any drenches or pits. In this project work both are used. In addition to the optical sensors.. but for the real operation many more number of sensors can be used. Infra red sensors and high-resolution cameras. and other metallic ore. Four pairs of IR LED’s are used as optical sensors and all the four pairs are arranged at front side of the vehicle to detect the movement of vehicle in forward direction (left. The main goal of this project is to present a working solution for autonomous search navigation. Detecting obstacles implies an active perception of the environment. detecting the objects are main task. driven by the microcontroller detects the objects like trees. The Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV) designed with stepper motors. which is essential for a safe autonomous vehicle. These sensors act as Laser rangefinders have the great advantage of providing the information about the objects. stones etc.for defense applications as a security system to guard the military zones and other VIP zones. to be implemented in a vehicle for operation in forest. video camera is also used in this project work and the output of this camera is transmitted through the . the other three sets of sensors are used to detect the obstacles. The main advantage of using these optical sensors is. and they are supposed to be arranged in all the four sides of the vehicle. An exclusive sensor is used to detect the mines consisting of iron ore.

many engineers. as the holding torque of the motor is 5kg. a separate battery charger is deigned with a 12V step down transformer. heavy-duty stepper motors are used at rear side.5 AH maintenance free battery is used. and the vehicle wheels are directly coupled to the motor shafts. which continuously takes the pictures and sends through the built-in FM Transmitter.transmitter. the reluctance of the magnetic pick up coil changes and in turn produces a high output to the Micro controller and this gives an indication of the mine detection. the forest environments have enough peculiarities to make the proposed development project highly advanced. However. Two motors are used. A number of successful applications in agriculture and the mining industry. which carries the total electronic circuitry including camera is designed to operate at 12V DC. For this purpose 7. To drive the vehicle. have been demonstrated. Construction of Autonomous Ground Vehicles has been an intense research area for the last decade. It is reasonable to believe that similar solutions are relevant for a forest-based AGV. The video camera sends the pictures corresponding to that location through the built in Transmitter and the distant end Television receiver receives the information and displays the picture information for mining exploration. color or black and white television set can be used and the data obtained through the pictures can be analyzed. To charge the battery from 230 V AC Mains. and each motor is capable to drive up to 5kg loads. hence this camera can be called as wireless video camera. and full of challenging tasks for . The complete vehicle. To detect the metal mines a pick up coil energized through an oscillator is used as a metallic detector and whenever any metallic object is detected. At the receiving station. The camera used for the purpose is miniature. arranged at front side of the vehicle.

Nepal and Afghanistan etc. . Open terrains. Particularly these types of navigations at Sky level are very much required to locate terrorist camps in the bordering countries such as Pakistan and Bangla desh. Similarly. the tracking also can be done at the high altitudes also in areas such as Deserts.research. Mountain / Hillock terrains by using highresolution sensors so that it can cover long distances.

complete with its own computer (called the controller). Robots must never harm human beings. In the story. design. Robots must follow instructions from humans without violating rule 1. But most robots are controlled by computer. mechatronics. Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception. 2. . and operation of robots. Robots must protect themselves without violating the other rules.CHAPTER – 2 Robotics: Science-fiction author Isaac Asimov is often given credit for being the first person to use the term robotics in a short story composed in the 1940s. Asimov suggested three principles to guide the behavior of robots and smart machines. have survived to the present: 1. There are as many different types of robots as there are tasks for them to perform. An autonomous robot acts as a stand-alone system. Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics. with speed and precision. nanotechnology. computer Science. A robot can be controlled by a human operator. A robot is a machine designed to execute one or more tasks repeatedly. This field overlaps with electronics. and bioengineering. sometimes from a great distance. 3. as they are called. and fall into either of two categories: autonomous robots and insect robots. manufacture. The Czech word "robota" means "forced labor". artificial intelligence.

nonprogrammable. These machines can be stationary or mobile. and include features such as artificial intelligence. autonomous or insect type. and nanoscale size (physical dimensions on the order of nanometers. with sophisticated programming. speech recognition and/or synthesis. First-generation robots date from the 1970s and consist of stationary. . Some of the most esoteric and powerful robots do not look or behave anything like humans. Fourth-generation robots are in the research-and-development phase. Third-generation robots were developed between approximately 1990 and the present. and other advanced features. self-replication. or units of 10-9 meter). with all fleet members under the supervision of a single controller. usually moving around on wheels or a track drive. The ultimate in robotic intelligence and sophistication might take on forms yet to be imagined. Robots are sometimes grouped according to the time frame in which they were first widely used. Second-generation robots were developed in the 1980s and can contain sensors and programmable controllers. self assembly.Insect robots work in fleets ranging in number from a few to thousands. Androids are mobile. electromechanical devices without sensors. Some advanced robots are called androids because of their superficial resemblance to human beings.

Mechanical systems are most frequently used to clear large areas polluted by mines. A simple electro mechanical type of mobile robot is designed as Antipersonnel mine detecting vehicle. and tank-mounted sensors or similar vehicles are used. The Existence of large numbers of landmines poses a severe threat to human life in many areas throughout the world. too costly. considering the number of abandoned mines. minimum-metal content . The main drawback of purely mechanical de-mining is that no system can satisfy the desired 100% reliability of humanitarian de-mining. The need to detect plastic-cased. an urgent need exists to develop safe and efficient de-mining methods. all cleaned areas require manual verification. very slow. In addition another important design criterion is safety especially in mine fields were human beings have to take the risk of their lives to find and disable mines. The introduction of an operational vehicle resulting will be equally significant to de-mining. This is why our robot will be autonomous and will be equipped with mine detection to help the de-mining team locating them in a safer way. Thus. Consequently. and.CHAPTER . probes. This requirement represents a big challenge for robotic research.3 INTRODUCTION Current methods for detecting and removing mines are dangerous. At present mine detection and mine-clearance technology consists primarily of metal detectors. Some estimates of the total number of mines deployed are well above 100 million.

The dangerous nature of mines demands that each possible target is treated with extreme caution and this makes the clearance rate very slow. which can be Autonomous Navigation for Forest Machines. This arrangement is believed to simplify and speed up the development work significantly since the Micro controller provide lot of flexibility while writing the software and interfacing with the sensors. The general requirements and conditions for the development of such a product are addressed in this document. ultra violet & infrared detectors. The research work will deal with obstacle detection problems. They are typically between 50 and 100mm in diameter and contain little metal. This paper also focuses on one of the necessary components: autonomous navigation. . however. and other sensors are utilized to detect objects close to the vehicle. The underlying problem is that predominately plastic anti-personnel mines are extremely difficult to detect. which involves sensing and moving safely according to a fixed or changing plan in the environment of the vehicle.mines without significantly impairing mobility and damaging road surfaces. The suggested hardware solution will involve micro controller and the sensors are interfaced with controller. is not fully met by these types of systems. The detection and neutralization of buried landmines has become an increasingly important issue as military forces rely more than ever on increased mobility. where cameras. Another area of research is route navigation and control algorithm that take into account the specific problems involved in controlling a forest machine in a forest environment. including algorithms and hardware and software specifications for such a vehicle. This document is a pre-study for the project work Automatic Metal Mine Detecting Vehicle with Wireless Video Camera. which drives both the motors according to the received information from the sensors. The proposed project aims at developing a system design.

where existing technology is combined with innovative research results into a working product. In the military context.g. Control logic is often used to express complex behaviors in a compact and efficient way. i. Safety issues involve avoidance of accidents and damage to vehicles and environment. the action is a direct function of the sensor input. commonly used in modern robotics. by sensing the obstacles. The preliminary project plan takes the design. such as a forest. such as finding obstacles and Avoid obstacles. development and fabricating a proto type unit.e. An autonomous vehicle moving through a clustered environment. the focus is short-range sensing for full automation of vehicles. Vehicle driving has concentrated on forwardlooking sensing. selected and prepared in collaboration with the customer / navigation agencies. This vehicle can also be called as a robot and this robot will also be important for speeding up and simplifying the development. The vehicle’s tasks are defined as behaviors. The suggested software solution involves a behavior-based architecture. may need to move between objects (e. Besides pure research. which can be called as prototype module of the system will be installed and demonstrated on a smaller vehicle.The software and hardware will be installed in a standard vehicle. These problems will be given the highest priority in the project. but real deployment of mobile vehicles will require additional sensing and reasoning to surround the vehicle with safeguard sensors and systems. A first version. Each of these behaviors is specified separately and works essentially reflexively. trees) with very little clearance on either side of the vehicle. This is an appropriate first step. . the project also involves a lot of engineering work.

CHAPTER-4 BLOCKDIAGRAM AND ITS BRIEF DESCRIPTION .

. Right and Center directions. the radiating signal will be spread in the air because of the object. the controller controls the stepper motors in all directions i. and also it generates tone frequency. three different 567 IC’s are used. For identifying the obstacles 3 sets of sensors are used. Right. which is also energized through Micro controller. The amplified signal is radiated through the transmitting IR LED. one more stepper Motor is used. Similarly for detecting the pit or valleys another set of IR sensors are used.The Block diagram of Automatic Metal Mine Detecting Vehicle with Wireless Video Camera consists of Obstacle Sensing circuits Designed with IR Sensors. Front and Back. On receipt of optical signal. this signal is tracked by the another IR LED which is called as optical signal sensor. Left. To rotate the movement of Video Camera. The obstacle sensing block is designed with LM567 IC. which produces a perfect square wave of 10 KHz approximately and it is amplified using a transistor. In addition.e. The Micro controller 89C51 is used for this purpose in this project work. Each sensing block is designed with two IR LEDs. All these four sets of sensors are arranged at front side of the vehicle in four different positions. This coil is energized through a low frequency Oscillator . Both the sensors are arranged side by side with in half-inch distance. whenever this signal is interrupted by an object. the tone decoder part of the IC detects the signal through the optical sensor and generates a high signal for the micro controller. The signal delivered by the IR LED transmits in a line like LASER beam. according to the received information from the sensors. this is a tone decoder IC. Namely transmitting LED and receiving LED. The tone generator part of the IC is configured as astable mode of operation. to detect the Mines consisting various metals a magnetic pick up coil is used. For detecting the direction of search vehicle in Left. Like wise the controller is getting signals from the four sensing blocks.

Here the receiver is connected to micorcontroller. a battery charging facility is also incorporated with Battery charger comprising a step down transformer. The actual theory is “Collision avoidance theory”. When object obstacles in that range the IR beam will be reflected back and the Receiver will absolve it. Infrared reflex sensors are most typically used for distance measurements by transmitting a modulated infrared light pulse and measuring the intensity of the reflection from obstacles nearby. The signals received from the Video Camera according to the position set by the Stepper MICRO-CONTROLLER . Full wave rectifier and a series voltage regulator. A new kind of IR sensors having the range is installed. In practice.and whenever any metal mine is detected it opposes the magnetic flux produced by the Magnetic coil and the current flowing in the coil will be reduced. The information detected by the Video camera according to the position detected by the Mining detector will be transmitted using AM transmitter to the distant end for analysis. not for range measurements. The circuit will detect this reduction of current and it gives the detected information to Micro Controller in the form of Logic signal. Since the search vehicle is equipped with 12V battery. . infrared sensors can only be used for detection of objects. At the distant end TV receiver is used which receives the Video information. Using range-finding sensors developed this theory.

Microcontrollers are frequently used in automatically controlled products and devices. such as automobile engine control systems. Power consumption while sleeping may be just nano watts. Typically this includes a CPU. Micro-controller unit is constructed with ATMEL 89C51 Micro-controller chip. memory for data . These include a CPU core. The received information from the optical sensors fed to micro-controller. and toys. which clearly defined the four basic components required for an embedded system. and input/output interfaces. office machines. such as flash for code storage. and will generally have the ability to sleep while waiting for an interesting peripheral event such as a button press to wake them up again to do something. power tools. read-only memory. but this is adequate for typical applications. some form of ROM. appliances. the microcontroller typically integrates additional elements such as read-write memory for data storage. EEPROM for permanent data storage. The ATMEL AT89C51 is a low power. I/O ports. memory for the program (ROM or Flash memory). microcontrollers often operate at very low speed compared to modern day microprocessors. making them ideal for low power and long lasting battery applications. At clock speeds of as little as a few MHz or even lower. Microcontroller works according to the program written in it. They consume relatively little power (mill watts). peripheral devices. and timers In addition to the usual arithmetic and logic elements of a general purpose microprocessor.A highly integrated chip that contains all the components comprising a controller. RAM. higher performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). for storing as well as controlling stepper motors. Most microcontrollers today are based on the Harvard architecture. remote controls.

Recent microcontrollers integrated with on-chip debug circuit accessed by In-circuit emulator via JTAG (Joint Text Action Group) enables a programmer to debug the software of an embedded system with a debugger. A microcontroller differs from a general-purpose CPU chip in that the former generally is quite easy to make into a working computer. BASIC is a common choice. all that is needed is some control software and a timing crystal (though some even have internal RC clocks). More recently. a typical microcontroller will have a built in clock generator and a small amount of RAM and ROM (or EPROM or EEPROM). Microcontrollers will also usually have a variety of input/output devices. with a minimum of external support chips.(RAM). UARTs or specialized serial communications interfaces like I²C. some microcontrollers have begun to include a built-in high-level programming language interpreter for greater ease of use. Serial Peripheral Interface and Controller Area Network. Often these integrated devices can be controlled by specialized processor instructions. however. as well as I/O lines to communicate with external peripherals and complementary resources — all this in a single integrated circuit. The idea is that the microcontroller will be placed in the device to control. microcontrollers were only programmed in assembly language. Originally. Microcontrollers trade away speed and flexibility to gain ease of equipment design and low cost. For instance. and is used in the popular BASIC Stamp MCUs (Master Control Unit). and that's that. one or more timers (customizable ones and watchdog timers). hooked up to power and any information it needs. Stepper Motor Drive Circuit . or later in C code. meaning that to make it work. timers. such as analog-to-digital converters.

utilized in many applications such as disk drives. Varying the pulse rate can vary the speed of the motor.9o. The pulses are produced by the controller can be controlled through the program by which motor speed can be varied. and 30o. 1. robots. machine tools. recorders. ABOUT STEPPER MOTOR The stepper Motor used in this project work is indigenous one. the rotor may rotate clockwise (CW) or counter clockwise (CCW). These motors are design to operate indefinitely with DC voltage applied to one or more fields in order to hold the rotor in a fixed position.The output of the microcontroller is used to drive the stepper motor through drive circuit. automobiles. a stepper motor may be operated in an open loop system. and the motor used in this project work is having four windings.6o. 3. Typical step angles are 0. The stepper motor used in this project work is capable to drive up to 5kg load. Stepper motors are designed to . This motor rotates in step wise and the step angle is 1. The rotor will rotate in discrete steps when the fields are energized in a specific sequence. printers. The rotor is made to rotate by means of electronically commutating (switching) the current in the field windings. copiers. and medical equipment for its ease of use. The most common stepper motors have multiple field windings and a permanent magnet rotor. plotters.8o. 15o. Depending upon the sequence. fax machines. Stepper motors are frequently applied to problems that require precision positioning without rotor position feedback. Since each input change causes exactly one step rotation. 7. scanners. therefore the controller drives the motor through four outputs. It does not have the accuracy or the response speed of a dc motor. which is an easy and reliable device to convert electrical energy into mechanical motion.5o.80. The stepper motor windings are energized one after another in a sequence according to the code produced by the controller through motor drive circuit. It is. however.

During full stepping. When the LDR is exposed to the light intensity. the resistance of the LDR will become less than 1KΩ and makes the voltage at comparator input less than 1/3Vcc which in turn triggers the timer IC and generates a high signal at its output (Pin No. Two lamps are provided at the front side of the vehicle and these lamps energized through the relay contact. When the IC is triggered relay will be energized automatically.8-degree stepper motor. the rotor will rotate 0. whenever the natural light disappears. Stepper motors have multiple stepping modes. The rotor now rotates only half the designed angular rotation per half step. when the relay energized closed . A 1. Micro stepping requires extremely complex field current switching and allows an infinitely small rotation. Micro stepping is beyond the scope of this experiment. The timer IC configured as Schmitt trigger mode of operation triggers at 1/3Vcc. this relay contact is used to provide supply to the lamps. TRIGGER CIRCUIT BLOCK This block is designed with 555 timer IC and an LDR is used as a lightsensing device. The idea of building this block is to energize the vehicle headlamps automatically.rotate a fixed number of degrees with each step. full stepping.8-degree stepper motor requires 200 steps for the rotor to make a full revolution.8 degrees for example) each step. The chief advantage of half stepping is higher position control precision. For this purpose normally closed contact is used. the same is wired with timer IC. the rotor rotates the designed angular distance (1. For a 1. halfstepping and micro stepping.3).9 degrees for each half-step thus requiring 400 half steps for the rotor to make a full revolution. Half stepping is achieved on the same stepper motor by using an 8-state sequence.

V transmitter. which is used to form a permanent link between the transmitter and receiver.contact becomes open and breaks the supply to the lamps. The radiating power of the transmitter is less than 20mw. At the receiving end. the resistance of the LDR will become more than 500K. When the relay remains in de-energized condition. The carrier is designed for transmitting the picture details. Hence these lamps energized automatically when the natural light disappears. which in turn comparator input voltage increases more 2/3Vcc. When the natural light disappears. This is an amplitude modulated T. The block diagram of simplified block & white TV receiver shown below . TRANSMITTER The output of the video camera is fed to transmitter as modulating waves and these waves are super imposed over the carrier and transmitted as modulated waves. there by the relay remains in de-energized condition. a small television set of 4” screen is used. The transmitter circuit generates a continuous frequency of 100MHz approximately. and this is known as carrier frequency. The output of video camera is fed to this carrier input as a modulating wave. so that the range between transmitter and receiver can be less than 25 feet. normally closed contact remains in closed condition and provides supply to the lamps.

Here the two signals are separated and fed to their respective channels. The frequency modulated audio signal is The glass envelope Light is contains and electron-gun structure that produces a beam of electrons aimed at When the electron beam strikes the screen. which converts the electrical signal back into picture elements of the same degree of black and white. A pair of deflecting coils mounted on the neck of picture tube in the same way as the beam of camera tube scans the target plate deflects the . This signal that carries picture information is amplified and coupled to the picture tube.In above block diagram. the fluorescent screen. The output from the last IF stage is de-modulated to recover the video signal. beam. the receiving antenna intercepts radiated RF signals and the turner selects desired channels frequency band and converts it to common IF band of frequencies. The receiver employs two or three stages of IF amplifiers. emitted. The path of sound signals is common with the picture signal from antenna to video detector section of the receiver. The picture tube is very similar to the cathode-ray tube used in an oscilloscope.

whenever any metallic object brought very near to the pick up coil frequency will be disturbed due to the magnetic flux produced by the coil. Means. whenever the metal is brought near the pick up coil. converted this difference into logic level. The output of this voltage comparator is fed to Microcontroller and whenever it receives logic high signal. this is a quad 2 input NAND gate IC. This difference is monitored continuously and with the help of a op-amp configured as voltage comparator. Due to these changes. this pick up coil is used as metal detector. In normal condition the circuit output remains in constant state.demodulated after at least one stage of amplification. voltage variations are observed at final output and this distorted DC voltage is compared with op-amp. which in turn vehicle stops at particular location for indicating that there is a metal dump just before the vehicle. This changes in the circuit to generate logic high signal at final output through the NAND gate.5 volts. Depending up on the difference a comparator output remains in a perfect logic level. This IC is configured as low frequency oscillator. when the circuit is interrupted due to the metal. heavy noise will be produced by the circuit. which is having 4 NAND gates inside. In normal condition 2 volts can be obtained from the final output. BD Chapter-5 Acrobat reader . which can be placed below the vehicle. which makes reduction in the voltage. The audio output from the FM detector is given due amplification before feeding it to the loudspeaker. the final output falls from 2 volts to 1. it stops producing pulses to the stepper motor. designed with pick up coil. METAL DETECTOR BLOCK The metal detector circuit is designed with CD 4011 IC. either 0 or 1.

machines. the higher the probability of detection. These are the: 1) amount and pattern of emitted energy. Applications include automobiles. 5) direction of movement and 6) reflection/absorption characteristics of the energy waves by the intruder and the environment (e. the better. and the faster the movement of the intruder/object. although to varying degrees.7 DETAILS ABOUT I R SENSOR INTRODUCTION A sensor is a type of transducer which uses one type of energy. aerospace. and robotics. or wooded). DETECTION FACTORS Six factors typically affect the Probability of Detection (Pd) of most area surveillance (volumetric) sensors. and converts it into a reading for the purpose of information transfer. A lateral movement that is fast typically has a higher probability of detection than a slow . shorter the distance from the sensor to the intruder/object. industry.Chapter-6 Acrobat reader CHAPTER . Likewise. shrubbery. open area. the larger the intruder/moving object the higher the probability of detection. a signal of some sort. Similarly. 2) size of the object. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. straight-on movement.g. 3) distance to the object. medicine. Theoretically. the more definitive the energy pattern. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. 4) speed of the object.

although technically. which exhibits a low FAR and a high PD and is not susceptible to defeat. typical measures used to defeat or circumvent the sensor). False Alarm Rate indicates the expected rate of occurrence of alarms high is not attributable to intrusion activity. "false alarms" and "nuisance alarms" are included under the overall term "False Alarm Rate". CHAPTER-8 Detailed Description about Video Cameras . For purposes of this Handbook. A major goal of the security planner is to field an integrated Intrusion Detection System (IDS). the method of installation and adjustment. False Alarm Rate (FAR). but also the environment.PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS: In the process of evaluating individual intrusion detection sensors. and Vulnerability to Defeat (i. there is a distinction between the two terms.e. there are at least three performance characteristics which should be considered: Probability of Detection (PD). Probability of Detection provides an indication of sensor performance in detecting movement within a zone covered by the sensor. and the assumed behavior of an intruder. Probability of detection involves not only the characteristics of the sensor.

which produces electrical energy from light energy. composite video signal.e. For in-home use power for operating the camera can be obtained from the AC power line by using an . At the TV broadcasting station the The composite video signal is loaded on to a carrier wave so as to be able to cover the distance between the station and all the receivers tuned to it. must be This is handled by the converter section of the VCR. the video camera produces the equivalent of an NTSC (National Television Standards Committee) signal.. whichever frequency is used by the converter A video camera can be used indoors or out. recorded on videotape by the VCR accompanying the camera. supplying a carrier wave whose frequency is that of either channel 3 or channel 4. There is one exception. In short. the same sort of signal that is generated by a television broadcasting station. But that missing factor. I.The video camera is a kind of transducer. can be sent into the TV receiver via its antenna terminals. There are two basic types of video cameras: monochrome (Black and White) and color. Video converting the complete spectrum of visible light into electrical frequencies. Monochrome cameras are lower in price. The video camera not only converts the light reflected from a scene into an analogous video voltage. but color is more realistic. Thus the composite video signal. now complete with a carrier. Both have advantages and both are desirable. All that is required of the TV set is that it’s tuner be adjusted to the frequency of the carrier that is. either the frequency of channel 3 or channel 4. the input to the video camera is light energy and this light energy is converted into electrical signals. though. the carrier wave. introduced. but it also supplies the necessary sync and blanking pulses to go along with it. can be inserted into the in-home VCR for reproduction on the television screen.

6 watts approximately with its auto focus in the manual position. it has been a board camera. The camera used in this project work is known as Board camera and the weight of this camera is less than 200 grams. It takes battery power to make use of cameras automatic features. FOCAL LENGTH In a film camera focal length is the distance from the optical center of the lens to the film. CAMERA OPTICS As in motion picture film cameras. This camera should not be used for outside use. The camera used in this project work is designed to operate 12V DC.adaptor or the battery pack. Though it is very small. the wires are very sensitive to damage. wall clock or smoke detector. the details along with the picture is as follows "Board" Camera The "Board" camera is an entire camera on a single TINY circuit board. The trend in video camera design is to produce cameras that are as lightweight and as compact as possible. Anytime you have ever seen someone with a camera hidden in a teddy bear. . A short focal length means light inside the camera. as an additional piece of equipment. The details of the Board camera collected from Internet. Thus a camera could need 7. The amount of power used by a camera is least when various camera functions are manually operated. whether film or video. the optics represent the most important part of the camera and this includes the lens or the lens system and the viewfinder. and perfect for hiddencamera applications. In a video camera it is the distance between the optical center of the lens and the target area of the picture tube. has a shorter distance to travel.

Focal length is measured in millimeters (mm) and is supplied as a range. But it is another matter if the camera is being operated outdoors and must rely on batteries for power. This doesn’t sound like much and it is not if the camera is being used indoors and is connected to an outlet supplying 230 volts AC. changed to 12 volts DC by a converter.and so less light is lost.5 watts DC. Under such conditions a camera having the smallest power requirement would be the most desirable one if this were the only feature being considered. hence the attractiveness of keeping the focal length as short as possible. The video camera used in our project work is arranged over a revolving disk. Chapter-9 (Acrobat reader) . OPERATING POWER The operating power requirements of a video camera are approximately 6 to 8. naturally 12V battery pack must be provided over the disk to drive the camera.

CHAPTER-10 PK1 PK2 ONOFF MOVFOR PK3 PK4 BIT BIT BIT 00h 01h 02H 03H BIT BIT BIT 04H 05H DATA DATA DATA 30H 31H 32H 33H 34H 35H 36H 37H 38H STEP_CNTL STEP_CNTR LAST_POS DIR_CON DLY_REG1 DLY_REG2 DLY_REG3 INT_DLY1 INT_DLY2 DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA .

TRK_DLY1 TRK_DLY2 STEP_CNTL1 STEP_CNTR1 LAST_POS1 COUNT COUNT1 INT_DLYZ STEP_CNTLZ INT_DLYZ1 STEP_CNTRZ COUNTAZ COUNTAZY STEP_CNTLX STEP_CNTLXY ORG ljmp DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA 39H 3AH 3BH 3CH 3DH 3EH 3FH 40H 41H 42H 43H 44H 45H 46H 47H DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA 0000H RESET .

ORG push push 000BH ACC PSW lcall WHEEL_LEFT pop pop reti PSW ACC ORG push push 001BH ACC PSW lcall WHEEL_RIGHT pop pop reti PSW ACC .

#7FH DLY_REG1. #7FH TH1.#0FH p2. #0FFH P3. #0FFH DLY_REG2. #00h STEP_CNTR.RESET: mov MOV mov mov mov mov mov mov mov setb setb mov mov mov mov mov mov P1. #0FFH . #8AH TR0 TR1 TH0. #22H IE. #0400H STEP_CNTL. #7FH TL1.#00h SP. #00h TMOD. #60H DPTR. #7FH TL0.

#11H . #00H CLR ONOFF mov mov STEP_CNTL1.NOINTP MOV P2.mov mov mov mov DLY_REG3. #00h STEP_CNTR1. #24H DIR_CON.#00H MOV COUNT1. #00H TRK_DLY2.2.#00H CLR PK1 CLR PK2 CLR PK3 CLR PK4 clr onoff CLR MOVFOR lcall dddelay MAIN: JB P3. #00h MOV COUNT. #00H TRK_DLY1.

CLR MOVFOR CLR ONOFF CLR PK1 CLR PK2 CLR PK3 CLR PK4 LCALL DDDELAY MOV P2.#00H LCALL SIDES LCALL DDDELAY LCALL LLFT .#11H LCALL DDDELAY MOV P2.#00H LCALL DDDELAY SETB ONOFF LCALL DDDELAY CLR ONOFF MOV P2.

#05h.2 NOINTP: mov a.run .LCALL DDDELAY LCALL RRFT LCALL DDDELAY LCALL LLFT LCALL DDDELAY LCALL RRFT LCALL DDDELAY LCALL SIDE LCALL DDDELAY MOV P3.#0fh cjne a.#0FH LCALL DDELAY SETB PK2 LCALL DDELAY CLR PK2 SETB P3.p1 anl a.

#06h.go: CLR MOVFOR CLR PK1 CLR PK2 CLR PK3 CLR PK4 SETB ONOFF LCALL DDELAY CLR ONOFF CLR PK3 CLR PK4 SETB PK1 CLR PK2 LCALL DDELAY ljmp main RUN: cjne a.run1 SETB PK3 CLR ONOFF CLR MOVFOR .

run3 CLR MOVFOR CLR PK1 CLR PK2 .run2 CLR ONOFF CLR MOVFOR CLR PK3 CLR PK2 CLR PK1 SETB PK4 LCALL DLYS LJMP MAIN RUN2: cjne a.#0fh.CLR PK1 CLR PK2 CLR PK4 LCALL DLYS ljmp main RUN1: cjne a.#03h.

CLR PK3 CLR PK4 SETB ONOFF LCALL DDELAY CLR ONOFF SETB PK2 CLR PK3 CLR PK1 CLR PK4 LCALL DDELAY ljmp main run3: cjne a.#07h.run4 SETB MOVFOR CLR PK3 CLR PK4 CLR PK1 CLR PK2 .

#0Bh.#0Ah.#00h.#04h.run11 ljmp go run11: cjne a.run6 ljmp go run6: cjne a.#02h.CLR ONOFF ljmp main run4: cjne a.run9 ljmp go run9: cjne a.#09h.run12 ljmp go .run8 ljmp go run8: cjne a.#01h.run10 ljmp go run10: cjne a.run7 ljmp go run7: cjne a.run5 ljmp go run5: cjne a.#08h.

run12: cjne a,#0Ch,run13 ljmp go run13: cjne a,#0Dh,run14 ljmp go run14: cjne a,#0Eh,run15 ljmp go run15: LJMP MAIN

WHEEL_LEFT:JB ONOFF,TOP

JB MOVFOR,TOP3

ret TOP: JNB ONOFF,NOTCH21

inc mov

COUNT A, COUNT

cjne mov

A, #3FH, NOTCH21 COUNT, #00H

MOV DPTR,#0800H mov movc mov inc mov cjne mov A, STEP_CNTL1 A, @A+dptr P2,A STEP_CNTL1 A, STEP_CNTL1 A, #08h, NOTCH21 STEP_CNTL1, #00h

NOTCH21: RET TOP3: JNB MOVFOR,NOTCH311 inc mov cjne mov COUNT1 A, COUNT1 A, #3FH, NOTCH311 COUNT1, #00H

MOV DPTR,#0800H

mov add movc mov inc mov add cjne

A, STEP_CNTR1 A, #08H A, @A+dptr P2,A STEP_CNTR1 A, STEP_CNTR1 A, #08H A, #10h, NOTCH311 mov STEP_CNTR1, #00h

NOTCH311: RET

WHEEL_RIGHT:jb pk1,run21

jb pk2,run31

jb pk3,run71

run81 ret run21: jnb inc mov cjne mov MOV mov movc mov inc mov cjne pk1. STOP_FORW INT_DLY2 A. #00H DPTR. STEP_CNTL A.A STEP_CNTL A. STEP_CNTL A. #3FH. #00h .#0400H A. INT_DLY2 A. NOTCH2 mov NOTCH2: STEP_CNTL. @A+dptr P2. #08h.jb pk4. SKIP_INT0 INT_DLY2.

#1FH. SKIP_IT0 INT_DLYZ.A STEP_CNTLZ A. #08h. NOTCH2Z . @A+dptr P2. STEP_CNTLZ A.#0A00H A. INT_DLYZ A.ljmp SKIP_INT0 STOP_FORW: SKIP_INT0: ret run71: jnb inc mov cjne mov MOV mov movc mov inc mov cjne pk3. STEP_CNTLZ A. STOP_FOW INT_DLYZ A. #00H DPTR.

#3FH. @A+dptr P2.#0400H mov add movc mov inc A.mov NOTCH2Z: ljmp STEP_CNTLZ.A STEP_CNTR . STEP_CNTR A. #00h SKIP_IT0 STOP_FOW: SKIP_IT0: ret run31: jnb inc mov cjne mov pk2. SKIP_INT1 INT_DLY1. STOP_REVW INT_DLY1 A. #00H MOV DPTR. INT_DLY1 A. #08H A.

mov add cjne A. #00H MOV DPTR. #08H A. STOP_REVWZ INT_DLYZ1 A. SKIP_INTZ1 INT_DLYZ1. STEP_CNTRZ A. #10h. #00h NOTCH3: ljmp SKIP_INT1 STOP_REVW: SKIP_INT1: ret run81: jnb inc mov cjne mov pk4. NOTCH3 mov STEP_CNTR. #08H . INT_DLYZ1 A. #1FH. STEP_CNTR A.#0A00H mov add A.

@A+dptr P2. #08H A. #10h.A STEP_CNTRZ A. #00h SKIP_INTZ1 STOP_REVWZ: SKIP_INTZ1: ret SIDE: mov MOV SIDE1: mov movc STEP_CNTLX. STEP_CNTLX A.#0C00H A. @A+dptr . #00h DPTR. STEP_CNTRZ A.movc mov inc mov add cjne A. NOTCH3Z mov NOTCH3Z: ljmp STEP_CNTRZ.

A LCALL DELAY .mov P3.#08H.COUNTAZ A. #08h. @A+dptr P3.#00H SIDES1: mov movc mov A.SIDE COUNTAZ. SIDE1 STEP_CNTLX. STEP_CNTLX STEP_CNTLX A. #00h DPTR. #00h COUNTAZ A. STEP_CNTLX A.A LCALL DELAY inc mov cjne mov INC MOV CJNE MOV RET SIDES: mov MOV STEP_CNTLX.#0C20H A.

SIDES1 STEP_CNTLX.A LCALL DELAY inc mov STEP_CNTLX A. #08h. @A+dptr P3.inc mov cjne mov INC STEP_CNTLX A.#0C00H A.COUNTAZ A.#08H. STEP_CNTLX A. STEP_CNTLX . #00h COUNTAZ A. STEP_CNTLX A.SIDES COUNTAZ. #00h DPTR.#00H MOV CJNE MOV RET LLFT: mov MOV LLFT1: mov movc mov STEP_CNTLX.

#00h COUNTAZ A. STEP_CNTLX A.#0EH.#00H CJNE MOV RET RRFT: mov MOV STEP_CNTLX. STEP_CNTLX RRFT1: mov movc mov A.#0C20H A. @A+dptr P3.A LCALL DELAY inc mov cjne STEP_CNTLX A.cjne mov INC MOV A.LLFT COUNTAZ. #00h DPTR. LLFT1 STEP_CNTLX.COUNTAZ A. #08h. #08h. RRFT1 .

#50 Zz11: MOV R6.#0EH.#70 Zz2: MOV R5.#70 Zz1: MOV R6.#50 .RRFT COUNTAZ.2.#00H ddelay: MOV R4.> dddelay: MOV R4.Zz2 NOINTP2:RET . #00h COUNTAZ A.#50 Zz21: MOV R5.mov INC MOV CJNE MOV RET STEP_CNTLX.NOINTP2 DJNZ R6.TRGU DJNZ R5.#70 TRGU: JNB P3.Zz1 DJNZ R4.COUNTAZ A.

#10H .#5 GZz2: MOV R5.$ DJNZ R5.#10H GZz2C: MOV R5.GZz2 RET DELAY: MOV R4.#10H GZz1C: MOV R6.Zz11 DJNZ R4.#3 DJNZ R6.#4 GZz1: MOV R6.GZz1 DJNZ R4.Zz21 RET DLYS: MOV R4.DJNZ R6.$ DJNZ R5.

GZz1C DJNZ R4.$ RET ORG STEP_M2: db db db db db db db 0400H 0a1h 61h 51h 91h 0a1h 61h 51h .#6FH DJNZ R4.$ DJNZ R5.GZz2C RET SDELAY: MOV R4.DJNZ R6.

> ORG 91h 19h 15h 16h 1ah 19h 15h 16h 1ah 0800H STEP_M21: db db db db db 9ah 56h 65h 0a9h 9ah .db STEP_M3: db db db db db db db db .

db db db STEP_M31: db db db db db db db db 56h 65h 0a9h 0a9h 65h 56h 9ah 0a9h 65h 56h 9ah ORG STEPF_M2: db db db 0A00H 0a1h 61h 51h .

db db db db db STEPF_M3: db db db db db db db db 91h 0a1h 61h 51h 91h 19h 15h 16h 1ah 19h 15h 16h 1ah ORG 0C00H .

db db db db db db db db 9Fh 5Fh 6Fh 0AFh 9Fh 5Fh 6Fh 0AFh ORG 0C20H db db db db db db db 0AFh 6Fh 5Fh 9Fh 0AFh 6Fh 5Fh .

The details or data sheets of . procured from the Hyderabad Electronics Market.db 9Fh END CHAPTER – 11 HARDWARE DETAILS The IC’s and other important components used in this project work.

com The following are the IC’s and other important components used in this project work (1) 89C51 Microcontroller Chip (2) IRZ44 International Rectifier (3) 555 Timer IC (4) LM 567C Tone Decoder IC (5) Voltage Regulator (6) BC 547 NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor (7) Relay (8) Stepper Motor (9) LDR (10) CD 4011 The required PCB’S (Printed Circuit boards) for the project work fabricated by COSMIC CIRCUITS. Kushaiguda Industrial Estate is very famous for fabricating the Industrial grade PCB’s. www.com 2. CHAPTER-12 IN ACROBAT READER CHAPTER . Fairchild semiconductors. www.the IC’s are down loaded from the Internet. The project . National semiconductors. only approximate 1 day later with the finished design than we planned.17 CONCLUSIONS & REFERENCES The Project elapsed great.com 3. Kushaiguda Industrial Estate. Hyderabad. The following are the web sites that can be browsed for collecting the data sheets. the timetable was almost true. www. Texas Instruments. 1.

Actually it ended up with almost 2 different working detectors. But since it is an analogue project I decided to describe the second detector also. As we have less time we have performed using some detectors. But if the knowledge of designing circuits and build circuit was almost at the same level in the group. but after some hour’s work. development and fabrication of the project work “Autonomous Search Vehicle using Wireless Video Camera” (1). We tried to make another detector to see if it could be more sensitive. Our advice to juniors that this project can be implemented by you with lots of modifications. REFERENCES: The following are the references made during design. we had another horse to carry on with. the time used to make the product could be reduced.was a little more difficult than I expected from the beginning. Our team worked out the project without big conflicts. and if the first failed. After a little time more we got the detector part to work so it was sensitive enough. I was almost quitting the idea. the second wasn’t finished when we need to stop and finish the report. I mean one in the group maybe would have gained more if he had joined the basic level. you try with some other detector and make this project more extraordinary. and no positive result. but already when we got the assignment I had an idea to solve the problem. The frequency detector was mounted and it worked great even the average part. Basic electronics By: GROB .

. (13). Thomas A. Electronics for you Monthly Magazine In addition to the above books. BySi98] Byrne..” CMU-RI-TR-98-14. Klafter. WILLIAMS (7). Mechatronics – Electronic Control Systems in Mechanical and electrical Engineering – By: W.V. sam Shanmugam (11) Digital Electronics. Chmiclewski. 1999.By: Raj Kamal (10) Digital and Analog Communication System By: K.CARR “ “ (12). Carnegie Mellon University. Elector India “ “ By JOSEPH J.CARR (4) The 8051 Micro-controller Architecture. MIT Press. most of the information collected from the Internet. Robotic Engineering an Integrated Approach By: Richard D. Ayala (5) Mechanism and Machine Theory By: J. R.(2). R. and Michael Negin (8) Programming and Customizing the 8051 Micro-controller By: Myke Predko (9) The concepts and Features of Micro-controllers .S. The following are the references. 1998. Rao.Singh.”Precise Image Segmentation for Forest Inventory. Dukkipati (6) Practical transistor circuit design and analysis By: GERALD E.” Arkin. Practical Electronics (14). J. programming & Applications By: Kenneth J. Bolton (3) Electronic Circuit guide book – Sensors – By JOSEPH J. ISBN 0-262-01165-4 . S. [Arki99] “Behavior-Based Robotics..

.. Tokyo. September 1993. “Fuzzy Logic Techniques for “Autonomous Vehicle Navigation. E. Conf.” Springer-Verlag [DuJe00] Dudek. Intl.. D. Alami.” 10(3):170-178.. USA. T. C.” Cambridge University Press. Conf. thesis. [HeKr93] Hebert. J. R. G. Intl.Road Vehicles Under Physical Interaction Constraints.” International Journal of Robotics Research.[Clar99]. on Field and Service Robotics.. August.· . "Motion Planning for an All-Terrain Autonomous Vehicle. [ChAl93] Chatila. 2000. Goh. 1995. M. November 1993. Saffiotti. Clark. p69. Jenkin.. Lacroix. pp. Ibanez-Guzman. S. 91-96. Japan. ”Motion Planning of Autonomous Off. M. “An autonomous Guided Vehicle for Cargo handling.” In Proc. C. [DrSa01] Driankov. Conf. M. (Eds). Laugier.. M. 1999. Advanced Robotics. “Planet Exploration by Robots: From Mission Planning to Autonomous Navigation. Nagoya. H. “3-D Measurements from Imaging Laser Radars.. Japan. Krotkov. Antibes. 1999. Proust. R.D. pp. PA. The University of Sydney January. [ChIb99] Cherif.. J. S. [Durr91] Durrant-Whyte.”Autonomous Land Vehicle Navigation Using Millimetre Wave Radar." Int.. [ChLa95] Cherif. France. Perret..” Ph. 1991. 1687-1693. A. April 1992. C. “Computational Principles of Mobile Robotics. J...'' IEEE Int.. Laugier... Pittsburgh. Image and Vision Computing. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA). 15(5) pages 407-440.