1.

INTRODUCTION
Increasing concerns about global warming and fossil fuel costs has necessitated the search for alternative sources of energy. The present-day energy scenario in India and around the globe is precarious, thus driving to the search of alternative to fossil fuels. Trapping renewable energy from organic sources is the present trend of active research. In this direction, bioelectricity generation through Photo Fuel Cells (PFCs) using a variety of biocatalyst is being studied extensively. In photo fuel cell the greenhouse gas emission is reduced to zero since the gas emitted is mainly oxygen. In our fuel cell, we use the biocatalyst to split water into hydrogen ions and oxygen. The hydrogen ions generated during this photolysis travels across the proton exchange membrane and the electrons move in the external circuit. The fuel cell contains two sections, in one we have the biocatalyst and in the other section we have a proton acceptor which is reduced to a lower energy state. These two sections are separated by a semi permeable membrane, that is, the proton exchange membrane. Important factor was the scaling up of the fuel cell; the fuel cell can be stacked up in appropriate series and parallel connections to provide the required power rating. Fuel cell power generation systems in operation today achieve 40 % fuel-to-electricity efficiency utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. Since fuel cells operate silently, they reduce noise pollution as well as air pollution and when the fuel cell is sited near the point of use, its waste heat can be captured for beneficial purposes.

2. WORKING PRINCIPLE
Photo fuel cells (PFCs) offer an alternative way to obtain electricity from the hydrolysis and fermentation of algae in only one process unit. PFCs consist of an anode and cathode connected by a load. The anode contains biocatalyst that is used to catalyze the decomposition of the organic matter into electrons and protons. Power is produced through the reduction of oxygen or another chemical at the cathode. Research on photo fuel cells (‘biofuel cells’) has received increased attention as a means to produce ‘green’ electricity from natural substrates, such as carbohydrates. Interest has focused on three main types: heterotrophic, photoheterotrophic and sediment cells.

Photo Fuel Cell

METABOLISM INSIDE THE MFC

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Anode reaction: Type of Biocatalys : Chloroplast extract Reaction: Photolysis of water [6] 2H2O + 2 Photons Type of Biocatalyst: Chlorella Reaction: Photolysis of water and Carbon metabolism [6] y(CH2O) + y H2O Cathode reaction: [Fe(CN)6]3− + e − 4 e.+ 4y H+ 2 e. It is derived from the Greek words chloros which 3 . Chloroplasts capture light energy from the sun to conserve free energy in the form of ATP and reduce NADP to NADPH through a complex set of processes called photosynthesis.+ 2 H+ + O2 TYPES OF BIOCATALYST CHLOROPLAST Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide to produce sugars.+ 4 H+ + O2 [Fe(CN)6]4− 2H2O y CO2 + 4y e.

CHLORELLA Chlorella is a genus of single-celled green algae. 2. 4. and is without flagella. Centrifuge at 3000 RPM for 10 minutes 4 . The pellet formed during this centrifugation contains chloroplasts. Give a 5 minute break between the two centrifugations. Select several fresh spinach leaves and remove the large veins by tearing them loose from the leaves. Chlorella Contains the green photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b in its chloroplast.means green and plast which means form or entity. It is spherical in shape. and a small amount of minerals to reproduce. Re-suspend the chloroplast pellet in Phosphate Buffer [pH 7. Add the tissue to an ice-cold mortar containing 200 ml of 0. about 2 to 10µm in diameter. Transfer the green suspension to a cold 15ml centrifuge tubes and centrifuge at 1000 rpm for 10 minutes at 4°C twice to pellet the unbroken cells and fragments. Centrifuge again at 4500 rpm for 20 minutes. 5. Decant the supernatant into a clean centrifuge tube. Weigh out 64. (A) Extraction of Chloroplasts [7. Filter the solution through eight layers of cheesecloth into a beaker and squeeze the tissue pulp to recover all of the suspension.5M Sucrose and grind to a fine paste. 3] 1. Through photosynthesis it multiplies rapidly requiring only carbon dioxide. 3. 3. water. Water Sample is collected.0] and keep at 4ºC. 8] 1.0 grams of deveined leaf tissue. Chloroplasts are members of a class of organelles known as plastids. 6. Decant and discard the supernatant. belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta. Chop the tissue as fine as possible using pestle and mortar or blender. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP I. 2. I (B) ISOLATION OF CHLORELLA [2. sunlight.

1 Liter 5 . Soak the membrane in the buffer and assemble the fuel cell according to the instructions. Keep the cation exchange membrane in between the electrode and make sure that the electrodes do no touch the membrane. .0. Cut out the Carbon tissue electrodes according to the fuel cell dimensions (6x5) cmsq. FUEL CELL SETUP [1] 1.Tight the screws provided on the fuel cell so that the electrodes and the membrane will be intact inside the fuel cell. Transfer the pellet into a conical flask which contains the medium for Chlorella 4. Medium for Chlorella Potassium nitrate Magnesium sulphate Potassium di-hydrogen Phosphate Water II. 2.018 M .0.3. Expose the conical flask to sunlight for 7-10 days.030 M . Fix the carbon electrodes in the fuel cell and keep the ends protruding out of the cell so that the voltage and current values can be taken.0.012 M . Ensure that the whole cell setup us leak proof.

Current (mA) 4. Care must be taken to there is no direct exposure to sunlight to avoid membrane damage. Fill up one chamber of the fuel with the chlorella obtained in the previous procedures. Expose the chamber containing the chlorella solution to sunlight. 5. The other chamber is filled with 0. 4. current produced at regular intervals. The following can be explained by the ability of the electron transporter to transport electrons from chloroplast surface to 6 . Measure the potential difference.002M Potassium Ferricyanide solution.3. The presence of an electron transporter (methylene blue) in case of chloroplast extract causes slight increase in current values. RESULT & DICUSSION CURRENT V/S TIME Time (min) From the graph it can be clearly seen that the rate of current generation decreases with increase in time.

the electrodes. The efficiency of chlorella in generating electricity decreases due to the settling of chlorella in the anode chamber. This is due to by the coupling of photolysis and carbon metabolism. VOLTAGE V/S TIME V olt ag e (V ) Time (min) The theoretical voltage generated by the PFCs is about 1.1 V. It can also be seen that the power generated by chlorella in the anode chamber is greater than the power generated by chloroplast extract.6 V. thereby preserving the catalytic efficiency of chloroplast in chlorella. the maximum voltage obtained by chloroplast extract and chlorella converges to about 0. 7 . It should also be noted that the working efficiency of chloroplast is restricted to a particular set of wavelength of light which is not the case for chlorella as the chloroplast in chlorella are protected by cell wall and cell membranes. And this can be countered by use of appropriate buffer solutions and solution stabilizers.

This can be explained as light falls on chlorella/ chloroplast thereby photolysis of water occurs. when in comparison to chloroplast the present acts as a multi subunit enzyme assembly. Chlorella works effectively in white conditions as the chloroplast in chlorella are protected by cell wall. Increase in area of the electrode also increases the power due to greater probability of electron capture. cell membrane before the light reaching chloroplasts enzyme assembly. theoretically the voltage will be increased to the sum of the cells connected. Life span of biocatalysts. 8 . it has to be noted that chlorella being a living microbe has the ability to reproduce. 5. It has also been noted that the area of the light window increases the rate of photolysis thereby increasing the overall power output. Scale-Up: • When cells are connected in series. The life span of the catalysts play an important role. SCALE –UP AND FUTURE WORK • Area of light window It has been observed that the area of the light window increase current values. • Wavelength of light used. as the proton flux increases. FACTORS AFFECTING PFC’S. Practically we can obtain nearby values when connected in series. • • Surface area of the electrodes. Chloroplast tends to become inactive in presence of white light hence showing their narrow band wavelength for the activity of enzyme assembly.The voltage generated in presence of electron transporter is additive due to the presence of the electron transporter.

however the term is more commonly used to define a closed system. Virtually any translucent container could be called a PBR. algae.. Van der ha.. organisms through photosynthesis as their energy source and do not require sugars or lipids as energy source. Consequently. It produces biomass material using a continuous flow of liquid growth media.2007) Continuous Flow Mixed Photobioreactor A photo bioreactor (PBR) is a bioreactor which incorporates some type of light source. N.FUTURE WORK CONTINUOUS FLOW MIXED PHOTOBIOREACTOR A photo bioreactor can be used for the continuous production of electric current at a higher rate. Photo bioreactors are used These to grow small use phototrophic organisms light such as cyanobacteria. P. Boon.(Clauwaert. And keep all the cells in suspension. risk of contamination with other organisms like bacteria or fungi is lower in photo bioreactors when compared to bioreactors for heterotrophic organisms. as opposed to an open tank or pond[8]. 9 .

vulgaris has been found to be 5% CO2. Hence we can use this for large power requirements [9]. A combination of the best CO2 concentration at a higher light intensity and additional 8 hour dark phase could further enhance growth rates. the best concentration for growth of C.Novel Circulating Loop Photo bioreactor An increase in light intensity has proven to increase the growth rate of C. APPLICATIONS Today we face an extreme energy crisis and in such a situation it is obvious that an alternate source of energy such as microbial fuel cells would help ease the dependence on fossil fuels. 6. vulgaris. photo detectors. Also. home appliances. computers. These are also very small and compatible and therefore represent the ideal source of energy for small units such as laptops. 10 . By proper scale up and design these microbial fuel cells can be employed in much larger operations also. etc.

we came to another conclusion that when the surface area of electrode is increased there is an increase in current production rate. 11 . the higher the rate of reaction. the current and voltage production increases drastically.  The presence of two side by side reaction taking place in chlorella adds to better performance. By the experiment conducted we can conclude that. While conducting the experiment.7. More number of electrons gets transported.  Chlorella can be widely used all through the visible spectrum. thus current production is more. when the cell is exposed to sunlight. This is due to more available area for the electron transfer. hence increasing the current production. This is due to the high intensity of sunlight (4500lux) compared to tube light (800 lux) so the reaction rate is high. Hence we can conclude the more intensity. CONCLUSION  It can be concluded that chlorella has higher performance compared to chloroplast extract.  Better performance can be obtained by maintaining chlorella in suspension or immobilizing it on a conducting electrode. The disadvantage of using chlorella can also be countered by use of appropriate buffer solution and keeping the chlorella in suspension.

E. Inc 6) Hartman E. 39/40. (2002). Biotechnol. Electron-transfer coupling in microbial fuel cells: 2. and Thurston. 34B: 13–27 5) Fogg.F.M... A promising oil alternative: Algae energy.P. H.. In: Richmond. 1984.M. Bashan Y. 7) HE Hui1. J... 27–49. FENG Ya-li.. 2008.. J. Bennetto. W. Mason. New York: John Wiley & sons.D. G. Construction of a Microbial Fuel Cell Using Chlorella vulgaris The Chinese Journal of Process Engineering Vol. Blackwell Publishers (312-346). G. Morey T. 2009 8) Kleinheinz.1 Feb. H. N06. 2004. (2004). & Keffer. Hernandez J-P. LI Ding-jie. The metabolism of algae. T.8. Water Res 38(2):466–474. Tech.Stirling.R..L.9 No. Roller. Biochem. REFERENCE 1) Allen. Use of Chlorella vulgaris for carbon dioxide mitigation in a photobioreactor. 1993. LI Hao-ran. Appl. 275-280 12 . Performance of fuel cells containing selected micoorganism-mediator-substrate combinations. E. 3) de-Bashan LE. 4) Delsaney. J. H. The Washington Post. Microalgae in human and animal nutrition. J Chem. (1994). p. C. 2) Becker. Handbook of microalgal culture: biotechnology and applied phycology.P. Bennetto.. Microalgae growthpromoting bacteria as ‘‘helpers’’ for microalgae: A novel approach for removing ammonium and phosphorus from municipal wastewater. Biotechnol. Microbial fuel cells: electricity production from carbohydrates. editor. G. R. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Hitoshi Shibata. by karanja oil is blended with ethylene with different proportion and these mixtures were used to study the performance of the engine. Dated: 3rd June.K. Natl. NIT Rourkela.Singh. USA (Biochemistry) [May 1980. Sci. Odisha. brake specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature were studied. Now a day many researches are going on across the world to find the alternate fuel or to reduce the use of fossils fuel. 2011. Presented in the Department of Chemical Engineering. Takashi Katoh “Living Electrode” as a long-lived photoconverter for biophotolysis of water –– Proc.9) Hideo Ochiai. 13 . On concluding from the results 30% mixture of karanja oil with methyl ester will increases the efficiency of the engine. Vol 77 No. Acad. Yoshihiro Sawa. 5. India. In this seminar discussion were done how to minimize the use of fossils fuel. 2442-2444] TECHNICAL WRITING PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF BLEND OF KARANJA METHYL ESTER IN A COMPRESSION IGNITION TEMPERATURE By Prof. R. Various properties of the engine such as Brake thermal efficiency.

The seminar was on studying heat and temperature profile of reactor used for carrying out the magnesio thermic reduction process for the production of uranium which involves reduction of uranium tetra fluoride with magnesium in a sealed reactor. Abanti Sahoo Presented in the Department of Chemical Engineering.UNSTEADY STATE HEAT TRANSFER IN EXTERNALLY HEATED MAGNESIO THERMIC REDUCTION REACTOR: AN OVERVIEW By Prof. The results are studied for both preheating and reaction stage. Odisha. India. 2011. The process is highly exothermic and generates very high temperature in the core region. 14 . Simulations are carried out using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and heat transfer solver to study the temperature profiles inside the reactor including its lining. Dated 3rd June. NIT Rourkela.

Abanti Sahoo Presented in the Department of Chemical Engineering.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING FOR HYDRODYNAMIC STUDIES OF SPOUTED BED By Prof. The percentage deviations were observed to be within ±15. static bed height. The seminar on hydrodynamic behavior of the spouted bed has been studied by considering the different system parameters (viz. 15 . The experimental values of the expansion and fluctuation ratios were compared with the calculated results. particle density. A computer programmed was also done for the calculations of these bed dynamics theoretically. Attempts have been taken to develop correlations for the bed expansion / fluctuation ratios by varying different system parameters with the experimentally measured values of the bed dynamics on the basis of dimensional analysis. gas velocity. NIT Rourkela. particle size. 2011. spout diameter. Odisha. India. Dated 23rd July.

momentum and heat transfer. Odisha. 2011. Three phase fluidized beds are used extensively in the refining. three-phase fluidized beds or slurry bubble columns have gained considerable importance in their application in physical. petrochemical. Dated 15th September. India.The details about problem description and approach used in FLEUNT to get the solution. Also comparative study of various CFD related software . petrochemical. chemical. Hara Mohan Jena Presented in the Department of Chemical Engineering. An overview of the methodology used in CFD to solve problems relating mass. NIT Rourkela. biotechnology. Some of these processes use solids whose densities are only slightly higher than the density of water. pharmaceutical.ANALYSIS OF BED VOIDAGE CHARACTERISTIC OF A GASLIQUID-SOLID FLUIDIZED BED BY CFD SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENT By Prof. electrochemical and biochemical processes. A comparison of CFD results with experimental was done which show good agreement with less than 15% error. Because of the good heat and mass transfer characteristics. food and environmental industries. 16 .

PROMISING FUEL OF THE FUTURE By Arjun. Cultivating C.Krishna. corn powder hydrolysate.R. application of this method in C. instead of glucose was used as organic carbon source in heterotrophic culture medium in fermenters. NIT ROURKELA. 17 . Thus.protothecoides heterotrophically yielded a total lipid fraction (55.1 MJ/kg) and the average polyunsaturated fatty acids (62.ALGAL BIODIESEL . The increase in fatty acid concentration may be due to increased activity of ACCase.2%) high in saponifiable lipids using n-hexane and produced biodiesel using sulfuric acid and an immobilized lipase. protothecoides. to increase the biomass and reduce the cost of alga.protothecoides has great potential for the industrial production of liquid fuel in future. respectively with 98.8%). In C.15% conversion. India Dated-4th September The seminar demonstrates the production of algal biodiesel from microalgae. This is due to the higher heating value of (25. Akhil Kizhakumpat Presented in National Student convention. Chlorella protothecoides by technique of metabolic controlling through heterotrophic growth. Odisha.

Jithin S. the human body acts as a transmission medium supporting IEEE 802.T. Pranoy Sebastin. and Wireless LAN which has certain drawbacks such as reduced throughput. IrDA. 18 . unsecured data transfer. which were now overcome by RedTacton. The key component of the transceiver is an electric-field sensor implemented with an electro-optic crystal and laser light. Tijo.3 half-duplex communication at 10Mbit/s. Human’s daily routine is based on sensing which obviously means “touching”. L.HUMAN AREA NETWORKING: REDTACTON By Rolly Joseph Puthur. Odisha. So far we have used Bluetooth. Here. where everything is networked is user-friendly.P. Bonus S. NIT ROURKELA.Maret Presented in National Student convention. which we call RedTacton. India Dated-4th September The seminar was presented on one of the latest networking topologies where a ubiquitous computing service. These will require technologies that enable communication between devices. This paper describes human area networking technology that enables communication by touching.

Vamsi Krishna. The silicon processors in are gradually reaching saturation so naturally some suitable alternative has to be found to cope up with generation and time along with the problem. means of manipulating and sorting. In this article we analyzed about the structure of DNA. computer construction. they have been searching for alternative media with which to solve computational problems the search has led them to DNA. DNA chips as memory units and implemented to use DNA molecules for memory.Sindhu Presented in National Student Convention.L.BIOCHIP By A.Odisha. This mainly explains Von Neumann structures and Hamilton path problem to describe the method of analyzing them.G.S. 19 . M. K. you only need two things: a means of sorting information and means of manipulating information. Conventional silicon-based computers have an Upper limit in terms of speed.N. NIT ROURKELA. In order to do computations.Aditya.India Dated-3rd september The seminar bring in light to evolution of computation from dry lab to wet lab that are capable of solving modern day mathematical problems and of data storage.

India Dated-3rd September The seminar brings in light to the selection of bio surfactants that have recently become an important product of biotechnology for industrial and medical applications. Different strains II PS1. Emulsion stability estimation of rhamnolipid was carried out.STUDY OF RHAMNOLIPID PRODUCTION FROM DIFFERENT MESOPHILIC & THERMOPHILIC STRAINS By Sagar Udaseen and Karan Bhatt Presented in National Student convention. Odisha. Further research can be carried out for technology development of rhamnolipid production by IIPS1 for applications such as anti-adhesive. dry cell weight of the microorganisms was estimated after 2 hours of complete drying. calculated in terms of surface tension. II PS7 and II PB1 produced rhamnolipid of different strength. after which the microbes started consuming it for survival. 4-5 days of fermentation was adequate for maximum production of rhamnolipid. The application of rhamnolipid in the medical field has increased during the past decade. Following growth with n-hexadecane as C-source. Interfacial tension was also calculated after mixing n-hexadecane with rhamnolipid. 20 . NIT ROURKELA. II PS2. II PS3. antimicrobial and therapeutic activities along with bioremediation. Rhamnolipid produced from thermopilic strain II PS1 showed maximum activity. Rhamnolipid production was confirmed by CTAB-methylene blue agar plate method.

Titanium alloys because of their excellent mechanical. the alloying strategy of such alloys in order to obtain the most desirable properties for use as a biomaterial and why such alloys are being preferred over the currently used alloy Ti-6Al4V and many others. NIT ROURKELA. 21 . Odisha. India Dated-3rd September The seminar compares numerous developments in the sphere of biomaterials and how titanium alloys can be effectively used in biomedical areas without being detrimental to the human body. TMZF (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe). low modulus of elasticity and good fatigue strength. are finding ever increasing application in biomedical devices and biomedical implants.TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATION By Sujasha Gupta Presented in National Student convention. This is an overview of the research done in the upcoming titanium alloys and the success so far. the toxic effect of Ti-6Al-4V and the factors which help in determining why β-titanium alloys are most suitable in this field of application.6Zr). Review is mainly done of the quaternary system of titanium alloys such is Ti2448 (Ti-24Nb-4Zr8Sn). physical and biological performance. TNTZ (Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4. Ti-15Mo and many such currently evolving alloys.

a very difficult and time-consuming task. NIT ROURKELA. This paper proposes a method for automatic Breast cancer detection. Odisha. scoring and grading of histo-pathological images is the standard clinical practice for the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer. India Dated-4th September The seminar aimed on research in medical diagnostics is to develop more cost-effective and easy to-use systems. scoring and grading to assist pathologists by providing second opinions and reducing their workload. Several research groups are working world wide on the development of neural networks in medical diagnosis. therefore. a pathologist typically handles number of cancer detection cases per day. classification. by comparing the symptoms of the patient with symptoms in the database and providing a weighted score. It is.BREAST CANCER DETECTION & CLASSIFICATION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK By Shreeram Kushwaha Presented in National Student convention. classification. 22 . In a large hospital. Breast cancer detection. Neural networks are used to increase the accuracy and objectivity of medical diagnosis.