QoS Issues in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

Ad-Hoc wireless network consist of mobile nodes interconnected by mobile communication paths. Ad-Hoc network have no fix infrastructure or administrative support. The network topology will changes dynamically when mobile nodes move one place to other place or join or depart from radio link. In this article we mostly focus on QoS routing. It is complete and difficult issue network have dynamically change in nature. The Ad-Hoc wireless network provide unique benefits for certain environment and certain Application, No need fixed infrastructure include base station and they can create and used "Anytime , Anywhere" . Early day Police, Military and rescue agencies use this network. In recent home or some small office use this network to collaborative computing with a laptop in small area. so many challenges must be overcome to realize practical benefit of Ad-Hoc networking i.e effective Routing, Bandwidth Management, Power Management, Mobility Management, Quality of Services(QoS) issues . The absent of Fixed infrastructure means the node of Ad-Hoc network communicate directly with one another in a peer-to-peer fashion. The Mobility of these nodes imposes limitations on their power Capacity. The lack-of fixed based station in Ad-Hoc network and there is no agency to manage the channel sources so we are care-full about mechanism to recover inevitable packet collision instead of designed medium access techniques. AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

Figure 1 depicts the peer-level multihop representation of an ad hoc network. Mobile node A communicates with another such node B directly (single-hop) whenever a radio channel with adequate propagation characteristics is available between them. Otherwise, multihop communication is necessary where one or more intermediate nodes must act as a relay (router) between the communicating nodes. For example, there is no direct radio channel (shown by the lines) between A and C or A and E in Fig. 1. Nodes B and D must serve as an intermediate router for communication between A and C, and A and E, respectively. Indeed, a distinguishing feature of ad hoc networks is that all nodes must be able to function as routers on demand.

Identification and reservation ingredient of QoS. QoS Routing in Ad-Hoc Network In the Previous section we assume that each node carries unique identity to recognizable within the network. The first essential task is to find suitable path between source and destination. Three different route finding techniques are used to determining an optional path with satisfy QoS. These are source routing. It difficult to handle user data with multiple priorities when user request QoS with certain priority. Figure 2 . Next. CPU capacity Bandwidth and delay for node.Quality of Services As mentioned before term QoS is a guarantee by the network to satisfy a specific set of service performance for user in term of end-to-end delay. available bandwidth and probability of packet loss and so on. network will first check authenticate request by exchanging appropriate control packet. If too many authenticate request may degrade the performance of large QoS network. Hierarchical routing node partially know global information path using source routing. where intermediate node are actually logical nodes. QoS routing dependent on the accurate arability of current network state. Beaconing mechanism is heart of AdHoc networking otherwise node will not know it neighbour. resources reservation. The task of resources is to request. destination routing and hierarchical routing. Also assume that existence with all necessary such as protocols for medium access. In source routing is a feasible path which is locally computed at the source node using locally stored global information possible path of their adjacent node. Multiple mechanisms are considered in [7] for QoS-preserving QoS routing by detecting broken routes and then either repairing the broken route or rerouting the flow on an alternate route with the desired QoS. We assume that local node and global node information is constructed by exchanging the local state information. we briefly consider the nature of such information local state information maintained at each node including queuing delay. A broken route is detected by using the beaconing protocol for detecting adjacent neighbors. the network must find a route with requested QoS for highest priority against all other flow of lower priority.

called refresher packets in [7]. A bandwidth-constrained QoS routing algo-rithm using a distance vector protocol was proposed in [10]. the QoS requirement is satisfied between the source s and the destination d. 2. and the new alternate route is shown in blue. 4. it may attempt to repair the route by finding another node E such that by replacing segment B–C with segment B–E–C. and are used simultaneously. 3. The unusable route is shown in red. Figure 3 When the source receives the notification of route unavailability. Duplicate packets are discarded at the destination. Figure 4 . it seeks an alternate route with the same QoS characteristics. The existence of the QoS route between a source-destination pair needs to be reaffirmed periodically when routing with imprecise infor-mation by sending suitably constructed control packets. as shown in Fig. multiple alternate routes with the same QoS guarantee are established for the flow. Multiple redundant routing mechanisms are also considered in [7] for minimizing the likeli-hood of QoS violation due to route failures. If such a route can be found. B may send the notification of route unavailability to s without attempting to repair the route. The role of cluster dynamics and mobility management. If node B determines that C is no longer its neighbor because the link between B and C (in red) is broken.Consider Fig. from the destination back to the source. as well as resource reservation and route repair and router movement on QoS are addressed in detail. At the highest level of redun-dancy. the QoS route is declared unavailable and the associated resources released. the flow is rerouted to it after the necessary route updates among the pertinent nodes. If no such route segment can be found. Consider Fig. but without accommodating the effects of imprecise network state information. Depending on the network policy. If such a packet fails to arrive within a predetermined timeout interval. B notifies the source that the route is broken.

Figure 6 . By only sensing the medium. this mechanism introduces a new problem termed the exposed terminal problem. This is the well known hidden terminal problem. leading to collisions at node B. where the hidden nodes are located in the area A(x).Hidden Terminal Problem Figure 5 illustrates the hidden terminal problem. Let us consider Figure 6 and assume that node A wants to transmit to node B. We assume here an RTS/CTS exchange so that the issue of hidden terminal is addressed.nal problem. Suppose that node A wants to transmit to node B located at a distance x from A. and will start transmitting. node A will not be able to hear transmissions by any node (C) in the dashed area denoted by A(x). Figure 5 The Exposed Terminal Problem RTS/CTS handshake mechanism was introduced to wireless MAC layers to eliminate the hidden termi. However.

although simultaneous transmissions from area Y (x) to X(x) would not have interfered with transmission from A to B. This CTS is heard by B upon which B will enter a backo® period preventing B from sending the CTS to A. Therefore. After receiving the RTS from D. and D transmits a RTS to C just before A sends the RTS to B. We de¯ne the terminals in the region Y (x) as the exposed terminals for the node pair A/B. the number of transmissions that could occur between nodes from area X(x) and nodes from area Y (x) can be expressed as XY . Suppose a node D located in area Y (x) wants to transmit data to node C located in area X(x). C transmits a CTS. any transmission from a node within the area Y to a node within X(x) will prevent A from transmitting data to B. .Node A sends an RTS and waits for B to send a CTS. In this case.