Sell All Rooms, Everyday!

AN EXTRAORDINARY BOOK to enhance your Hotel success through Website Design, Internet Marketing & Social Media Optimization

Jigna Patel & Priti Patel

About The Author

Jigna Patel is an Internet Hotel Marketing veteran with over 3 years experience in successfully consulting global hoteliers on implementing effective Internet Marketing strategy. Jigna’s passion is to enable independent and franchise hotel owners to use the power of Internet and Search Engines and win the Internet Marketing Game. She works with missionary zeal on educating Hoteliers and Small business owners on harnessing the power of their website. She has done her graduate studies in Commerce and Business Management from University of Mumbai. Priti Patel is a creative artist gifted with special skills to create attractive and result-oriented websites. Priti artistically blends her natural creative talent with her proven expertise on technology to create stunning websites. Her work has built the brand equity of many independent and franchise hotels. She enables even a small hotel owner to get a website that will compete with luxury hotel. Her passion is to put the advances in technology to the service of small business owners. She has completed her graduate studies in Commerce and Business Management from University of Mumbai.

” – Anil Patel. at HDFC Realty. Minden. – “Jasubhai Digital Media Group. This is reflected in the proactive & creative input that we receive from your team. LA. “I have recommended their services to all my relatives and friends and everyone has appreciated my suggestion.” – Amit Joshi – HDFC Realty Mumbai.” – Bhagubhai Patel – President.” – Dennis Patel – General Manager Best Western. – Rodeway Inn. are satisfied with the services rendered by you.Feedback CGS Infotech SEO Service has substantially increased hit and helped godrej to sell its projects. “I am happy with your company. – “Business India” CGS Infotech offers Indian trade & Industry an unique opportunity to be successful. and quality is outstanding. Your company has achieved significant success in designing and promoting website for hotel owners. USA. CA. “They have done a great job. USA. efficient. . their design and development team is fast. Digit Magazine” “This is to let you know that we. – “Daily News & Analysis (DNA)” We found that CGS provides reliability & consistency. Surti Leuva Patidar Samaj of SC. USA. India.

Also By Jigna & Priti Patel The Art & Science of SEO Link Building Google Adwords – Goldmine or Death Trap Email Marketing – Turn 1 Dollar into 57 Dollar .

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Internet Marketing & Social Media Optimization . Everyday! AN EXTRAORDINARY BOOK to enhance your Hotel success through Website Design.Book Title Sell All Rooms.

Designs and Patents Act 2008 .Copyright Notice The right of Jigna Patel & Priti Patel to be identified as the Editor of the work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright.

We want to thank Mr. Sharad Bhatt for his creative work in designing the cover-page and type-setting expertise. Jayesh Gajjar & Radhika is providing strong support in creating this book.Acknowledgement The project of this nature is possible only with the help of dedicated team. . First of all I wish to acknowledge our mentor Ms. It has been truly an experience of profound honor to create a new level of success for so many companies around the world. Jiteshji. Hema Rathod for her precision and accuracy in co-ordinating with difference agencies for the successful publication of this book. We want to thank all staff members of CGS Infotech for its empowerment and inspiration. We want to express of gratitude to Ms. Anjali Gandhi for her detailed and painstaking review of the book and making important changes. We appreciate the extraordinary commitment of Santosh. Sarveshji. .Jigna Patel & Priti Patel. We would like to mention the names of all the people who took this journey with us. So many people influenced this book that it would be impossible to mention them all. we want to thank over thousands of global clients who gave us the extraordinary opportunity to work on their businesses. Finally.

Dedication This book is dedicated to every Hotelier with a big dream and strong commitment to grow in the hospitality industry. .

7. Everyday! Contents 1.3 Hotel Technology Next Generation Travel Reviews Social Media Optimization 3. 4.2 An Introduction To Link Building 7. 9.6 How do search engines work? 4.4 What is link popularity? 4.2 What is Search Engine Optimization? 4.3 CSS Versus Tables 2.7 Additional Suggestions & Ideas Pay Per Click Hotel Keyword Research for SEO & PPC Hotel Link Building for SEO 7.3 Content 3. 8. .5 Searching the Engines for High-Quality Links 7. 10.2 Global Distribution Systems 8.1 Online Hotel Reservation 8.4 Compatibility and Restrictions Search Engine Optimization 4.4 How it Looks vs.3 What is dynamic optimization? 4.4 How Do Search Engines Measure Link Quality? 7.5 Accessible Web Design Website Planning 3. 6.1 What is online marketing? 4. 5. 2.2 Flash 2.Sell All Your Rooms. Introduction to Website Design Key Issues in Website Design 2.6 Competitive Link Research 7.1 Purpose 3.2 Audience 3.3 Why Build Links? 7.1 Why Search Engines Measure Links 7. How it Works 2.7 The Art & Science of Direct Link Acquisition Travel Technology – An Introduction 8.5 Why should you consider internet marketing? 4.1 Multidisciplinary Requirements 2.

28. How 12. 16. Smart-SELL Package Contact Us . 23.com Corporate Information – Travelocity. 29.Why. 19.com Corporate Information – Tripadvisor.com Introduction to CGS Infotech Inc. 20. 17. 24. 21. 14. 30.com Corporate Information – Priceline. 13. 25. 27.com Corporate Information – Orbitz.1 Permission Email Marketing 11.3 Online Directories for Bed and Breakfasts 11. Hotel Online Success Tools 11. 26. Overview of Hotel Industry Corporate Information – Choice Hotel Corporate Information – Best Western Corporate Information – Wyndham Worldwide Corporate Information – Intercontinental Hotels Group Corporate Information – Marriott International Corporate Information – Hilton Hotels Corporation Corporate Information – Expedia.2 RSS and Blogs 11.4 Local Searches . 22.com Corporate Information – Hotels. 18. Offline Hotel Marketing Hotel Brand Management Hotel Management & Guest Service Annexure-1: 15. What.11.

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Introduction to Website Design Web design is a process of conceptualization. PNGs). Plug-ins are also embedded into web page by using HTML/XHTML tags. time. . Improvements in browsers' compliance with W3C standards prompted a widespread acceptance and usage of XHTML/XML in conjunction with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to position and manipulate web page elements and objects. and execution of electronic media content delivery via Internet in the form of Markup language suitable for interpretation by Web browser and display as Graphical user interface (GUI). Actionscript. JScript. Such elements as text. videos. Static pages don’t change content and layout with every request unless a human (web master/programmer) manually updates the page. Latest standards and proposals aim at leading to browsers' ability to deliver a wide variety of media and accessibility options to the client possibly without employing plug-ins. Java run-time environment. etc.1. animations. QuickTime. Displaying more complex media (vector graphics. forms can be placed on the page using HTML/XHTML/XML tags. planning. etc. JPEGs.) Content can be changed on the client side (end-user's computer) by using client-side scripting languages (JavaScript. Typically web pages are classified as static or dynamic. Dynamic pages adapt their content and/or appearance depending on enduser’s input/interaction or changes in the computing environment (user.) to alter DOM elements (DHTML). The intent of web design is to create a web site -. bit-mapped images (GIFs.a collection of electronic files that reside on a web server/servers and present content and interactive features/interfaces to the end user in form of Web pages once requested. modeling. sounds) requires plug-ins such as Flash. database modifications. etc.

). Perl.Dynamic content is often compiled on the server utilizing server-side scripting languages (ASP. With growing specialization within communication design and information technology fields. etc. . there is a strong tendency to draw a clear line between web design specifically for web pages and web development for the overall logistics of all web-based services. PHP. JSP. Python. Both approaches are usually used in complex applications.

where each page of the book is a web page. For typical commercial Web sites. major search engines and advertisement media. if not all. The style should be professional. Each web page within a Web site is an HTML file which has its own URL.  The visibility: The site must also be easy to find via most. Some websites use what is commonly called a Splash Page. and information on the site should be relevant to the site and should target the area of the public that the website is concerned with.2. to show consistency. Splash pages might include a welcome message.  The appearance: The graphics and text should include a single style that flows throughout. new aspects may emerge. Key Issues in Website Design A Web site is a collection of information about a particular topic or subject. or disclaimer. A Web site typically consists of text and images. with the interface and navigation simple and reliable. A Web page consists of information for which the Web site is developed. they are typically linked together using a navigation menu composed of hyperlinks. appealing and relevant.  The usability: The site should be user-friendly. There are many aspects (design concerns) in this process. Designing a website is defined as the arrangement and creation of Web pages that in turn make up a website. A website might be compared to a book. language/region selection. the basic aspects of design are:  The content: The substance. The first page of a website is known as the Home page or Index. Faster browsing speeds have led to shorter attention spans and more . and due to the rapid development of the Internet. After each Web page is created.

and the server-side components that process the output from the front-end. it may be carried out by a multi-skilled individual (sometimes called a web master). that the website receives. exchanging links with other Web sites. Once published. The back-end comprises the organization and efficiency of the source code. or a project manager may oversee collaborative design between group members with specialized skills. This may be done using an FTP client.1 Multidisciplinary Requirements Web site design crosses multiple disciplines of information systems. creating affiliations with similar Web sites. it must be published or uploaded in order to be viewable to the public over the internet.g page layout. The website is an information system whose components are sometimes classified as front-end and back-end. 2. particularly where commercial websites are concerned.demanding online visitors and this has resulted in less use of Splash Pages. invisible scripted functions. Once a Web site is completed. etc. audio) is known as the front-end. Depending on the size of a Web development project. user interface. text. the Web master may use a variety of techniques to increase the traffic. . This may include submitting the Web site to a search engine such as Google or Yahoo. or hits. graphics. information technology and communication design. The observable content (e.

However. According to a study. requiring a proprietary plugin to be seen.[5] Many graphic artists use Flash because it gives them exact control over every part of the design. Some application designers enjoy Flash because it lets them create applications that do not have to be refreshed or go to a new web page every time an action occurs. those restrictions may be irrelevant depending on the goals of the web site design. and interactive applications over the web via the browser. Alternatively. Other sites may use Flash content combined with HTML as conservatively as gifs or jpegs would be used.2. Flash may also be used to protect content from unauthorized duplication or searching.2 Flash Adobe Flash (formerly Macromedia Flash) is a proprietary.[4] Numbers vary depending on the detection scheme and research demographics. and anything can be animated and generally "jazzed up". in which case the animation of the previous page would reset. Flash is not a standard produced by a vendor-neutral standards organization like most of the core protocols and formats on the Internet. There are many sites which forgo HTML entirely for Flash.[3] with 45%-56% (depending on region) having the latest version. dynamic . but with smaller vector file sizes and the option of faster loading animations. Flash can use embedded fonts instead of the standard fonts installed on most computers. though. Flash is much more restrictive than the open HTML format. small. media (such as sound and video).[2] 98% of US Web users have the Flash Player installed. robust graphics animation/application development program used to create and deliver dynamic content. and it does not integrate with most web browser UI features like the "Back" button unless a hyperlink is programmed to link a new html page from the Flash file.

and the design of class-based web applications. The most recent incarnation of Flash's scripting language (called "ActionScript". allowing the use of CSS.Flash objects may be used to replace standard HTML elements (such as headers or menu links) with advanced typography not possible via regular HTML/CSS (see Scalable Inman Flash Replacement). the vast majority of Flash websites are not disability accessible (for screen readers. Actionscript 2. However. An additional issue is that sites which commonly use alternate content for search engines to their human visitors are usually judged to be spamming search engines and are automatically banned. which is an ECMA language similar to JavaScript) incorporates long-awaited usability features. which have prevented sites from having their contents easily found. Up until recently. Using alternate content also helps search engines to understand the page. This is because many search engine crawlers rely on text to index websites. . Flash detractors claim that Flash websites tend to be poorly designed. and often use confusing and non-standard user-interfaces. search engines have been unable to index Flash objects.0 is an Object-Oriented language. XML. such as respecting the browser's font size and allowing blind users to use screen readers. for example) or Section 508 compliant. It is possible to specify alternate content to be displayed for browsers that do not support Flash. and can result in much better visibility for the page.

However. Often even simple designs for a page would require dozens of tables nested in each other. Navigator 4 didn't support CSS to a useful degree. such as vertical positioning. After the browser wars subsided. developing Web sites in CSS often becomes a matter of trying to replicate what can be done with tables. at one time it was rather difficult to produce certain design elements. not for layout. one of the main points against CSS is that by relying on it exclusively. For example. which helps bots and search engines understand what's going on in a web page. the popular solution available for designers to lay out a Web page was by using tables. CSS proponents say that tables should be used only for tabular data.1 or CSS 3 to properly structured markup. and full-length footers in a design using absolute positions. designers started turning toward CSS as an alternate means of laying out their pages. so it simply wasn't used.3 CSS Versus Tables Back when Netscape Navigator 4 dominated the browser market. . With the abundance of CSS resources available online today. though. For designers who are used to table-based layouts. Many web templates in Dreamweaver and other WYSIWYG editors still use this technique today. control is essentially relinquished as each browser has its own quirks which result in a slightly different page display. designing with reasonable adherence to standards involves little more than applying CSS 2. Using CSS instead of tables also returns HTML to a semantic markup. All modern Web browsers support CSS with different degrees of limitations. This is especially a problem as not every browser supports the same subset of CSS rules. leading some to find CSS design rather cumbersome due to lack of familiarity.2. and the dominant browsers such as Internet Explorer became more W3C compliant.

Most notable among these old browsers are Internet Explorer 5 and 5.These days most modern browsers have solved most of these quirks in CSS rendering and this has made many different CSS layouts possible.5. However. and designers need to keep this in mind. and allow for graceful degrading of pages in older browsers. the W3 Consortium has made CSS in combination with XHTML the standard for web design. are becoming the new Netscape Navigator 4 — a block that holds the World Wide Web back from converting to CSS design. which. . according to some web designers. some people continue to use old browsers. However.

assuming looks don't contribute to the sales. . On the other side of the issue. bullet lists. and how many sales it makes. often irritating the user. and the SEO wants lots of 'ugly' keyword-rich text. One could argue that this is a false dichotomy due to the possibility that a web design may integrate the two disciplines for a collaborative and synergistic solution.2. Because some graphics serve communication purposes in addition to aesthetics. Another problem when using lots of graphics on a page is that download times can be greatly lengthened. This is an on-going challenge as increased bandwidth invites increased amounts of content. This has become less of a problem as the internet has evolved with high-speed internet and the use of vector graphics. This is an engineering challenge to increase bandwidth in addition to an artistic challenge to minimize graphics and graphic file sizes. the designers and SEOs often end up in disputes where the designer wants more 'pretty' graphics. and text links. How it Works Some web developers have a graphic arts background and may pay more attention to how a page looks than considering other issues such as how visitors are going to find the page via a search engine. Some might rely more on advertising than search engines to attract visitors to the site.4 How it Looks vs. how well a site works may depend on the graphic designer's visual communication ideas as well as the SEO considerations. search engine optimization consultants (SEOs) are concerned with how well a web site works technically and textually: how much traffic it generates via search engines. As a result.

W3C permits an exception where tables for layout either make sense when linearized or an alternate version (perhaps linearized) is made available.") don't use frames  Use CSS rather than HTML Tables for layout. web page).5 Accessible Web Design To be accessible. Semantic markup also refers to semantically organizing the web page structure and publishing web services description accordingly so that they can be recognized by other web services on different web pages.g.e. (e.  Author the page so that when the source code is read line-by-line by user agents (such as a screen readers) it remains intelligible. .) However. images. Standards for semantic web are set by IEEE  Use a valid markup language that conforms to a published DTD or Schema provide text equivalents for any non-text components (e. avoid "Click Here. (Using tables for design will often result in information that is not.2. web pages and sites must conform to certain accessibility principles. These can be grouped into the following main areas:  Use semantic markup that provides a meaningful structure to the document (i. multimedia)  Use hyperlinks that make sense when read out of context.g.

2 Audience Defining the audience is a key step in the website planning process. The audience is the group of people who are expected to visit your website – the market being targeted. as well as defining the purpose and deciding what content will be developed are extremely important. Setting short and long term goals for the website will help make the purpose clear and plan for the future when expansion. A purpose statement should show focus based on what the website will accomplish and what the users will get from it. a list of characteristics common to the users such as:  Audience Characteristics  Information Preferences  Computer Specifications . Website Planning Before creating and uploading a website. it is important to take the time to plan exactly what is needed in the website. 3. Also.3. 3. Thoroughly considering the audience or target market. A clearly defined purpose or goal of the site as well as an understanding of what visitors want to do/feel when they come to your site will help to identify the target audience. and improvement will take place. These people will be viewing the website for a specific reason and it is important to know exactly what they are looking for when they visit the site. Upon considering who is most likely to need/use the content.1 Purpose It is essential to define the purpose of the website as one of the first steps in the planning process. modification. goal-setting practices and measurable objectives should be identified to track the progress of the site and determine success. A clearly defined purpose will help the rest of the planning process as the audience is identified and the content of the site is developed.

 Web Experience Taking into account the characteristics of the audience will allow an effective website to be created that will deliver the desired content to the target audience. .

a website that is designed for the majority of websurfers will be limited to the use of valid XHTML 1. The majority of users can support GIF. In the process of gathering the content being offered. Firefox and Opera) users allow for more W3C compliance and thus a greater range of options for a web designer. It is a good idea to test the content and purpose on a focus group and compare the offerings to the audience needs. For instance. resulting in the GIF format still being the most widely used graphic file format for transparent images. Cascading Style Sheets Level 1.g. not fully supporting PNG's advanced transparency features. Collecting a list of the necessary content then organizing it according to the audience's needs is a key step in website planning. A target market of more alternative browser (e.3 Content Content evaluation and organization requires that the purpose of the website be clearly defined. Another restriction on webpage design is the use of different Image file formats. Each category should be named with a concise and descriptive title that will become a link on the website. the compatibility of your website with the viewers is restricted.0 Strict or older.4 Compatibility and restrictions Because of the market share of modern browsers (depending on your target market). and 1024x768 display resolution. The next step is to organize the basic information structure by categorizing the content and organizing it according to user needs.3. any items that do not support the defined purpose or accomplish target audience objectives should be removed. and PNG (with restrictions).1 and the majority of CSS beyond 1. JPEG. . 3. Again Internet Explorer is the major restriction here. This is because Internet Explorer is not fully W3C standards compliant with the modularity of XHTML 1. Planning for the site's content ensures that the wants/needs of the target audience and the purpose of the site will be fulfilled.

.Many website incompatibilities go unnoticed by the designer and unreported by the users. The only way to be certain a website will work on a particular platform is to test it on that platform.

and in eliciting response.4. yet without regular visitors your site might as well not exist. or both? . Pay-per-Click advertising. you need CGS …  Why do some websites rank more highly than others?  Why isn’t my website ranking on the search engines?  Which search engines should I target?  What key-words/phrases are my potential customers searching for?  How do I avoid banned techniques that could get my site blacklisted?  Should I be using Search Engine Optimization. Finding the right Internet Marketing partner is essential for the success of your website. The interactive nature of Internet marketing. also referred to as Internet Marketing or Emarketing. are unique qualities of the medium. both in terms of instant response. Competition is fierce for the top listings. Google alone has over 3 billion websites and making sure that visitors find your site is a tough challenge. and for this having an effective online marketing strategy is essential for every business. Search Engine Optimization 4. is the marketing of products or services over the Internet. If you need answers to the following questions.1 What is online marketing? Online marketing.

identify areas which could be improved in order to increase traffic and make recommendations for changes to content. code and any other issues that may affect the site’s performance.2 What is Search Engine Optimization? Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a strategic combination of techniques designed to raise a website’s ranking in the search engines’ natural listings. CGS will perform a combination of the following SEO procedures: Website Audit : The site will go through a thorough SEO review. the greater the chance that that site will be visited by a user. skilled SEO experts will analyze the website. (If specified by the client) It also helps in identifying the phrases which the competitor’s are targeting. In other words SEO is the process of increasing the amount of visitors to a Web site by ranking high in the search results of a search engine. . These techniques need to be continually revised and refined as the main search engines regularly update their ranking criteria. Competitor Analysis : This offering includes study of the on page and off page optimization factors of the competitor’s website to help in knowing how the competitor is faring on the search engines. Using our powerful research tools CGS analyses your suggested key phrases to identify the levels of traffic and competitiveness. This will help you finalize your preference of key phrases and reach the target set for Search Engine Marketing purposes. One key phrase may contain up to five key words. Here. The higher a Web site ranks in the results of a search. Key Phrase Identification : Key Phrase is combination of keywords. CGS will thoroughly research key phrases for relevancy and competitiveness in order to settle on a target set that will bring in relevant traffic to the site. Based on this research you can then decide on a set of key phrases that will bring your site more awareness.4. To ensure your site ranks as highly as possible.

By employing specific guidelines they crawl through their huge databases of sites to identify the websites that are most relevant to the searcher’s key phrases. The more of your website a search engine can see the better chance you have of ranking higher in a search result for a certain topic. This means we can target different key phrases for different pages and increase the levels of traffic from a greater range of key phrases. 3.Making the site search engine friendly : Search Engines live and die by their ability to produce relevant results for their users. the more traffic they are going to deliver to your website. etc. links from images. we should give the spider as many ways of reaching a page as possible – a couple of navigation bars. This increases the chances of a page being reviewed and indexed. TAGGING CGS creates the Title. The pages . SITE-MAP UPDATE / CREATION Site maps act as the roadmap of your website for search engine crawlers. A combination of the following procedures are undertaken to optimize your website: 1. The easier and more convenient it is for search engines to get in and scan your website. search engines and users. Skilled SEO content writers at CGS optimize your website’s content to enhance the keyword density on the pages that need it. 2. ADDITIONAL NAVIGATION BAR Ideally. A full text based site map is crucial in making the site search engine friendly. (Higher the package you go for better is the ranking.) 4. CONTENT OPTIMIZATION Content optimization is the modification and reorganization of site content in a way that makes it more accessible and better represented to the World Wide Web. Keyword and Description tags for individual page of your site based on the package you have opted for. links from content.

every image on the page should have an ALT tag that describes the image exactly.abc.that are to be promoted need to offer more entry points to spiders to ensure that these pages get indexed. it positively influences the search engine rankings especially in MSN.TXT Search engines will look in your root domain for a special file named "robots. INBOUND LINKS Ideally. 7. Webmasters can place a Sitemap-formatted file on their Web . ROBOTS. 6. 8.txt" (http://www.com/robots. If a website has been made on the basis of the W3C standard. 5. This can be achieved simply by implementation of a textual navigation bar (at the bottom of each page). IMAGE OPTIMIZATION All websites should comply with W3C standards (http://www. The target pages should link to all the pages of your site. HTML CODING VALIDATION & CORRECTION Search engine crawlers prefer W3C standards with respect to HTML coding standards. and also repeats any text that is in that image.txt). 9. One of the ways this can be done is by giving links from content. The Robots Exclusion Standard. we should give the spider as many ways of reaching a page as possible. In order for websites to be accessible. This system is called. GOOGLE SITE MAP Google Sitemaps is to inform and direct Google search crawlers to the website pages. motor or visual disabilities.org) and regulations for making sites accessible for people with hearing.w3. The file tells the robot (spider) which files it may spider (download).

AOL. Goals might include sales. Users can define and track conversions. each customizable to some degree. Marketer. It also provides some more advanced features. Manual submissions The most commonly used search engine is Google. This encompasses details of the number of users. lead generation.server which enables Google crawlers to find out what pages are present and which have recently changed. . browser details and the likes. There are currently over 80 distinct reports. viewing a specific page. It also offers three dashboard views of data Executive. and to crawl your site accordingly. By manually submitting your web pages to all the major search engines we make sure that the pages are properly indexed and stand the best possible chance of reaching the top of the rankings. including visitor segmentation and custom fields. or goals. Website Statistics : Website Statistics is a unique feature in our services. Primarily. or downloading a particular file. the system lays stress on illustrative graphical representations for all sections to enhance comprehensibility of the statistics. which entails the use of statistics to identify and highlight the trends in the Internet traffic with reference to your site. and Webmaster. the frequency of the web pages visited and sessions. MSN and Ask Jeeves. however it is important not to ignore other search engines such as Yahoo.

called "bots" or "spiders" that use the hyperlink structure of the web to "crawl" the pages and documents that . Other option is by approaching webmasters of other high ranking popular sites. the website is submitted in relevant category and directory having good PageRank. resulting in a higher Page Rank and higher positions. CGS helps increase the link popularity of your website. 1. CGS offers ONE WAY LINKING for the website. Google uses it as one of its most important factors in ranking sites. and trading links with them. Increasing the amount of quality inbound links to your site makes your site appear more important and more relevant to the search engines. new techniques and increased competition for listings.Link popularity Most of the top search engines use link popularity in their ranking algorithms. CGS has its own popular portals and tradedirectories. ONE WAY LINKING covers the following: • Directory Submission • Creation of Blogs and submitting in relevant blog websites Maintenance Ongoing improvements to existing key phrases in response to changes in search engine technologies. How Search Engines Operate ======================================= Search engines have a short list of critical operations that allows them to provide relevant web results when searchers use their system to find information. Crawling the Web Search engines run automated programs. Under ONE WAY LINKING.

In the first system. 3. the engine retrieves from its index all the document that match the query. For example. commonly called "Findall" mode. Estimates are that of the approximately 20 billion existing pages.stored in a giant database of documents that makes up a search engine's "index". They sort these on the results pages in order from most relevant to least so that users can make a choice about which to select. This index needs to be tightly managed. while in the second search. it's contents can be "indexed" . Google returned all documents which had the terms "car" "driver" and "magazine" (they ignore the term "and" because it's not useful to narrowing the results). 4. Ranking Results Once the search engine has determined which results are a match for the query. 2. . but a search for the same phrase in quotes ("car and driver magazine") returns only 166 thousand results. A match is determined if the terms or phrase is found on the page in the manner specified by the user. only those pages with the exact phrase "car and driver magazine" were returned.make up the World Wide Web. a search for car and driver magazine at Google returns 8. Other advanced operators (Google has a list of 11) can change which results a search engine will consider a match for a given query. search engines have crawled between 8 and 10 billion. Processing Queries When a request for information comes into the search engine (hundreds of millions do each day). so that requests which must search and sort billions of documents can be completed in fractions of a second. the engine's algorithm (a mathematical equation commonly used for sorting) runs calculations on each of the results to determine which is most relevant to the given query.25 million results. Indexing Documents Once a page has been crawled.

The technical oxymoron. however. . Your site will continue to function internally with database-driven content while the URLs begin to look like a search engine friendly URL. sales! CGS offers a never-before solution to this vicious circle. traffic and. a Website ceases to be search engine friendly. It is usually pulled from a database and created on a single template. PHP.3 What is dynamic optimization? The obvious goal of any e-commerce or dynamic database driven site is to make sales as well as get properly listed on the search engines also. on the fly at the server level through CGI programming.4. ASP. or shopping cart is added. therefore. putting an end to all hopes of search engine listings. Solutions Offered by CGS The solution we offer for optimization of Dynamic Content is unique in the sense that it does not require any changes to your site’s functioning and yet. We have engineered a technology so that database-driven Websites become search engine friendly and soar up the ranking ladder! What is Dynamic Content? Dynamic content is information that is delivered to the Web browser in a different form from that which exists on the server. ensures you leverage against the SEO advantages of Static websites. is that as soon as an ecommerce element or a dynamic database driven module. JSP etc or by any customized content management system. ranks.

Google looks at more than the sheer volume of votes. Coming on top of search engine is like a winning a democratic election in USA or UK. It refers to the total number of links or "votes" that a search engine has found for your website. Votes cast by pages that are themselves "important" weigh more heavily and help to make other pages "important.it's actually a little more complicated than that. Similarly the web page that gets maximum VOTES or Links wins the Internet Game and gets listed at top. candidates trying to be on top. There are many parties." Without a good Google PageRank. And. Google interprets a link from page A to page B as a vote. (In some instances. Search engines will also look at the quality and ranking of the sites that link to yours… in addition to other factors. they'll even look at the words being used to provide the link. In essence. But. It is one of the best ways to measure a website's online awareness and overall visibility. or links a page receives. the party or candidate that gets the maximum votes wins the election.) Some Search engines use this assessment when determining rank and positioning. One very important search engine that has placed a great deal of emphasis upon link popularity is Google. That's the straightforward explanation . you are unlikely to appear high in Google search results.4 What is link popularity? Link Popularity is basically a measure of the number and quality of inbound links to your website. it's essential that you strive for a site with good link popularity if you're looking . for page B. since Google is such an important search engine. PageRank relies on the uniquely democratic nature of the web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page's value. But.4. by page A. This excellent search engine uses what it calls PageRank as an indicator of a page's value. it also analyzes the page that casts the vote.

Under ONE WAY LINKING. Some of the other leading search engines which use link popularity criteria are AltaVista. CGS offers ONE WAY LINKING for the website.to attract visitors. the website is submitted in relevant category and directory having good PageRank. ONE WAY LINKING covers the following: • Directory Submission • Creation of Blogs and submitting in relevant blog websites . Excite and HotBot.

4. Contextual Internet advertising costs pennies and returns dollars. Research shows that Internet users expect the Web to be the . 2. 3. getting your Web site at or close to the top of search engine returns. While the interruption model is widely used and does work offline. online users want the info without the ads. These visitors are pre-qualified leads to your business! Even more important than the amount of traffic received is the quality of traffic .the visitors that arrive as the result of a search are pre-qualified. advertising that presents itself as a search result.5 Why should you consider internet marketing? Marketing online is more effective than traditional marketing and costs less! Consider these facts: 1. Over 60% of all first time visits to a Web site occur as the result of a search! Search engine marketing. They are already looking for the products and services your company offers. is now bigger than banner ads! Search Engine Marketing has a higher ROI than Traditional Marketing A report indicates that the most popular websites deliver audiences that are larger than the audiences delivered by the average episode of the most popular prime time TV shows and are often comparable in size to the most popular consumer magazines audiences. is therefore the single most effective marketing that a company can do. That's why "pay-per click" advertising. SEM is something even better than traditional advertising because most advertising is interruption advertising. Search engine marketing is very effective as a non-interruption information source.

SEM is more commonly viewed akin to traditional public relations because the "advertising" is the content that the audience came for. The answer is the search result. You don’t have to match your bigger competitors advertising $ for $ because SEM is proven to have the lowest cost of acquisition of any advertising vehicle. and they do not want to sift through advertising to get what they want. It provides a very high return on investment (ROI) because of its high conversion ratio of visitors to buyers and its relatively low cost per lead. This is because SE position is not based on the size of your company or annual revenues.provider of answers to simple queries. A search engine listing is more like a referral because the end user is asking a trusted source for an answer. It's based on the depth of your content. . This chart proves that you can get just as much advertising mileage out of SE for a fraction of the price of direct mail or even banners. Another clear advantage is that SEM evens out the playing field for savvy marketers to compete with established brands and household names.

Search engine ‘spiders’ crawl the internet looking for websites that meet their criteria for inclusion in their databases. A search engine such as Google will judge a site’s relevance according to a wide combination of criteria. A search for the keyword ‘Monopoly’ on Google will search their entire database and return a list of websites that mention ‘Monopoly’ in order of relevance. CGS uses extensive and detailed knowledge of these criteria to optimize your website to become as relevant as possible. . The majority of internet search engines (Google included) use automated software ‘spiders’ to collect sites for their listings.6 How do search engines work? A search engine is a giant database of internet sites and pages.4. The Yahoo! Directory differs from the majority of search engines in that a member of the Yahoo submissions team checks all websites that are submitted before they can be included.

4. . Your pay-per click account is only charged when the visitor clicks on your advert. and when the browser searches for your keyword. your advert is displayed.7 Additional Suggestions & Ideas Pay Per Click Advertising Pay-per-click advertising is a form of online marketing where you (the advertiser) pay a fee every time your online ad is clicked on by a browser. You can bid on keywords/phrases that are relevant to your business. and the amount paid for each click is set by you. and can be changed at any point.

or views a page with relevant content. As mentioned above all keywords are based on a “per-click” cost. and to place your ad in the top listings of key search terms. Pay Per Click Pay per click (PPC) is an advertising model used on search engines. which is determined by a bidding system. and no search function is involved. you ensure your ad is displayed only on the most relavant searches. ad networks such as Google AdSense and Yahoo! Publisher Network attempt to provide ads that are relevant to the content of the page where they appear. When a user types a keyword query matching the advertiser's keyword list. who made a reservation through your ad! Using this data to further refine your campaign ensures the most affective . and ultimately. Detailed statistics reveal who saw you ad. When used correctly. Furthermore. where advertisers only pay when a user actually clicks on an ad to visit the advertiser's website. allowing you to determine the best possible use of your online budget. By targeting certain key words (example: luxury hotel kensington london) to display your ad. and content websites/blogs. but also increase exposure and market awareness.5. this form of advertising can prove to be extremely profitable. Pay-per-click advertising is quickly becoming a necessary feature of any successful web presence. PPC advertising allows for the ability to track all details regarding your campaign. Advertisers bid on keywords they predict their target market will use as search terms when they are looking for a product or service. These ads are called a "Sponsored link" or "sponsored ads" and appear next to or above the "natural" or organic results on search engine results pages. or anywhere a webmaster/blogger chooses on a content page. In this case. Pay per click ads may also appear on content network websites. the advertiser's ad may be shown. who clicked on your ad. advertising networks. and not only boost online revenue.

minimum prices per click start at US$0. Arguably this advertising model may be open to abuse through click fraud. Google AdWords. Pay per click programs do not generate any revenue solely from traffic for sites that display the ads. the list of advertiser links appears in order of the amount bid. Sponsored match displays your listing on the search engine itself whereas content match features ads on publisher sites and in newsletters and emails. Search engine companies may fall into more than one category. Keywords.01 (up to US$0. these prices are often referred to as Costs Per Click (CPC). The terms are guarded as highly valued trade secrets by the advertisers. More models are continually evolving. There are other types of PPC engines that deal with Products and/or services. Using primary distribution networks for PPC advertising. and can include product model numbers. Content Match. also referred to as search terms. Depending on the search engine.and efficient campaign. are the very heart of pay per click advertising. Yahoo! Search Marketing. although Google and other search engines have implemented automated systems to guard against this. Keyword PPCs Advertisers using these bid on "keywords". will distribute the .50). and many firms offer software or services to help advertisers develop keyword strategies. and Microsoft adCenter are the largest network operators as of 2007. Revenue is generated only when a user clicks on the ad itself. Very popular search terms can cost much more on popular engines. While many companies exist in this space. Categories PPC engines can be categorized into two major categories "Keyword" or sponsored match and "Content Match". When a user searches for a particular word or phrase. which can be words or phrases. your ad is visible to over 90% of active internet users.

Microsoft adCenter Microsoft adCenter (formerly MSN adCenter). and site-targeted advertising for both text and banner ads. Image ads can be one of several different Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) standard sizes. The AdWords program includes local. Inc. as to our process. Yahoo began offering this service after acquiring Overture Services. As a full-service internet marketing provider. Goto.com). Ask. Yahoo! Search Marketing. Yahoo! Search Marketing Yahoo! Search Marketing is a keyword-based "Pay per click" or "Sponsored search" Internet advertising service provided by Yahoo!. Miva. Microsoft adCenter provides pay per click advertisements. Yandex and Baidu. LookSmart. AdWords offers pay-per-click (PPC) advertising. notable PPC Keyword search engines include: Google AdWords. and international distribution. national. Google Adwords AdWords is Google's flagship advertising product and main source of revenue. Microsoft adCenter.keyword ad to the search engine's partner sites and/or publishers that have distribution agreements with the search engine company. is the division of the Microsoft Network (MSN) responsible for MSN's advertising services. consisting of one title line and two content text lines. (formerly Goto. our specialized team would be happy to provide you with additional information. our . Google's text advertisements are short.com was an Idealab spin off and was the first company to successfully provide a pay-for-placement search service following previous attempts that were not well received. As of 2007.

and even share with you samples of our standard documentation. .philosophy.

Secondly.1. Introduction: The Value of Keyword Research Keyword research. Each search engine uses its own unique algorithm that is made up of various ranking factors. Lastly.6.1 Search Traffic ComScore Networks reported that Americans conducted 6. keyword research is a great way to find other areas of opportunity for your site's success. draws a distinct parallel to traditional market research. providing relevant keywords to searchers will enhance their user experience. 6.” Employing popular keywords and phrases (terms that users frequently search for at the major engines) on your website and in your marketing will attract the highest levels of traffic and potential customers. These factors determine which web pages to display for a particular search. it brings valuable search traffic to your site. when a user searches for “green eggs and ham. Thus. Just as successful ad campaigns contain content that appeals to their target demographic. an important facet of search engine optimization and Internet marketing. First. they do acknowledge that an extremely important element of the ranking formula is a site's placement and prominence of keywords. Hotel Keyword Research for SEO & PPC 6. successful websites implement keywords that have the highest relevance and conversion rates.” a web page with that precise text is far more likely to rank well than a page containing the synonymous “lime-colored hen spawn & pig parts. Researching keywords for your website is integral to your Internet marketing campaign for three core reasons. The search engines employ text matching to help them determine relevance. While the engines purposefully do not reveal all of the factors that make up their ranking algorithm.7 billion searches online in December 2006 .1.

91%) use two word phrases when conducting a search. Therefore. users also want to find relevant results quickly. 6. they won’t find you if you’re not targeting the same keywords they’re using to conduct their searches. or products. and the websites that appear in the search results.Furthermore. Although search engines have become increasingly salient many search engine users still don’t know how to conduct successful searches that return the desired results. connections. if you’re not optimizing your site and ensuring that you’re targeting relevant keywords. or service when they perform a search.3 Finding Areas of Opportunity Keyword research is a great way to discover your users' interests.1.com reported that of all the search phrases worldwide. search engines. product. followed by 3 word phrases (27. it’s clear that search engine users overwhelmingly choose a few select words in their quest to find information. When planning content or brainstorming new ideas to expand your site or .85%). in July 2006 OneStat. 6. In addition to wanting to find what they’re looking for. and 90% click on a result that’s listed on the first three pages.43%). JupiterResearch and iProspect published a study in May 2006 that found 62% of searchers click a listing on the first page of search results. most people (28. While millions may be searching for products or services that you offer.2 User Experience A positive search experience is important to users. it’s likely that your site won’t be listed within the first few pages of relevant search results. meaning most searchers won’t find your site.1. Based on this data. and 1 word phrases (11. 4 word phrases (17. it’s essential to research keyword combinations relevant to your business’s website in order to instill confidence in your readership and create a positive search experience.11%). Thus.

business's offerings. design a new product. find forums where users discuss related topics and services. what ancillary topics are of value and which products or services are more/less popular than others. . launch a clever marketing campaign. The applications for keyword research are limitless – write a new article. or even expand your business to serve new regions or demographics. the keywords your users search are a goldmine of information. build a relevant tool. You'll be able to see exactly what topics interest your customers.

2. Search estimates are the number of searches for a keyword in a given amount of time (one day. a year. the time frame varies with each tool). so .6. 6. Motel or the services that your Hotels provides and to your existing list of keywords. Visitors.2. 6. Don't think of these counts as accurate—each tool pulls data from different sources. projects. and your industry professionals. qualified visitors to your site. thirty days. Travellers.2 Keyword Estimate and List Generation Sources The following is a list of resources that provide keyword suggestions and search estimates. Keyword suggestions are any terms and phrases a tool provides that are related to your hotel. The brainstorming phase should ideally result in a list of several dozen to several hundred keyword searches that will bring relevant.2 Brainstorming Keywords The first stage of researching keywords for your site is generating a list of terms and phrases relevant to your Hotel/Motel and what your site or Hotel offers.1 Initial independent brainstorming recommendations While there’s no wrong way to brainstorm. It can be helpful to imagine creating a directory for all the people. ideas. what would they search for to find the content you provide? Use a thesaurus to research synonyms for your core keywords. these recommendations should help determine an initial course of action: List all of the most important words and phrases currently on your siteRecord important/valuable words and phrases on your competitors' hotels Put yourself in the mindset of your customers. and companies connected to your site. ninety days. Create taxonomy of all the areas of focus in your industry.

There are a variety of keyword suggestion tools available and we've listed a few of those here. membership fees/usage costs. and how you can use it when brainstorming keywords. related searches that include your term and how many times that term was searched on last month. Google AdWords Traffic Estimator : recommends keywords based on a keyword you enter or a URL you have the tool analyze   Yahoo! Search Marketing : Yahoo! Search Marketing is a keywordbased "Pay per click" or "Sponsored search" Internet advertising service provided by Yahoo!. as well as provides additional data charts about audience demographics and keyword cost. we’ve provided general information about its data sources.it's impossible to say which has the “most accurate” count.  . product and/or service. to create the most powerful Keyword Research tool. many of which you might never have considered. you should think of search estimate figures as a relative way to see which keyword is searched for more often than others. rather. Microsoft AdCenter Keyword Generation Tool : The Keyword Generation Tool also allows you to research keyword performance to determine which keywords of interest are used more often by Live Search users. as well as the search terms that drive traffic to your competitors. For each site.  Google AdWords Keyword Tool Estimator : Get ideas for new keywords that can help you improve your ad relevance.  Overture Keyword Selector Tool : Not sure what search terms to bid on? Enter a term related to your site and Overture will show you.  Keyword Discovery : KeywordDiscovery compiles keyword search statistics from over 180 search engines world wide. the type of information displayed. KeywordDiscovery can tell you the search phrases people use to find products and services.  Wordtracker : Wordtracker helps you find all of those keywords and keyword phrases that relate to your business. Researching keywords and keyword phrases is one of the most important elements in a well rounded search engine marketing campaign.

which informs marketers of the best 'keywords' to use in search marketing campaigns. the tool shows popular news items that relate to those search terms along the way. The tool shows trends among 1 or more search terms since the beginning of 2004. possibly explaining spikes in data in the past 2 years. Developed for small businesses. aiding our keyword research.com : SpyFu offers free website and keyword analysis for organic and paid searches. Google Trends : Google trends can offer a lot of valuable information on search activity.  KeyCompete. GoogSpy. and tons of other features. It has more than 20 times the amount of data than its predecessor. As well. Hitwise – KeywordIntelligence. KeyCompete also identifies the competition that is bidding on your keywords.com : KeyCompete is an online keyword research tool that identifies the keywords your competitors are using in their payper-click campaigns. this service provides search marketers with the ability to generate lists of quality keywords that have been proven to drive traffic to websites in specific industries.  Spyfu.  .com : Hitwise is a keyword suggestion service.

below are some tips to help you get started. 6. . 6.3 Targeting Clickthroughs and Conversion Rates with Search Ads When optimizing your paid ads to target specific keywords.1 Ad Title The title of your ad will be the first thing users see – it must draw the user into the ad to encourage a read of the ad content. and keyword-laden URL. Ad titles that contain the exact text that a user searched for is far more likely to get a click. Use this as an opportunity to craft a short.6.2 Ad Copy Employing your targeted keywords in your ad copy results in higher clickthrough-rates. user-friendly. though – use them in an intelligently-written fashion in well-crafted copy for best results. it's wise to create ads with as much specificity as possible.3.3.3. click-through rate heavily influences your ad's position.4 Click-Through Rate (CTR) In Google Adwords (and Yahoo! Search Marketing).3 URL Search marketing programs allow you to use a display URL that differs from the actual URL the link refers to. There are a number of ways to improve your clickthrough rates (CTR). Don't stuff the keywords in needlessly.  Target your ads to the right Audience. All of the factors mentioned above. Thus. You do this by selecting keywords and phrases which are relevant to your product or service. Although many ad programs will let you create one ad targeting many different 6.3. along with creativity and rigid testing can help you to drive up your ad's CTR. the price you pay and your propensity to be displayed in the results. we recommend including the appropriate keyword(s) in the following context: 6.

You will find that more focused keywords and search phrases have a higher conversion ratio than other more general keywords.  Use the correct keyword matching option(s). Phrase Match. if your service offers loans. you can create different ad groups for home equity loans (and all other phrases that incorporate this phrase). Target the right audience by selecting the language and countries that you want to reach.  Use your main keywords in the Title or Body Text of your ad.  Create different Ad Groups for different search phrases/keywords. improve your CTR. By applying the most focused matching options to your keywords. This will allow you to refine your ads and test them for relevance and therefore maximise your clickthrough rates. they often generate very few clicks. Exact Match and Negative keyword. you can reach more targeted prospects.  Calculate what you can afford to pay for each clickthrough. For example. consolidation loans. When creating your adwords campaign target your ads by location so that you maximise your sales and improve your CTR.  Target your ads by location and language. To improve your CTR.Avoid keywords that are too general because although they generate a large number of impressions. student loans and so on. Google offers four different methods of targeting your ads by keywords: Broad Match. use more descriptive phrases so that your ads will only appear to prospective customers searching for what you have to offer. reduce your cost-per-click and increase your return on investment. It's a good . By using your keywords in the title or ad body text of your ad. it will stand out from your competitors and grab the eye of your prospective customers.

5 Landing Page Quality Google (and perhaps Yahoo!) is using landing page quality to approve/deny ads. 6. quality of site design.  Test and monitor your ads to get the best clickthrough rates.strategy to pay more for clicks from keywords or phrases with a high conversion ratio than from the more general keyword groups.  Use highly targeted Keywords and search phrases. When you set up a PPC account. You can do this by creating different ads for each ad group and then checking which ads have the best clickthrough rates.6 Conversion Rate Google. Refine and fine-tune your ad to maximise click throughs. With Google you can do this in real time. General keywords will be more expensive and will result in lower clickthrough rates. you insert code from the service onto the . You can also achieve this if you tailor each keyword to your offer and use relevant terms/ words in both the title and the ad body. relevance to the topic and user experience all figure into this somewhat subjective and secretive scoring mechanism. The easiest way to do this is to provide something of value for free. Be specific when selecting keywords and search phrases for your campaign. Keywords used.3. Yahoo and MSN all offer integrated analytics to track conversions. measure how relevant landing page is and determine price and position of ads in their search results. Use a different ad for each keyword group or search term.3.  Give Google users a compelling reason to click on your ad link. 6. If you're bidding on general keywords that are relevant to your site consider using the Exact match and the Phrase match keyword matching options in order to increase your CTR. This increases relevance and the likelihood that Google users will click on it.

. like landing page quality. Higher conversion rates. will influence cost per click prices. an “add to cart. placement in the results and how often your ad is displayed.e.page and it will track the unique “actions” (i.” form submission or signup).

Users see title tags primarily in search results. title tags cut off after 66 characters. If your site has not been submitted to DMOZ. or <meta name=”slurp” content=”noydir”>). . It’s also important to keep in mind that in the SERPS (search engine results pages). which tells them not to use Yahoo! Directory titles or snippets for your URLs in their search results. If Google has problems spidering your site. they will use the DMOZ description of your site as your pages' title tags. We also don’t recommend targeting too many keywords in one title tag. therefore. they’ll appear spammy and can discourage people from clicking through. To tell Google to exclusively use the title tag you’ve provided. rather. Lengthy title tags that cut off mid-sentence do not look appealing in search results. it’s important to maintain a balance of brevity and relevance when writing your title tags.4 Targeting Keywords in the Organic Results When optimizing your site to target specific keywords in the organic search results. and if the title tags are stuffed with keywords. Yahoo! and MSN also support the “NOODP” tag. include a “NOODP” tag (<meta name=”robots” content=”noodp”>) in your page’s code. and the title tags you’ve written for your site will be used. focus on including the keywords that are most relevant for that particular page.6. and Yahoo! recently started supporting the “NOYDIR” tag (<meta name=”robots” content=”noydir”> . Either instance can be problematic. we recommend including the appropriate keyword(s) in the following context: Title Tags : Appearance in Search Engine Results It’s not a good idea to jam keywords into your pages’ title tags. as the keywords you’re targeting in your title tags aren’t being seen by either the search engine or by searchers. then Google will use your page’s URL as its title tag.

it's important to ensure that each of your pages has a unique meta description so that users can differentiate one page from the next in search results. Targeting the same keywords over and over again in multiple meta descriptions can result in keyword cannibalization and will confuse searchers as to which of your pages is most relevant to their search. While the meta description tag doesn't need to be optimized for search engines. it is nonetheless extremely valuable in that. . it is foolhardy to stuff keywords into your description tag because to a user the description of your page will look spammy. they’ll consider the content within header tags to be especially important. so it’s logical to make sure that you include important keywords in them. To tell the search engines to exclusively use your meta description tag. meaning searchers are more likely to see your site’s page when they search for keywords that are included in your page’s header tags. Again. Like the title tag. the purpose of the meta description is to compel the searcher to click on your result in the SERPs. in this sense. make sure to include the NOODP and NOYDIR tags in your code. Furthermore. Header Tags Header tags display text in a larger size than the rest of the text on your site. Therefore. if the search engines cannot effectively crawl your site. it acts as your page's ad copy. The meta description is only visible in the SERPs (and to users who view the source code of your pages). they will use the ODP or other directory description instead of the one you have written. and the description cuts off after around 155 to 170 characters. to searchers. when search engines crawl your site.Meta Description Tags The meta description is the little blurb that describes the content of the page listed in the search results.

On Emerald City Boat Tours' website. Emerald City Boat Tours would logically want to include the words “seattle.com. “seattle. Search engines' analyses of on-page text content has become exceptionally advanced.” “tour packages. Text Content Another simple way to optimize your site for specific keywords is to include them in the body of your site. URLs Having one or two keywords in your domain is a great way to tell search engines that your site explicitly relates to the keywords embedded in the domain.” “seattle tour. which is making sure that a particular keyword appears a certain amount of times on one page. Do not worry about keyword density.” etc. Search engines will see that . For example.emeraldcityboattours. they must be associated with your business. search engines may suspect your site of spamming.” “tour. a perfect domain name for Emerald City Boat Tours would be www. write naturally and be conscious of using your keywords a few times throughout the page. thus. Including each page’s most important keywords in header tags is a great way to let search engines know that these terms are particularly relevant.” and other related keywords throughout their site. are all keyword combinations that can lead searchers to the site’s Tour Packages page. writing great copy with the user in mind will deliver far more benefit than stuffing keywords into your text. The search engines will pick up on the fact that because these words are consistently found throughout your site. their page about the different types of tours offered could have the following phrase displayed in an H1 tag: Seattle Tour Packages That way. Instead.” “tours. If you mention the keyword too often on a page.

com/seattle-boat-tour-packages. That way. What's wrong with this URL?  The site is missing out on a prime opportunity to target its top keywords in its URLs.“emerald. Even if your site already has a domain registered that doesn’t include your top search terms.com/articles/food/critics-picksshh-quiet-sounds-appetizing.” “tour.” “boat. search engines and users can see that “seattle. Another URL option would searcher. The last thing the site would want to do is have a URL that looks like this: http://sfgate. the site's tour packages URL can look like www. Notice that “seattle” isn't in the domain name. For example. The URL has an unnecessarily deep folder structure.” and “tours” are three keywords that are relevant to the site because they’re all found in the site’s domain.” “boat. be http://sfgate.” and “packages” are all relevant keywords. .DTL&type=food. Emerald City Boat Tours can still target “seattle” in its URLs. If a user is searching for the article. which tidily sums up the article for the  The URL has unnecessary dynamic parameters.  Http://sfgate. “articles” because the page contains an article.com/cgibin/article.  Users who look at the URL won’t have any idea what page it will serve up.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/02/22/NSG8FO6DLF1. a better URL would be http://sfgate.com/articles/food/critics-picks-shh-quiet-soundsappetizing makes logical and appropriate use of two folder structures. which targets the title of the article in the URL. which weakens the site’s usability. you can still include them in your URLs.” “city.emeraldcityboattours.com/articles/food/noise-rating-inrestaurant-reviews. and “food” because the article is food-related.

” Search engines assign some relevance to words that are hyperlinked. you want to avoid writing anchor text that says “Click here to see our rates. It has an unfamiliar extension (. so when a search engine spiders the site it will see the links and is likely to associate your site with the keywords embedded in them.  URL structure should be both search and user-friendly.” “Types of Seattle Tours. you want to make sure that the links pointing to your site contain relevant anchor text. Internal Anchor Text When linking to other pages within the site. It employs both lower and uppercase letters. Some internal links on Emerald City Boat Tours' site could be “Most Popular Tour Packages. Include your keywords in a way that the links will read as informative and not spammy.” “Sightseeing Specials.” etc. It's standard to stick with one convention (either lowercase. Which of these two links would you rather click on? “Emerald City Boat Tours sightsee seattle tour city touring downtown” “Emerald City Boat Tours—fun boat tours of Seattle” . so you want to make sure that you’re using your keywords in your anchor text. Each of these internal links contains one or more relevant keywords. External Anchor Text When buying or building links and submitting your site to directories. or uppercase) rather than mix and match the two. and it tells users that your site offers information on what he or she is searching for. which is more widely accepted s being the standard.dtl).” “Tour Rates. Appropriately including your keywords in your URLs tells search engines that your site has relevance to those keywords.

legitimate. and professional. .The second link looks more trustworthy. and it still fulfills the function of implementing keywords in the external anchor text.

low volume keywords. so don't rule out less voluminous searches. The keyword tools can be great sources of brainstorming material.1 Keyword Predictions Be wary of using the keyword tools to forecast exactly how much traffic will come to your website.5. You can attract these Tools Provide Relative Numbers. In practice. URLs.2 Brainstorm Terms Cautiously Remember to think about the value of a visitor who's come to your site via or phrase you target. the greatest amount of value in search referrals comes from the “long tail” of rarely-searched.5. but don't trust anything but real numbers garnered through test campaign experience to predict real volume. 6. but they all require a solid starting point. and text content are all good places to put your important terms.4 The Long Tail Oftentimes.5 Targeting Final Thoughts: Best Practices for Keyword Research & The practice of keyword research seems straightforward at first – type a few relevant terms into a tool. but beware of spamming – the engines may penalize your site. target the good ones on your site.6. get some results. not Accurate . 6. however. It's also wise to remember that anchor text can have a huge impact on rankings – make sure to include keyword in anchor text when relevant.5. The more specific the query. Use the tools to determine which phrases are more popular than another. and watch the traffic roll in. the intricacies of every portion of this process make it invaluable to know the ins and outs of keyword search marketing.5. The most important Points are: 6.3 Keyword Targeting Title tags. 6. The vast differences in the estimations provided and the disparity of sources can mean that even the highest rankings won't bring in the level of visitors predicted. and it's up to you to know enough about your industry to determine what keyword niches will provide value. the higher the chance of conversion. headlines.

visitors by writing consistently fresh, updated content on your site in the form of a blog, wiki, article list, newsletter, or even user-generated content. 6.5.5 Keyword Cannibalization A common problem in keyword targeting is to attempt to attract the same search terms on many different pages on a site. While occasionally targeting the same keywords on a couple pages is unavoidable, be wary of using the same terms on every page's title tag and header. Instead, write more detailed pieces to target long tail terms and link back to the high-level, targeted page with the proper anchor text.

7. Hotel Link Building for SEO 7.1 Why Search Engines Measure Links

PageRank and Links as Votes: Larry Page and Sergey Brin publicly pioneered the use of link measurement as an indicator of search relevance when they created the Google search engine. The initial idea behind their legendary PageRank system was that a link to a particular page is equivalent to a vote by the linking page for the linked-to page. As the theory goes, by measuring not only the keyword relevance on a page, but also the number of “votes” it had, you could accurately determine which pages were considered by the web’s users to be most valuable for the given search terms. Furthermore, links from web pages with high PageRank would be more valuable (considered more authoritative and reliable) than links from low PageRank pages. This initial model, while revolutionary, didn’t consider the quality of on-page content, trust metrics or semantic relationships and was thus extremely vulnerable to manipulation. Improvements in Link Quality Scoring: Over the years all of the major search engines adopted the link-based ranking model with some stylistic variation from engine to engine. The technology, quality and “intelligence” of the various search algorithms continually evolve in an effort to improve the quality of returned search results. Anchor text is now considered when evaluating the relevance of a given link to the given keywords. If a site about Seattle Boat Tours has lots of links pointing to it with anchor text written as ‘Seattle boat tours’, those links will provide greater value to the link recipient than links with anchor text such as

‘click here’ (at least for searches on “Seattle Boat Tours”). We will discuss anchor text in greater detail in the next section. Semantic attributes the of on-page text surrounding links is also analyzed. For instance, if a link to Seattle Boat Tours is in the middle of a page about theoretical physics as it relates to the study of Scientology, that link won’t be considered as valuable as the same link with adjacent content about Seattle, tourism, boating, etc.

Seattle.gov tourism page, this would be highly relevant for ‘Seattle Boat Tours’

Search algorithms also consider relationships between linked sites.

By

analyzing things like IP addresses, reciprocal links and domain registration information, the engines try to determine if the links are valuable organic links, or if they are manipulative, artificial links created solely for ranking purposes.

Links as Quality Control: By using the methods discussed above to measure link quantity and quality, the search engines create a ranking system that is much harder to manipulate than one based solely upon on-page factors. That is not to say, however, that page structure and actual content are not evaluated. The linkbased model simply places more importance on links based upon the theory that only well-designed, content-rich pages will get high-value links from reputable sources. Trusted Domains: Link factors such as anchor text, semantic relevance and page relationship certainly matter, but perhaps no factor matters as much as the trustworthiness of the domain providing you with your link. A single link from CNN or The New York Times is worth more “link-juice” than dozens of similar links from no-name blogs and MySpace pages. Trusted domains have proven over time (ironically, through the acquisition of thousands of trusted links) to be worthwhile and reliable sources of quality information about their given subject matter. As such, when the search engines see that these sites link to you when discussing your area of focus, they pay attention. This tells the engines that a reliable and trusted source thinks you are an expert and you offer content that’s extremely relevant to the topic. Think about it this way: If the Weekly World News runs the headline ‘Twoheaded Dragon Boy Born in New Jersey,’ would you take it seriously? No? What if the same headline was on the cover of Time magazine? In nearly everyone’s mind, the Time link to ‘Two-headed Dragon Boy Born in New Jersey’ is far more valuable and credible than the same story from the Weekly World News.

com. the search engines use their artificial intelligence algorithms to make similar determinations. Thus.com or CNN’s money.com is not nearly as valuable as one link from Bankrate. . In the online world. This is a self-perpetuating process on the web. 50 links from Moe-does-Mortgage. the more trusted and valuable your site (and the links you give) becomes. valuable links your site receives. The more trusted.This is why we don’t go into a state of shock when we see bizarre WWN headlines every week in the grocery checkout line: they’re simply not reliable for anything other than a laugh.

but chances are we wouldn’t need much help if someone were searching for ‘Cyberwebhotels’ directly. Anchor Text: Anchor text is the actual text that visitors click on to follow a link. the content If an of article the page has article. What we will discuss are the important onpage and structural characteristics of links that can help make them most effective: anchor text.7.” . Here’s a great resource for info about search engine optimization. we’re going to skip the lecture on HTML and the structure of the Internet (it’s a series of tubes).html. therefore there’s no keyword benefit conveyed by this anchor text.com/articles/holiday-cruises. it conveys no value about www. Cyberwebhotels isn’t a respected resource on “click” or “here.seattleboatours. not only for links of this style. link location and link intention.com For great info about search engine optimization click here.2 An Introduction to Link Building Fundamental Properties of a Link: If you’re reading this (and you are) then chances are you know what a link is. the URL whereas provides www. both 1 and 3 have distinct advantages over number 2.cyberwebhotels. but for keyword relevance in search engine spidering. Example 1 does contain Cyberwebhotels’s name (since it’s in the domain name).” These aren’t keywords or search terms anyone would use to find Cyberwebhotels. Below are three examples of anchor text for a link to the CyberwebHotels homepage: For great info about search engine optimization. check http://www. This helps some. Number two provides a link (which is good) but it offers absolutely no semantic value. As such. Note though that constructing concise.seattleboatours. relevant URLs for the pages on your site can help. out Of these examples.html context and relevance to anyone searching for “holiday boat cruises.com/article/121.

on the other hand. Deep links are usually the result of people finding your deep page content useful and wanting to share it with their visitors. URL Location: This refers to where in a site’s page structure your link is found: shallow or deep.yourhomepage. Aggressive link builders would be wise not to abuse homepage-only linking. and more than 80% link exclusively to your homepage. Keep in mind that this is much more important for larger sites since small sites do not have much inherent depth. Whenever possible. when too prevalent. are links to more specific pages such as individual articles.Example 3 is certainly the best of the three because it not only provides the link but it also offers additional semantic relevance. Deep links. If the search engines see that a lot of links to Cyberwebhotels use anchor text such as ‘search engine optimization. Shallow links are links to your site’s homepage or top-level category pages. Yahoo! Site Explorer link data for the entire Cyberwebhotels site and homepage only. they’re natural and often more valid. If hundreds (or thousands) of sites are linking to you. You can check your deep link percentage by visiting Yahoo! and performing a link search. Shallow links. Search engines like these types of links. respectively: . blog posts.’ they will quickly recognize that other web pages think Cyberwebhotels is a relevant source for information related to those keywords. links that carry semantic value (such as example 3) are preferable. tools or other content.com” using your homepage URL. tend to look spammy to the engines. the search engines may cast suspicion on the “validity” of those links. Type in the search as “linkdomain: www.

an advertising page or a relevant.034 to the homepage.In the screen captures above you’ll see that Cyberwebhotels has 304.cyberwebhotels. .262 links to the entire site but only 32. topical pages.” As such. reciprocal or otherwise externally influenced and therefore less legitimate than deep links from within actual content or more specific. Are you being linked to from someone’s homepage. Also important is the location of the link on the linking page. highquality content page? Links from a link directory or advertising pages are often paid. “www.org. almost 90% of links to Cyberwebhotels are to deep content pages.

it could be valuable depending on the needs of the searcher. the value is high. If it’s a link influenced by money. Link Intention: What you should always keep in mind when considering the relative search engine value of a given link is: how will the engines view this link’s value to searchers? What is the linking page’s intention? If it’s a link indicating you as a source or a reference on a particular topic. . the more valuable that link will be. If it’s one link of many in a directory. specific and well-linked-to the page is that links out to you. engines have gotten better and more efficient at measuring the quality and intention of link patterns. but over time. search engines will try to find algorithmic ways to prevent it from passing value. it may be helpful (depending on the exclusivity and trust of the directory). If it’s sending someone to you for more information or to buy something. the more popular. relationships or other less trustworthy motivations.Conversely. That’s not to say it won’t help your ranking now.

as rankbuilding influencers. By participating in the community around your niche and building content worthy of links and discussion within said community. search engine spiders aren’t the only ones that see links to your site. Branding & Influence: What happens when every time someone looks around online for information about boats. the search engines ultimately try to algorithmically reproduce the results a human would provide if they had the time to editorially rate every single page in existence. but relevant to your content. you assume anything it links to is probably garbage as well. After all. you will get higher volume and better quality direct traffic from pages that are not only popular and highly trafficked themselves. It should come as no shock that humans passively analyze page quality when assessing link value. How often have you actually clicked on a link you found on an extremely spammy. you gain visibility.3 Why Build Links? As we’ve just discussed. Web users visiting sites can and (hopefully) do click on those links. Do you want to have visibility as that guy who always .7. How you want your image to manifest though is entirely up to you. etc. There are. tours or Seattle they see not only links to your site. it’s worth your while to focus on quality links from relevant pages. but comments about you in every prominent blog on the subject? You become an authority in the field. This is just one more example where quantity may be easy to come by. other reasons to build links as well Gaining Direct Traffic: Oddly enough. As such. generating direct traffic to you. however. Once again though. branding and influence. but quality is what really counts. as trust. many link building efforts in the SEO world are done to improve a site’s search engine rankings: Links as votes. worthless page? If the original page is garbage. Visibility.

Shallow. Natural Links vs. they will reference you and link to you as a resource. Links bring traffic. useful content. Status and Trust of Linking Domain (Time vs. . click here) Location of Link in Site Structure (Deep. always complaining of a Loch Ness-like monster in Puget Sound? As people within (and even outside of) your community begin to recognize and respect your image and your brand. 7.has useful information. links bring search results. links bring passion…make your users passionate about your site. Some of the important factors they consider that we’ve already looked at include: Visibility. That’s because search engines take great pride in their ability to have literally hundreds of algorithmic components to evaluate link quality.4 How Do Search Engines Measure Link Quality? We’ve already spent a good bit of time extolling the virtues of high-quality links. etc. ads. the one everybody should check out if they’re interested in Seattle boat tours? Or do you want to be the Weekly World News of your niche. Spammy Links) In addition to these elements there are other advanced factors the engines apply when determining link value: Location of Link on Page: Page segmentation visually breaks a page into content blocks and—based on layout convention and actual content—determines whether or not the block contains internal navigation. Weekly World News) Semantic Value of Anchor Text (search engine optimization vs.

Based on this structural evaluation, links from content areas are considered more valuable than links from other areas of the page. While search engines certainly are not perfect at implementing this metric, the take-away is that it’s better to have links integrated into relevant content (with good anchor text) than to have them stuck in a sidebar list or on the bottom of the page. Relevance of Domain & Page: Terms in your page URL and Title tags are extremely valuable when helping search engines determine the nature of your page content. As we discussed earlier, using deep page URLs that describe the page are valuable in this regard (www.seattleboatours.com/articles/holiday_tours.html). Search engines use semantics to determine the likelihood of content relating to search query terms. For example, a Google search for ‘allintitle: dog & canine’ (which lists all sites with both “dog” and “canine” in the title) yields 80,300 results, whereas ‘allintitle: dog & shovel’ yields only 50 results. Similarly, ‘allinurl: dog & canine’ (which lists all sites with both terms in the actual URL) yields 15,500 results and ‘allinurl: dog & shovel’ yields zero results. While this example is painfully gratuitous, the point is clear: the engines know that if you search

for ‘dog’, pages with the word canine in the URL or title are much more likely to be relevant to you than pages with the word shovel. Conversely a page with the term ‘shovel’ featured prominently in the URL may not be as reliable a source for content with the keywords dog and/or canine. There is a whole science behind semantic indexing, but all you need to know is this: Page domains and titles that offer semantic relevance to your content convey an impression of reliability and relevance. Similarly, links to you from pages with semantically related content and or titles/URLs create consistency and relevance that the engines will reward. Visible vs. Invisible Links: All the links in the world won’t do you any good if the search engines cannot see them. Many sites use tactics to prevent the engines from following certain links on their pages in an effort to avoid spam. Links embedded as java script, tagged with a nofollow command

(rel=”nofollow” following the href URL), included on a page with a meta nofollow or blocked by robots.txt may not be visible to the search engines and, accordingly, pass no link value. Before you expend too much time or effort building links on a certain site or page, make sure you will get credit for them from the search engines.

Indications of Spam or Manipulation: While high-quality, relevant links will get you a healthy bump in search rankings, spammy, manipulative linking tactics are a good way to get your site flagged for deceptive practices. If most of your links are from ads, linkfarms, domains you own or IP addresses suspiciously similar to yours, the engines will take notice. Cheap link buys, reciprocal links and brokered links aren’t necessarily bad for getting your numbers up; but the engines can easily detect and discount a pattern of low-quality links from irrelevant pages. All of the algorithm technology exists not only to reward all of the great content and links you’ve built, but to recognize the abundance of useless pages on the web as well and keep it from influencing the search engine results pages (SERPS). This guide does not cover manipulative link practices in depth; rather, we will focus on illuminating tactics that will provide both short and long-term benefits.

In this section we’ll look at how to identify quality links for acquisition (the process of actually getting those links is covered later on). Using Search Modifiers: All of the search engines allow you to perform advanced searches to identify pages where your keywords appear in page elements such as page title. let’s look at how the search results narrow for advanced queries for the term ‘blue suede shoes’: Search “blue suede shoes” allintext: “blue shoes” allintitle: shoes” allinanchor: shoes” allinurl: shoes” *Results numbers are only estimates and generally only useful for purposes of comparison. making them good candidates for link acquisition. dear reader. however. usually identifying pages that are more “blue “blue “blue Finds Term In Anywhere on page suede Only in page text (not title or URL) suede Only in page title suede Only in link anchor text suede Only in page URL Results Returned* 869. Yahoo!.5 Searching the Engines for High-Quality Links Now that you understand the importance of attracting quality links. There are. The top 50-100 results obviously have some pull when it comes to those terms. Fear not.200 3. MSN and Ask) for the keywords/phrases you’re targeting.7.500 12. you’re almost certainly wondering exactly how you’re supposed to find them. Using these advanced search modifiers will progressively narrow down the results for your keyword searches. Using Google (although you should try these searches at all four major engines).000 859.090 .000 17. The most basic way to find valuable sites is to simply run searches on the major engines (Google. anchor text. many more targeted options for identifying solid links. URL or body text.

Thy Enemy. Once you have this list. Make note of sites that consistently . but now it’s time to find out where your successful competitors are actually getting the links that are putting them at the top of the SERPs. know thy enemy. i. the terms you want to rank for. 2.” In order to compete for search results in your niche you need to know a couple of things: 1. Identifying Primary Competitors: As Sun Tzu said so long ago.090 is only 31 pages). However. search the terms at Google. The top 30-50 results in both basic and advanced query searches are usually strong link acquisition targets.000 is 8. Thy Self.e. as the results narrow. the number of truly valuable pages also thins out (i. i. paying attention to the top 20 results at each. the sites that are already where you want to be for those search terms.e. “Know thy self.590 pages.6 Competitive Link Research We’ve just discussed how to ask the search engines where they think the valuable links are. Yahoo! and MSN.and more closely related to your topic. the top one percent of 859. Google results for the search ‘allintitle:”blue suede shoes”’: 7. but the top one percent of 3.e.

you would perform the following searches: Search Engine At Yahoo!: At MSN: Command linkdomain:generaltsao. Yahoo! and MSN tend to list more important links ahead of less valuable ones and.generaltsao. let’s say your site is www. although Google is essentially useless because they intentionally give incomplete link data.com from generaltsao.com. Pay extra-special attention to those sites that consistently rank in the top five: they are thy enemy. Yahoo! and MSN.generaltsao.com These searches.generaltsao.com and www.com. Now.com.com Shows a small random links to excluding the sample the site of page www.generaltsao.suntzu.rank in the top 20 for your terms. links At Google (pointless): link:www.co m linkdomain:generaltsao. find out where their links are coming from. will show you all of the inbound links to the site you’re searching for. Google notwithstanding.chairmanmao. Your competitive research has shown that two of your arch nemeses are www.com Shows all links to the domain generaltsao. .co m – site:generaltsao. First. let’s get to know them… Link Search Methods: Keeping with the Sun Tzu theme. You can perform direct link searches at Google.com Result Shows all links to the domain generaltsao. thus.com and a couple of your Holy Grail search phrases are ‘land war in Asia’ and ‘Chinese general’. How will you recruit their forces for your own quest of SERP domination? Gather intelligence on what they’ve got that you want. To check direct links for www. the top 100-200 links are the really powerful ones you want to focus on.

’ ‘add url.edu or . org.com that contain the specified site:generaltsao.’ ‘suggest a link. but not you: Search Command Result . Both Yahoo! and MSN allow multiple-competitor link searches which will identify pages with links to both (or all) of your competitors.com “submit site” (edu can be changed to gov.co m At MSN: “Chinese general” – Both searches find all links to the domain generaltsao.com site:edu Y! or MSN: linkdomain:chairmanma o. net or whatever else you’d like to look for) (‘submit site’ could be replaced by several other common “path-tosuch as inclusion” keywords Result m “land war in Asia” – anchor text (site excluded). You can run these searches for any or all of your key terms/phrases: Search Engine At Yahoo!: Command linkdomain:generaltsao.gov.co site:generaltsao.com linkdomain:generaltsao.On Yahoo!’s standard engine as well as MSN. These sites are often easier to get links from as they already mention several of your competitors. you can search for keywordembedded links: those that use particular anchor text in links to your competition. ‘directory. The latter are links to pages where you can easily add your site for inclusion in a directory or list of some kind: Website Y! or MSN: Command linkdomain:chairmanma o.’ or ‘suggest site’) You can also search for hubs that carry lots of information and links about your area of focus. The former are links with a specific type of domain extension such as . com.com Yahoo! and MSN also allow searches for extension-specific links and direct-path-to-inclusion links.

com "Chinese Shows pages with the -suntzu -site: keywords ‘generaltsao’ and/or ‘Chinese general’ but not .com chairmanmao.com.com At MSN: If you’re desperate for something (anything) from Google. you can perform some clever. suntzu.com Result -suntzu Shows pages with the keyword ‘generaltsao. chairmanmao -suntzu -site: Shows pages with the keyword chairmanmao.com generaltsao chairmanmao – Shows pages with the suntzu keywords ‘generaltsao’ and/or ‘chairmanmao’ At Google but not -site:generaltsao.com (linkdomain:generaltsao.com) Both that searches link show to but pages both AND NOT generaltsao.com ‘suntzu’.c om -linkdomain:suntzu. normal search queries to get an idea of domains linking to your competitors: Search Engine At Google: Command generaltsao.Engine At Yahoo!: linkdomain:generaltsao.c om) (-linkdomain: suntzu.com the domain chairmanmao.com ‘chairmanmao’ but not ‘suntzu’ excluding pages from At Google generaltsao general" generaltsao.co m linkdomain:chairmanmao.com’ but not ‘suntzu’ excluding pages from At Google: the domain generaltsao.co m linkdomain:chairmanmao.

Now that you know what links are. The rest of this guide will discuss the various avenues for acquiring links from the sites that will benefit your traffic and rankings. it’s time to talk about how to actually get them.com By applying several of the various link search methods outlined above. how engines use them and how to find good targets for them. .‘suntzu’ excluding pages from the domain genraltsao. why they’re important. you should be able to get a very good idea of your competitors’ in-links and where you’ll need to focus your efforts in order to vie for top rankings in competitive search terms.

7 The Art & Science of Direct Link Acquisition Asking for Links: Asking for links seems like it should be the easiest. domains that have the ability to give valuable links are bombarded constantly by pages of widely varying quality begging for links. including: . that’s something very difficult to teach and it’s definitely beyond the scope of this guide. sharing. Get some visibility and the powers that be will be able to put a face (or at least an avatar) to a name when you send an e-mail pitching your site. Your ability to become a high-profile participant on a site has something to do with your knowledge of the subject (but the sites you’re targeting should be related to your niche anyway. however. a few ways you can increase your chances of getting a favorable response to your link requests: As with any human interaction. curiosity and honest (read: non-commercial) intent. right?). Without delving too deeply into How to Make Friends and Influence People territory. it’s often the most difficult and frowned upon. there are a variety of tactics you can employ. Spend some time participating in blogs and forums on sites that could help you. warmth. most direct way to get them. you'll often run up against sites where link acquisition can be difficult. don't be discouraged. In fact. Unfortunately. it’s always advisable when endearing yourself to a web community to project an image of humility. Much more of it has to do with personal charisma and your ability to market yourself. As you can imagine. Offer advice where you have it.7. If the site doesn't provide a clear path to getting a link. There are. ask questions where you’re interested and even feel free to make an occasional joke if you’re funny. people are more willing to help out friends than strangers. Who/How/Where to Ask for Links: As you surf the web for potential links.

Call a Phone Number : There's no harm in calling whatever phone numbers you can find.Search for Other Outbound Links : If you can find a page on the site that's linking out to other relevant sites. directors of online operations or. Offering Compensation: . you'll get initial pushback (from un-returned phone calls and emails to flat-out negative responses). and can often be pitched with content (discussed in the next section). Locate a Relevant Email Address : Emails for sales contacts and support are not nearly as helpful as website managers. webmasters. Be Friendly. business owners. you can generally use that as a good entryway to your link acquisition. Be prepared to pay for these types of links. either as advertising or direct referral. mention your interest in being listed on that page along with their other outbound links . Your best move in these cases is to be as genuine and affable as possible and search for a way for to have the site owners make you an offer. Depending on how valuable or important you consider the link to be. Honorable & Persistent : Many times when making link requests. When you call or email. direct payment or pitch the value of your content. in many cases. Check for a Blog : Blogs are excellent sources for links. Look for an Advertising or Affiliate Page : Any page that lists a contact for advertising or affiliates is ripe for targeting. as they are almost always part of a site's monetization strategy. you'll become more and more familiar with the format of websites in your industry. You need to find someone who has decision-making authority about the content of the website. asking to be routed to the person who handles website content or website advertising and making your case. The practice of finding a link contact can be arduous. When in Doubt. but over time. which in many cases requires an owner (in the event of a small business) or a manager (in larger companies).you can offer a trade in services. it can be worth a good deal of time and energy to negotiate an acquisition.

“Hey. This is especially effective if you can create a piece of content relevant to a recent topic or discussion (either on or offline) in your subject area or a recent article by the individual you’re requesting a link from. How much you offer is up to you and should be commensurate with the quality and value of the link. if they like it.Sometimes you may ask for a link and receive a convoluted set of conditions. quality content is the most effective way to get quality links. Jim Boykin has written a helpful article about link valuation on his blog. anchor text.” there’s a good chance they’ll look at your content and. If you’d like to check it out. write about it and link to it. this is exactly what the search engines consider the intended use for links. relevance of content. reciprocations and other such hullabaloo in response. If you write an article. While you may want to go through all of these hoops to get the link. topical. introduce yourself as a reader of their site and contextually relate your content to theirs. I’d appreciate any feedback you have. where they’re linking from. . Putting it in front of the right eyes just helps the process. build a tool. Targeting Content: Perhaps the most subtle and effective way to “ask” for a link is to create some content on your site that you think would be of interest to the site you want a link from. make a great design and send an e-mail to the webmaster of the target site essentially saying. etc. you can find it here. It should no longer seem surprising that relevant. I recently did a post/built a tool that I thought you might find interesting. at times it will be easier (once some sort of link has been offered) to simply offer to pay for the link. A fair price for a link could be anywhere between $20150 per month depending on the strength of the site. After all. When writing this type of correspondence it helps to be specific.

XML is an increasingly important aspect of travel technology for handling metadata toward the semantic web. . In other contexts. Today the tour guide can be a GPS tour guide. Web 2. Travel technology includes the computer reservations system. in reference to "electronic travel" or "electronic tourism". it also represents a much broader range of applications. and the guidebook could be an audioguide. in travel. Travel Technology – An Introduction Travel technology is a term used to describe applications of Information Technology (IT). podguide or ITours. such as light-weight laptop computers with universal power supplies or satellite Internet connections. Travel technology includes virtual tourism in the form of virtual tour technologies. Travel technology may also be referred to as e-travel / e-travel or e-tourism / e-tourism (eTourism). used to describe various social software applications. such as City audio guides. Travel technology may also be referred to as tourism technology or even hospitality automation. or Information and Communications Technology (ICT).8.0 is a current buzzword in the travel technology community. The biometric passport may also be included as travel technology in the broad sense. Travel technology includes many processes such as dynamic packaging which provide useful new options for consumers. the term "travel technology" can refer to technology intended for use by travelers. That is not the sense in which it is used here. tourism and hospitality industry.

most of which act as travel agents so that they can receive . Travelers can book rooms from home. Hotels face several challenges in selling online directly to consumers. using online security to protect their privacy and financial information. Individual hotels and small hotel chains cannot afford the expense of these direct connections and turn to other companies to provide the connections. in effect. Prior to the Internet. travelers could write or telephone the hotel directly. Amadeus and Worldspan) that in turn provides hotel information directly to the hundreds of thousands of travel agents that align themselves with one of these systems. They send the hotel's information and rates "downstream" to literally thousands of online travel sites. Galileo. Nowadays. and even information on local resorts. then managing the room inventory and rates to be offered online is essential. and connecting to them. travel agencies.8. Many also allow reviews of the traveler to be recorded with the online travel agent.1 Online Hotel Reservation Online hotel reservation is becoming a very popular method for booking hotel rooms. Hotels may drop the price of a room if some rooms are still available. and using several online travel agents to compare prices and facilities at different hotels. Several large online travel sites are. There are several websites that specialize in searches for deals on rooms. or use a travel agent to make a reservation. There are numerous electronic distribution "channels". Online hotel reservations are also helpful for making last minute travel arrangements. online travel agents will have pictures of hotels and rooms. information on prices and deals. Large hotel chains typically have direct connections to the airline global distribution systems (GDS) (Sabre.

To improve the likelihood of filling rooms. It is very important that hotels integrate with all the supply channels so that their guests are able to make accurate online bookings. The content on many hotel reservation systems is becoming increasingly similar as all the hotels sign up to all the sites. persons can book directly on an individual hotel's website. hotels tend to use several of the above systems. Non-franchise chain hotels require a "booking engine" application to be attached to their website to permit persons to book rooms in real time. Lastly (oddly enough). is that they provide a single database from which all reservation sources draw immediate room availability and rates. The ultimate service provided by these companies to the hotels and the online consumer. or trust in the influence of search engine rankings to draw in customers.commission payments from the hotels for any business booked on their websites. An increasing number of hotels are building their own websites to allow them to market their hotels directly on the web. Companies thus have to rely on specially negotiated rates with the hotels or hotel chains. .

8. Airlines have divested most of their direct holdings to dedicated Global Distribution System companies.20% Over 400 airlines Over 120 airline websites Over 80. rental cars. major CRS operations that book and sell tickets for multiple airlines are known as Global Distribution Systems (GDS). and other services as well as airline tickets. Originally designed and operated by airlines.000 travel agencies Over 75.2 Global Distribution Systems A computer reservations system (CRS) is a computerized system used to store and retrieve information and conduct transactions related to travel. they were later extended to travel agents as a sales channel.com Opodo MARKET SHARE* 9.70% Over 20 airlines . Major systems NAME Amadeus (based on Eastern Air Lines' SystemOne) CREATED BY     Air France Iberia Lufthansa SAS ALSO USED BY on-line travel agencies including     ebookers Expedia lastminute. and many systems are now accessible to consumers through Internet gateways for hotel.000 hotels SABRE (Partnership with Abacus and Qantas' Fantasia)      American Airlines All Nippon Airways Cathay Pacific Airways China Airlines Singapore Airlines   Expedia Travelocity 44.

using 2006 MIDT airline transaction data.9% globally and 31% in the U. see List of global distribution systems.70% Worldspan by Travelport        Expedia Orbitz Hotwire Priceline 26. For other systems. Worldspan Marketshare is 16. .AccelAero by JKCS   Air Arabia and JKCS Mihin Lanka TransMaldivian Airlines Over 2 airlines and LCCs     Unknown Internet Booking Engine(IBE) by JKCS  JKCS   Qatar Airways Sri Lankan Airlines SAS Braathens Mercator Unknown Over 3 airlines Galileo by Travelport (based on United Airlines' Apollo.S.50% CRS airline bookings. In December. 2002. 2006.2% market share using 2002 airline booking data. merged with Ansett's Southern Cross)          Aer Lingus Air Canada Alitalia British Airways KLM Swissair TAP United Airlines US Airways Delta Northwest Trans World Airlines    CheapTickets ebookers Ixeo 19. Travelport which owns the Galileo CRS agreed to buy and merge with the Worldspan GDS. The combined company would then control a 46.

 1A Amadeus  1B Abacus (Asia/Pacific)  1E Travelsky (China)  1F Infini (Japan)  1G Galileo International  1J Axess (Japan)  1P Worldspan  1S Sabre (previously 1W)  1U ITA Software  1V Apollo (Galileo)  Navitaire  Atraxis (ex-swissair now EDS)  sNOWsh sNOWsh independent GDS  Topas (Korea)  Fantasia (South Pacific)  N1 Nextres' Iridian Project (Scandinavia)  SITA's Gabriel  F1 Farelogix (International)  Ix-Hotel (International)  TechSpan  eTravelStores. which are computer reservations systems which sell tickets for multiple airlines. See Computer reservations system for a list by market share.com .The following is a partial list of global distribution systems.

building control systems. and hospitality-specific network devices. HTNG holds regular member conferences in North America and Europe.3 Global Distribution Systems Hotel Technology Next Generation. The organization's members meet regularly in small workgroups. and many others. The organization's stated objective is to promote interoperability of the many technology systems used in the hotel industry. of senior technology executives from hotel companies.8. reference architectures. HTNG operates a certification program for selected specifications. commonly referred to as HTNG. is a global. guestroom entertainment system. and is classified as a 501(c)(6) non-profit organization by the US Internal Revenue Service. telephone systems. network designs. It was founded in 2002 and is governed by a board of directors consisting technology. point-of-sale systems. non-profit trade association serving hotel companies and technology providers. such as Property management systems. where hotel companies and vendors work together to design interface standards (often using XML). . security and access control systems. Membership is open to companies and individuals involved with hospitality administered by The Open Group. HTNG is incorporated in the State of Washington.

9.com 3. . The guest will also prefer the hotels that are ranked as # 1 by the travel review portal.com Hotel-guides.4) 2.7) Travel.3) 2.1) 2.5) 2.2) 2.com Trails.6) 2.com Sidestep. Travel review portals also give ranking to all hotels based on the reviews written by the guests. Travel Reviews Almost 87 % of American travelers use Internet review and ratings website to make decisions about their travel. The guest will type property name in the search engines such as Google. sidestep in the top 10 results. The top 7 Travel Review websites are under: 2. Yahoo.com Travelpost. 5. 2. AOL etc.com Google.com Hotel-rates.yahoo. 4. The typical decision making process of your potential guest is as follows: 1. The guest will visit any of the travel review site and read about the reviews of the hotel listed on those travel review portals. The guest will book the hotel which has highest number of positive reviews. The search engines will usually show Travel Review websites such as travelpost.

9.2 Neutralize Negative reviews: We scan all leading portals and search engines. We support you to communicate with the guest who has written negative review. they are likely to go to your competitors. . We recommend that all your satisfied guest’s experience must be online so that other potential guests can view them. some clients will be happy and small minority clients will be unhappy. If we find the review is actually written by your competitor to defame you.1 Build positive reviews: We give you & your guest the clear understanding of online travel portals such that your satisfied guest’s positive experiences are reported online. It is like you losing a battle even without given a chance to defend yourself. In every business. let us say all unhappy guests are reporting negative reviews about hotel property. You lose significant business because one dis-satisfied guest or (may be your competitor) has posted his or her own version of experience about your hotel. We enable you to post management response to negative reviews and at the same time we can help you to resolve the guests concerns. We do the following: 9. We defend your online reputation.When the guest go online and read negative reviews about your hotels from angry guests. we raise objection and complaint with appropriate decision makers in search engine. Right now. We are guardian of your brand name in the cyber-space.

all the positive review and rating will be on the Internet permanently. . might be affecting your business today.All the reviews written on the Internet are stored permanently. So a bad review written by a guest 3 year back. We support you to minimize the impact of negative review. helping you to get more guests easily and effortlessly. Similarly.

In a similar way the engagement with blogs achieves the same by sharing content through the use of RSS in the blogsphere and special blog search engines such as Technorati. Social Media Optimization Social media optimization (SMO) is a set of methods for generating publicity through social media. adding a "Digg This" button. Social media optimization is in many ways connected as a technique to viral marketing where word of mouth is created not through friends or family but through the use of networking in social bookmarking. Five Rules for conducting Social Media Optimization are: Increase your linkability Make tagging and bookmarking easy Reward inbound links Help your content travel Encourage the mashup      . blogging and incorporating third party community functionalities like Flickr photo slides and galleries or YouTube videos. video and photo sharing websites. online communities and community websites. Social media optimization is a form of search engine marketing. Methods of SMO include adding RSS feeds.10.

Permission can be revoked. Marketers feel that this is a more efficient use of their resources because advertisements are not sent to people that are not interested in the product. the more loyal your list will be. Permission cannot be transferred. This general rule is probably the best measure of email marketing permission.11. that does not give you the right to provide their name to any other entity. Just because you have permission from someone to send them an email. It is used by some Internet marketers. rather than allowing people to "opt-out" only after the advertisements have been sent. The easier and clearer you make this process. Permission cannot be assumed. It requires that people first "opt-in".1 Permission Email Marketing Permission marketing is a term used in e-marketing. Permission must be granted. WIIFM (what's in it for me?) Recipients need to understand "what's in it for me" You'll have a much more effective and content audience if you consider their needs in your permission process and your email campaign. Hotel Online Success Tools 11. This is one technique used by marketers that have a personal marketing orientation. etc. parent organizations. Marketers will ask permission before they send advertisements to prospective customers. associations. . email marketers. They feel that marketing should be done on a one-to-one basis rather than using broad aggregated concepts like market segment or target market. and telephone marketers. Truthfully ask yourself if the names on your list have actually granted you permission to email them. This includes your distributors. or if you assuming they want to receive messages from you. Recipients need the ability and have every right to be removed from your list.

Double opt-in: Click here if you would like to receive our email newsletter.If I throw a card in a fishbowl at a trade event. Opt-out: Click here if you do NOT want to receive our email newsletter.ASK! The golden rule: just clearly ask for permission. . and most common. and what they'll receive as a result. then receive a verification email that you must respond to in order to double opt-in. Just because you have people throw their cards in. Opt-out methods are quickly becoming associated with SPAM techniques. that does not mean they have given you permission . Again think of the WIIFM rule! Opt-in: Click here if you would like to receive our email newsletter. and your list size grows at a slower rate. the people who double opt-in are giving you a very strong permission to email to them. they give you permission to send them specific information.Permission is NOT granted. This is the standard. Ways to Gain Permission. and is somewhat deceiving to the recipient. This method is frowned upon.unless you clearly state that by doing so. method of permission. Although this method is lengthy. You?ll be amazed at how people will positively respond if they understand the situation.

and other media related to its . "Blog" can also be used as a verb. The user subscribes to a feed by entering the feed's link into the reader or by clicking an RSS icon in a browser that initiates the subscription process.91) RSS formats are specified using XML.2 RSS and Blogs RSS known as "Really Simple Syndication" is a family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blog entries.0 and RSS 0. The reader checks the user's subscribed feeds regularly for new content.0) RDF Site Summary (RSS 1. downloading any updates that it finds. a generic specification for the creation of data formats. web pages. others function as more personal online diaries.11. A typical blog combines text. or "channel". Blogs A blog (a portmanteau of web log) is a website where entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order. which is called a "feed". contains either a summary of content from an associated web site or the full text. and links to other blogs. "web feed". RSS makes it possible for people to keep up with their favorite web sites in an automated manner that's easier than checking them manually. "feed reader" or an "aggregator". An RSS document. news headlines or podcasts. images. RSS content can be read using software called an "RSS reader". The initials "RSS" are used to refer to the following formats: Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2. meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.90) Rich Site Summary (RSS 0. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject.

The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Micro-blogging is another type of blogging which consists of blogs with very short posts. although some focus on art (artlog). videos (vlog). audio (podcasting) are part of a wider network of social media.topic. photographs (photoblog). . sketchblog. Most blogs are primarily textual. music (MP3 blog).

A boarding house is different from and has a longer history than a bed & breakfast. but now also used in North America. The boarding house was for longer term stays. If you yourself have been a guest at a B&B listed on the Bed and Breakfast Directory. facilities. For all Bed and Breakfast accommodation listed on the site there is quick and easy contact information and you can even enquire online. ratings and locations on each bed and breakfast or guesthouse is dependent on the information provided by the Guesthouse themselves. The level of detail in the information. and breakfast in return for payment. . especially in the UK. for a place that offers bed accommodation. further information and contact details for Bed and Breakfast accommodation around the world. The Directory recently enjoyed its first birthday and as time progresses we hope to be able to show more and more B&B's from a wider range of locations across the world. bed and breakfasts are private homes with only one or two bedrooms available for commercial use. bed and breakfast was for people travelling through the area on short stays. please leave your own feedback or comments for other visitors to the site. The Bed & Breakfast Directory offers easy access. Many of the Bed & Breakfast accommodation listed include feedback from past guests to give you an idea of the quality of service and facilities you can expect from the respective B&B.11. Typically. but usually does not offer other meals.3 Online Directories for Bed and Breakfasts Bed & breakfast is a term. such as price. originating in the UK. Many entries also have their own photographs posted for a visual idea of what to expect.

along with the printed Yellow Page directory. Small operations can easily be located by a whole new group of buyers Consumers don't simply go to the Yellow Pages when ready to buy .yellowpagesage. Even for buyers expecting to spend their money close to home. if the desired small business data were more complete. That puts your enterprise on the radar screen.11. That way.Why. easiest way. An easy first step is to include your business in Internet Yellow Pages (IYP). it shows up in a small pool of local providers. as Local Search methods become more widespread. Local Search combines the search query word or phrase with specific geographic terms. That's good for them. like city or zip code. You'll find reliable advice . What. Studies show that an astonishing 36% of online searches are conducted to find local businesses. That's about to change. So far. more and more of them go to the Internet to locate desired products and services.4 Local Searches . About a quarter of all Internet users already conduct local searches. Most small businesses are local in nature. Instead of information about a small enterprise being lost among millions of pages of search results. Their customers found them through traditional methods like the Yellow Pages or newspaper ads. How Buyers want both online and local information about where to buy. They'd do even more of it. They rely on search engines to find suitable vendors in the fastest.as they once did. serving people who live nearby. Local enterprises need to prepare for the impact of changing customer habits. the Internet hasn't figured prominently in their marketing efforts.com. as well as the person looking for what they provide. search results only include enterprises in that local area. Learn how your business can make the most of Local Search by visiting http://www.

and improve your odds of being found when people search online for what you offer.from experts in Yellow Pages and Local Search so you can get more mileage from your promotional dollars. . Start by getting comfortable with search concepts. You don't even need your own Web site to benefit from Internet Yellow Pages and Local Search.

Promotion. Place. the inside. Price. Physical evidence. physical environment.12. The Hotel Service may be based on the reputation of a single person 3. There are several major differences. The buyer purchases are intangible 2. It is based on relationship and value. and Process. i. including: 1. there are three additional "P's" consisting of People. The buyer cannot return the service 5. and the general appearance of the employees themselves. Marketing a Hotel-base business is different from marketing a product-base business. Offline Hotel Marketing Hotel Marketing is marketing based on relationship and value." Product. Hotel Marketing has been relatively gaining ground in the overall spectrum of educational marketing as developed economies move farther away from industrial importance to service oriented economies. process service and follow-through are keys to a successful venture. people.e. Hotel marketing also includes the service scape referring to but not limited to the aesthetic appearance of the business from the outside. It's more difficult to compare the quality of similar services 4. In common . Hotel Marketing mix adds 3 more p's. It may be used to market a Hotel. The major difference in the education of Hotel marketing versus regular marketing is that instead of the traditional "4 P's. What is marketing? Marketing is the flow of goods and services from the producer to consumer.

: `In the factory we make cosmetics. as well as many of the specific techniques. It is best done in subtle ways like providing examples or descriptions of good and poor service that can be used as a basis of comparison. Marketing is now said to be a term which has no particular definition as the definitions change everyday. In particular. In the store we sell hope. It is estimated that almost 50% of the price paid for a commodity goes to the marketing of the product in US. However. Charles Revson made a famous comment regarding the business of Revlon Inc. it is better to talk of 'tangibles' and 'intangibles'". in that it involves selecting target markets and formulating a marketing mix. Levitt also went on to suggest that marketing a physical product is often more concerned with intangible aspects (frequently the `product service' elements of the total package) than with its physical properties. Thus.' Arguably. service industry marketing merely approaches the problems from the opposite end of the same spectrum. it is worth remembering that many of the concepts. Marketing can be differentiated as: Marketing of products Marketing of services   Marketing includes the services of all those indulged may it be then the wholesaler retailer. Warehouse keeper. In this modern age of competition marketing of a product or service plays a key role. transport etc.parlance it is the distribution and sale of goods and services. The underlying rationale is that a customer might not appreciate the full worth of the service if they do not have a good benchmark for comparisons. . will work equally well whether they are directed at products or services. "Managing the evidence" refers to the act of informing customers that the service encounter has been performed successfully. Theodore Levitt suggested that "instead of talking of 'goods' and of 'services'. developing a marketing strategy is much the same for products and services.

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narrower brands. Principles : A good brand name should:         be legally protectable be easy to pronounce be easy to remember be easy to recognize attract attention suggest product benefits (e. well-leveraged brands produce higher returns to shareholders than weaker. Taken together. It seeks to increase the Hotel's perceived value to the customer and thereby increase brand franchise and brand equity. The value of the brand is determined by the amount of profit it generates for the Hotel Owner. this means that brands seriously impact shareholder value.: Easy-Off) or suggest usage suggest the company or product image distinguish the product's positioning relative to the competition. The annual list of the world’s most valuable brands. Hotel Brand Building Hotel Brand management is the application of marketing techniques to a specific Hotel.g. This may increase sales by making a comparison with competing Hotels more favorable. It may also enable the Owner to charge more for his Hotel. which ultimately makes branding a CEO responsibility. This results from a combination of increased sales and increased price. . Research by McKinsey & Company. indicates that the market value of companies often consists largely of brand equity. published by Interbrand and Business Week. a global consulting firm.13. Marketers see a Hotel brand as an implied promise that the level of quality people have come to expect from a brand will continue with future purchases of the same product. in 2000 suggested that strong.

14. Guest Service A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging.[citation needed] In Australia or Canada. the word may also refer to a restaurant since the best restaurants were always situated next to a good hotel. a swimming pool or childcare. In India. Hotels often provide a number of additional guest services such as a restaurant. usually on a shortterm basis. . Some hotels have conference services and meeting rooms and encourage groups to hold conventions and meetings at their location. the word may also refer to a pub or bar.

tactful. these jobs require a certain type of personality for success. Needless to say. picking up dry cleaning. or booking reservations. As front desk people. relaxed. guest services representatives have the basic task of making hotel guests feel welcome. If a concierge or desk clerk blows his cool. Guests often get a good or bad feeling about where they are staying within the first few minutes of their stay. Guest representatives must remain courteous. When a concierge goes out of the way to get information for a guest.Hotel Guest Services Representatives A typical day might find guest services workers in hotels tracking down tickets to a hot concert in town. serene. "How may I assist you?" is a phrase practically stamped on these workers foreheads. Even after a horrendously long day. making reservations at a hip new restaurant. even when hotel guests are rude and demanding. welcoming guests. While hotel and resort guests love excellent service. it can ensure that a first-time guest becomes a regular. or when a reservation agent is especially courteous and helpful. and even pampered. guest representatives must be as friendly and helpful to the last guest they encounter as they were to the first one. the hotel's reputation--and the concierge's or desk clerk's job--may suffer. guest services representatives are the "public face" of a hospitality enterprise. . calm. providing it is not always easy. opening doors. and helpful. and this opinion is often based on the helpfulness and friendliness--or the unhelpfulness and unfriendliness--of the up-front people. And even if a hotel is teeming with guests on the busiest weekend of the year while five staff members are out sick with the flu. and peaceful as Zen monks. But whatever their exact duties or job titles. carrying luggage. guest representatives must remain as unflustered.

offering assistance. but all guest services representatives do the following: Greeting guests. and making sure they're reported to those who can fix them Reporting and documenting safety hazards. and recommending hotel and area services   Keeping an eye out for problems. from unsatisfied customers to untidy restrooms. conditions. or unsafe practices Providing service with a smile   .Specific tasks vary by specialization.

ask about any other needs the guests have. where guests register when they arrive and check out when they leave. such as food service. . ► Front desk agents work behind the main desk. They handle group room-contracts negotiated by the sales department and correspond with groups and travel agents to answer special requests for rooms and rates. concierge. the front office is usually subdivided into sections such as reservations. and direct traffic moving in front of the hotel. and bed and breakfasts. In very small hotels. and guest transportation. In small hotels one or two guest services representatives may handle all of these responsibilities. telephone. one person may handle these and many other tasks. call taxis. inns. and generally try to sell and promote hotel services. from housekeeping to food service to maintenance. and other departments. the front desk. ► Reservations agents keep up with hotel booking. housekeeping. In this case they are usually called front-desk agents. take payments. They enter information into the computer and retrieve it when needed. They see that the front desk. They make sure that guests have the rooms they booked. ► Bellmen assist guests with luggage. ► Doormen open the hotel door for guests entering or leaving. receive daily information on expected arrivals and departures.SPECIALIZATION In very large hotels. with managers and assistant managers to supervise them. They also assist guests with luggage. Many people may be employed in each area. bell service.

SKILLS & KNOWLEDGE Being consistently pleasant and polite Dealing with complaints tactfully. including arranging hotel services. and booking transportation. calmly. ► Telephone operators take incoming calls and direct them to the proper room or department. They usually drive to and from the airport or between hotel outbuildings. restaurants. At business and conference hotels. like where to find legal secretaries.► Concierges perform many services for guests. and tickets. They also take messages for guests and answer simple questions. they also have to know a considerable amount about business services. everybody needs these basic skills: Reading Math Writing Speaking & listening Computer literacy      . or computer repair. ► Guest transportation agents drive guests in hotel vehicles. and politely Handling unexpected situations calmly Relating to a wide variety of people Teamwork Record-keeping       In addition to career-specific skills. but some hotels provide more extensive transportation services. recommending local amenities. translators.

       Problem-solving & decision-making Understanding the broader picture Working with people A strong work ethic A positive attitude Independence & initiative Self-presentation .

Substantial investments in tourism infrastructure are essential for hotel industry to achieve its potential. reduction in excise duty on aviation turbine fuel.ahla. Business Travelers One major market segment for the hotel industry is business travel. Employees who have sales and marketing experience can help a hotel compete successfully. During the 1980s many .15. These include the abolishment of the inland air travel tax. For example in India the 'Incredible India' destination campaign and the 'Atithi Devo Bhavah' (ADB) campaign have also helped in the growth of domestic and international tourism and consequently the hotel industry. allowing the government to provide critical funding for the large capital investment that may be required has also fuelled the demand for hotel rooms. The government's recent decision to treat convention centres as part of core infrastructure. Overview of Hotel Industry http://www. Hotels in all price ranges compete to attract these guests and keep them as clients. In recent years government of all the countries has taken several steps to boost travel & tourism which have benefited Global hotel industry. Hotels seek business travelers by providing special features or services designed to make it easier to work away from home.com/products_info_center_lip.asp Hotel Industry has witnessed tremendous boom in recent years. including those relating to frequency and size of aircraft. and removal of a number of restrictions on outbound chartered flights. The arrival of low cost airlines and the associated price wars have given domestic and global tourists a host of options. Hotel Industry is inextricably linked to the tourism industry and the growth in the tourism industry has fuelled the growth of hotel industry globally. The thriving economy and increased business opportunities have acted as a boon for hotel industry.

business travel grew more than 4 percent in 2004 and should experience even more growth in the next few years. business and convention travel experienced a 14 percent drop-off. Employees are trained to help visits run smoothly and to handle problems swiftly. By the early 2000s popular hotel amenities included free newspapers. One way that hotels promote customer loyalty is through frequent-guest programs. Earning customer loyalty is a key feature of serving business travelers. .hotels built business centers that included computers and copiers. pleasing the customer is of foremost importance. especially those at popular resort destinations. the long-term return can be great. and exercise facilities. Portable technology has lessened the popularity of these centers. Some business-oriented hotels offer facilities for companies to conduct extended staff meetings. It is also common for businesses to schedule "retreats" where employees stay at the same hotel and discuss business strategies in designated meeting rooms. Efficiency is a primary concern for all business travelers whose tight schedules require quick service. according to the Travel Industry Association of America. Travelers earn points for every dollar they spend at the hotel. they can redeem them for gifts such as free lodging or a vacation at an exotic resort. a complimentary breakfast. Many hotels are designed to cater to these meetings. Many hotels provide computerized services for speedy check-in and check-out. As in any service industry. business and convention travel was hit hard by 9/11 and the sagging economy. high-speed or WiFi Internet access. and now many business travelers prefer to work in their rooms using their own notebook computers. a large work desk. tennis. If a hotel satisfies a business client. or swimming. however. When they have accumulated enough points. Like all aspects of the hospitality industry. then spend time together participating in leisure activities such as golf. From 1998 to 2003.

the work of the convention staff is critical. Because a hotel's reputation for efficiency and good service is often the key to its success in attracting conventions. Trade shows and conventions draw hundreds of customers at a time to a hotel. Hotels hire convention planners to attract conventions. . During a convention service managers supervise every stage of the event. to help businesses plan events. and to negotiate prices. religious. Political. They can make large profits by renting meeting rooms and exhibition space and by hosting banquets and receptions. Many different industries and business organizations hold trade shows and conventions each year.Conventions Guest rooms are only one source of revenue for many hotels. civic. and social organizations also have annual meetings.

Choice Hotels continues to lead the lodging industry as an innovative and growing company. toll-free reservations (1970) Offer non-smoking rooms in every hotel (1984) Offer internet reservation services (1995) • • • • • • .16. CHI is built on the foundation of the venerable Quality Inn® brand a pioneer in consistent mid-priced lodging. Choice Hotels has led the industry with many innovations. being the first to: Offer total wall-to-wall carpeting in all hotels (1952) Offer in room telephones and 24 hour desk service (1954) Guarantee Reservations (1963) Offer 24 hour. Corporate Information Choice Hotel Choice Hotels International is one of the largest and most successful lodging franchisors in the world. Publicly traded since 1996 (NYSE:CHH).

Senior Vice President of Marketing Bruce Haase. CFO William Carlson.8 Million Slogan We'll see you there.Choicehotels.6 Million Net income 112. of locations 5500 Area served World Wide • • • Key people • • • Charles Ledsinger. Senior Vice President. Website www. Maryland.com . USA No. CIO Industry Lodging/Travel • • • • Products • • • • • • Comfort Inn Comfort Suites Quality Inn Sleep Inn Clarion Cambria Suites Mainstay Suites Suburban Extended Stay Hotel Econo Lodge Rodeway Inn Revenue 544. Vice Chairman and CEO David White.Choice Hotels International Type Discount Hotel Chain Founded 1939 Headquarter s Silver Spring. Senior Vice President of E-commerce Gary Thomson. Senior Vice President of Brand Operations and International Mary Beth Knight.

with 699 member hotels and 35. Each property features a 360-degree display of the hotel’s exterior.. is THE WORLD'S LARGEST HOTEL CHAIN®.bestwestern.200* independently owned and operated hotels.com®. meeting room or restaurant. consumers booking at www.bestwestern. Guertin.095 quality guest rooms located in 80* countries and territories throughout the world.201 rooms. a standard guest room. Best Western took the first step toward global expansion. when Canadian hotel owners joined the system. Best Western entered Mexico. a California-based hotelier with 23 years of experience in the lodging industry. Best Western employs 1.. Special site features include a complete hotel guide. Best Western also handles reservations through its website at www. In 1964.com were able to view five distinct virtual tours for every Best Western hotel in the U. Ariz.K. further establishing its international presence. Australia and New Zealand in 1976. Best Western was founded in 1946 by M. with 4. bestwestern. trip planner and a section for travel planners. Based in Phoenix. and a deluxe room/suite. Best Western International began as an informal referral system among member hotels. As of the 2006 summer travel season. such as a pool. Corporate Information Best Western Best Western International Inc. .076 people and offers more than 316.com has been booking $1 million in revenue per day for the hotel chain since January 2005.17.S. On average. Best Western was the largest chain in the industry. Best Western's "Gold Crown" logo was introduced in 1964 and would continue with a few minor revisions over the next 30 years until it was replaced by the current blue and yellow logo in 1994. Canada and the Caribbean. in addition to two other areas representative of the property. By 1963.

In April 2006. and Thai Airways. Best Western employs 1076 people and offers 316. Best Western • International is the largest hotel company operating under a single brand name with 4. Alaska. Airline partnerships are also critical to the brand’s success. Northwest Airlines. All Best Western hotels in the United States. Asiana Airlines. TAM.S.Best Western has a strong focus on marketing the brand. This unique sponsorship helps generate new consumer and business-to-business opportunities for the company. China Southern. Alitalia. AARP and MasterCard. The independent advantage offered through Best Western has been a cornerstone in U. • • • • .200* independently owned and operated hotels. SAS. markets for 61 years and in Europe for 31 years. Some of the company’s key marketing partners are NASCAR and driver Michael Waltrip. Headquartered in Phoenix. extending its role as the sport's Official Hotel through the 2009 season. Lan Chile. America West Airlines. American. Best Western partners with a number of major airlines around the world including: Air Canada.095 quality guest rooms located in 80* countries and territories worldwide. Canada and the Caribbean offer free high-speed Internet access to guests as of year-end 2004. Best Western Overview Based on distribution and number of locations. American Automobile Association/Canadian Automobile Association (AAA/CAA). Arizona. Continental. Delta Air Lines. Best Western renewed its partnership with NASCAR for another three years.

Milan. Ireland and India.000 of these properties receive a three-diamond rating More than 90 percent of our hotels in Europe have three or four-star ratings. Best Western offers members the unique advantage of retaining their independence while providing the benefits of a full-service. Mexico City. Taipei. Best Western operates consolidated reservations centers in Phoenix. Buenos Aires. Miami.• Best Western International is the most unique brand in the industry. Best Western was one of the first lodging brands to provide booking capabilities to Internet users around the world when the hospitality giant added this service on Dec. Chicago. Philippines. Milan. New Delhi. San Diego. Arizona. Los Angeles. international lodging affiliation offering a global reservations system. Singapore. Toronto and Washington. • • • • . Rio de Janeiro. more than 1. On average. Recently. DC. New York City. training and quality standards. Dallas. Nowhere else will you find hotels that were formerly castles built by Napoleon or hotels consisting of homes for rent. Bangkok. Best Western added Premier hotels in Finland. 19. purchasing. advertising. Tokyo. TelAviv. Seoul. 1995. London. Orlando. Louis. St. Hong Kong. American Automobile Association and Canadian Automobile • • • Association rate 90 percent of Best Western hotels in the US and Canada. Best Western’s worldwide sales offices are located in Atlanta. marketing. Santiago. Italy and Manila. Seattle.

.bestwestern.com has been booking $1 million in revenue per day for the hotel chain since January 2005. *Numbers are approximate and can fluctuate.

It offers individual consumers and business customers a broad array of hospitality products and services as well as various accommodation alternatives and price ranges through our premier portfolio of world-renowned brands. Wyndham Worldwide. encompassing nearly 6. The company is based in Parsippany. Lodging management services are provided to upscale properties through Wyndham Hotel Management. Corporate Information Wyndham Worldwide Wyndham Worldwide (NYSE: WYN) is the holding company for Wyndham Hotels & Resorts. . Wyndham Hotel Group Brands • • • • • • • • • • Amerihost Inn Baymont Inn & Suites Days Inn Howard Johnson Knights Inn Ramada Super 8 Motels Travelodge Wingate Inn Wyndham Hotels & Resorts Wyndham Hotel Group offers membership in its TripRewards® loyalty program. is one of the world's largest hospitality companies across six continents. a lodging management services subsidiary.18. the largest in the lodging industry based on the number of participating hotels. In conjunction with the acquisition of the Wyndham Hotels and Resorts brand in 2005. Wyndham Hotel Group is the world’s largest lodging franchisor.500 hotels under 10 brands on six continents. New Jersey. the company established Wyndham Hotel Management Company. based in Parsippany. Group RCI and other lodging brands. Wyndham Hotel Group's TripRewards® loyalty program is the largest in the lodging industry as measured by the number of participating hotels. New Jersey. It was spun off from Cendant Corporation in July 2006.

N. employs 1. franchises hotels in 48 countries outside of North America under the Days Inn. based in Parsippany. Ramada and Super 8 brands. .500 worldwide. another subsidiary. Wyndham Hotel Group.J. Howard Johnson..Wyndham Hotel Group International.

It is the largest hotel company by number of rooms (556. the . manages over 510 and owns only 24. In 1876 their red triangle trademark was the first registered in the United Kingdom. and has a different risk profile. expanding themselves into North America. History InterContinental Hotels Group can be traced back to 1777 when William Bass began a brewery in Burton-upon-Trent. systems. As of 2007 it franchises over 3. to handle restaurant assets and IHG to focus on hotels and soft drinks.200 hotels. That is.3 billion and changed its name to Six Continents PLC. In 1990 they purchased Holiday Inn International from Kemmons Wilson. expanding into the luxury market. requires different skills.19. it sells its expertise in hotel management. so Bass began to grow their small line of hotels. and is headquartered in Windsor just outside Greater London. and marketing. while leaving investment in real property.000 as of March 2007). In 2000 the company sold its brewing assets (and the rights to the Bass name) to the major Belgian brewer Interbrew for £2. This is not an unusual arrangement in the hotel industry. Business Model IHG is primarily engaged in managing hotels owned by other parties and in franchising its hotel brands. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. primarily to its partners. Britvic. In March 1998 they acquired the InterContinental brand. In 1989 the British Government limited the number of pubs brewers could directly own. which is far more capital intensive. Corporate Information Intercontinental Hotels Group InterContinental Hotels Group PLC (IHG) (LSE: IHG NYSE: IHG) is a multinational company which operates several hotel brands. IHG was created in 2003 after Six Continents PLC split into two daughter companies: Mitchells and Butlers PLC. The owned hotels do however include many of the key properties of company's flagship InterContinental brand.

. was retained by IHG until December 2005. when IHG sold its interest in the company by an initial public offering.company's soft drinks division.

Chairman Andrew Cosslett. England.ihgplc.com .InterContinental Hotels Group Type Public (LSE: IHG NYSE: IHG) Founded 15-Apr-03 (Origins trace back to 1777) Headquarter s Windsor. EMEA Industry Hotel Brands include: • InterContinental Products • Crowne Plaza • Holiday Inn Revenue £960m GBP (2006) Operating income £258m GBP (2006) Net income £405m GBP (2006) Website www. UK • Key people • • David Webster. Chief Executive RIchard Hartman.

W. Marriott currently has 2.4% (primarily a tax shelter) Marriott International Type Public (NYSE: MAR) Founded May 15. Tourism Products hotels.14 billion USD (2004) Employee s 143.900 lodging properties located in the United States and 67 other countries and territories.5% Timeshare . D. Hotels. Inc.C. Today. in 1927 by J.11% Extended-stay lodging . is a leading lodging company.. Jr. Maryland. Inc. (NYSE: MAR) is a worldwide operator and franchisor of a range of value and luxury hotels and related lodging facilities. Marriott.65% Select-service lodging . resorts Revenue ▲$15.15% Synthetic fuel .20.marriott. ters United States Key peopl e   J. Marriott International. Marriott International has more than 2.com . Corporate Information Marriott International Marriott International. "Bill" Marriott.000 (2006) Website www.300 accommodation properties in North America alone. D. Willard and Alice S. Its heritage can be traced to a root beer stand opened in Washington. 1927 in Washington. Montgomery County. Headquar Bethesda. chairman and CEO William Shaw President and COO Industry Hospitality..C. Marriott's operations are grouped into the following five business segments: • • • • • Full-service lodging ..

Marriott Lodging operates and franchises hotels under the following brands:                 Marriott Hotels & Resorts JW Marriott Hotels & Resorts Renaissance Hotels & Resorts Courtyard by Marriott Residence Inn by Marriott Fairfield Inn by Marriott Marriott Conference Centers TownePlace Suites by Marriott SpringHill Suites by Marriott Marriott Vacation Club International Horizons by Marriott The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company. The Ritz-Carlton Club Marriott ExecuStay Marriott Executive Apartments Grand Residences by Marriott . L.L.C.

Corporate Information Hilton Hotels Corporation Hilton Hotels Corporation is one of the leading global hospitality companies.000 rooms employing 105.000 people in more than 80 countries. California. USA Headquar ters Beverly Hills.000 Slogan be hospitable Website www. Hilton has become a leader in the hospitality industry.hiltonworldwide. Nassetta.com .000 in what was then the world's largest real estate transaction. Hilton Hotels Corporation Private. President and e CEO Industry Hotels Revenue $8.645 hotels and 485. Texas and now has headquarters in Beverly Hills. USA Key peopl Christopher J. 2007. The company is around 5% owned by the founding family.000. The Hotels Statler Company was acquired in 1954 for $111. Hilton announced plans to merge with the Blackstone Group in an all cash deal valued at $26 billion USD. It was founded by Conrad Hilton in Cisco. On July 3. The original company was founded in 1919 by Conrad Hilton. Texas. California.21. The merger was completed on October 24. Aiming to offer top class service to its guests.162 billion USD (2006) Employee s 105. As of April 2007 there are 2. Subsidiary of Blackstone Type Private Equity Founded Cisco. 2007.

which are mainly in the UK. Hilton HHonors  . It also includes a chain of standalone clubs.The company owns. manages or franchises a portfolio of brands:            Hilton Hotels Conrad Hotels Doubletree Embassy Suites Hotels Hampton Inn Hampton Inn & Suites Hilton Garden Inn Hilton Grand Vacations Company Homewood Suites by Hilton The Waldorf-Astoria Collection LivingWell Health Clubs operates health and fitness clubs in the group's hotels. but has a small number of branches in other countries.

Expedia can be found on the Web at www. The company provides direct access to one of the broadest selections of travel products and services through its North American Web site.com Commerci al? Yes Type of site travel agency Registrati No . URL www. localized versions throughout Europe.expedia. cruises.com Expedia. It books airline tickets. hotel reservations. Expedia.com was awarded a Webby Award in the area of "Best In Travel Websites". cruises. Serving many different consumer segments — from families booking a summer vacation to individuals arranging a quick weekend getaway. vacation packages. and book their comprehensive travel needs. hotel reservations. In 2006. as well as the top rating in customer satisfaction across online travel agencies by the American Customer Satisfaction Index.com is an Internet-based travel agency and a part of Expedia. Inc. Expedia provides travelers with the ability to research. a Stevie Award from the American Business Association for "Most Innovative Company". planning. Corporate Information Expedia. car rental. and various attractions and services via the World Wide Web and telephone travel agents. car rentals..expedia. plan. with the adjuncts of Pegasus and their own Canadian connectivity company for hotels that are not listed in Worldspan. Expedia-branded Web sites feature airline tickets.22.com. The site uses the Sabre and formerly Worldspan as their main Computer reservations system(s). and extensive partnerships in Asia. and many other in-destination services from a broad selection of partners. and purchasing a whole trip. Expedia delivers consumers everything they need for researching.

Inc. Created Rich Barton and Lloyd by Frink .on Owner Expedia.

Texas. World Choice Travel. France. on the CompuServe Information Service in the 1980s. "Terry" Jones. In addition to airfares. book.T.23. Travelocity is based in Southlake. Travelocity. as a subsidiary of Sabre Holdings.com was the first website that allowed consumers themselves not only to access Sabre's fare and schedule information.com. a tour and ticket broker in Las Vegas. San Francisco. History American Airlines began offering customer access to its electronic reservation system. Travelocity was created in 1996. which was a publicly traded company until taken private by Silver Lake Partners in March 2007. rental cars. and purchase tickets without the help of a travel agent or broker.com.com Travelocity is an online travel agency operated by Travelocity. Travelocity is a wholly owned subsidiary of Sabre Holdings Corporation. itself a subsidiary of American Airlines and was run by long-time Sabre I. . Travelocity Business. a last-minute travel technology and content provider. and the United Kingdom. Germany. Travelocity is the sixth-largest travel agency in the United States. but also to reserve. under the "Eaasy SABRE" brand name. and comparable websites in Canada. Other brands include Site59. executive Terrell B. cruises and packaged vacations. Corporate Information Travelocity. This service was extended to America Online in the 1990s. and is a partner in Asian travel hubs Tabini and Zuji. In addition to its primary US consumer site. SABRE. a travel affiliate marketing program. As one of the pioneers of web-based disintermediation. the site also permits consumers to book hotel rooms. and abroad. the Scandinavian countries. According to Sabre Holdings. and Showtickets. with additional offices in New York City.com LP. and the second-largest online travel agency. Travelocity operates a full-service business agency.

Damon Tassone (Deputy CEO. North America). In 2005. Jones left the company shortly afterward. . with Sabre continuing to own around 30% of the combined company's stock. Sabre negotiated a merger of Travelocity with another early web travel company.com to take in excess of 30 more brands under its banner in the UK. Sabre consummated a tender offer for the remainder of the outstanding shares in Travelocity and remerged the business into Sabre as a subsidiary.com). Richard Harris (Senior Vice President. Under current CEO Michelle Peluso’s leadership. Josh Feuerstein (Group Manager Director at lastminute.Travelocity gained momentum after the AOL keyword Travel became associated with the brand in 1999. and a private-label (ASP) distribution network. lastminute. Travelocity acquired lastminute. Strategy and Business Development). but around 70% of the voting rights.com and Senior Vice President and Hotel Segment Manger for Sabre Holdings). Software Development) and Jonathan Perkel (Vice President & Deputy General Counsel). As of early 2005. Preview Travel. namely. In 2000. many members of Peluso’s former management team at Site59 now hold senior management positions at Travelocity. In 2002. Travelocity has developed and launched a merchant hotel business. The resulting company was independently quoted on the NASDAQ exchange. the Travelocity Partner Network. Jeffrey Glueck (Chief Marketing Officer). Josh Hartmann (Vice President. Tracey Weber (COO. with Travelocity's fortunes suffering from competition including Expedia and Orbitz. dynamic packaging functionality.

At our command center. the OrbitzTLC Team gathers and interprets FAA. Orbitz is a leading online travel company offering leisure and business travelers a wide selection of low airfares. . more than 80. forming a new company called Travelport. Illinois.6 billion.000 hotels worldwide and 13 rental car brands. Orbitz. National Weather Service and other data to provide you with travel intelligence . OrbitzTLCSM Orbitz is the first and only travel site with a seasoned team of experts that monitors nationwide travel conditions for our travelers around the clock. including discounted Low Price Guarantee rates. The site was created to address consumers' need for a comprehensive display of fares and rates in a single location.    Orbitz' inventory includes hundreds of airlines.real-time information that travelers won't find elsewhere. Comprehensive rates from a wide selection of car rental companies in one place on the Internet Special deals on cruises available online. Orbitz . vacation packages and other travel. Comprehensive selection of hotel rates.com Orbitz Worldwide is an Internet Travel Company headquartered in Chicago. along with all other Cendant travel businesses. was sold to a subsidiary of the Blackstone Group in a deal worth over $4. car rentals. as well as deals on lodging. Orbitz search results are presented in an easy-to-use matrix that displays a vast array of travel options. every day. Corporate Information Orbitz.The Travel Site  Award-winning flight search engine makes it easy to find the lowest fares on hundreds of airlines. cruises.24.

weather conditions. The OrbitzTLC Team is on the case 24/7 while you're on the road. providing automated OrbitzTLC Alerts via your device of choice: mobile phone. providing the latest information on flight delays. . gate changes. the customer relationship doesn't end when you hit the "purchase" button. Orbitz is there to make your journey as easy as possible. airport congestion or any other event that might impact your travel. PDA or e-mail.At Orbitz. pager.

Contact Details Corporate Office Orbitz 500 West Madison Street Suite 1000 Chicago IL 60661 312-894-5000 voice 312-894-5001 fax Exchanging Paper Tickets Orbitz Ticketing Department 1961 Premier Drive Suite 320 Mankato MN 56001 .

TX 75231 TX Tel. With about 33. The company has room supply agreements with hotel chains such as Hilton Hotels. Hotels. Inc. L.com is an operating company of Expedia. just before spinning Expedia off into a separate company.com into its Expedia subsidiary in 2005. Barry Diller's IAC/InterActiveCorp folded Hotels. and Europe through several Web sites. and Sheraton. Central Expwy. It also accepts reservations through its toll-free call centers.com. In 2002 HRN introduced Hotels.com offers rooms at discounts of up to 70%.com and the brand 1-800-2Hotels.000 properties in more than 400 markets throughout Asia. 10440 N. TX in 1991 as Hotel Reservations Network (HRN) by Dave Litman and Bob Diener as a toll-free telephone service. 400 Dallas. the Caribbean. 214-361-7311 Toll Free 800-219-4606 . that provides reservation services for hotel rooms and other places to stay. The company was founded in Dallas.000 Internet and call center affiliates. Hotels. Officers: VP Business Development: Sunil Bhatt President. Expedia North America: Paul Brown VP Customer Experience and Online Marketing: Joe Megibow Contact Information: Hotels. North America.25. Ste. Radisson. The company books rooms at more than 70. offering consumers a one-stop source for discounted hotel rooms in major cities.com (formerly Hotel Reservations Network) wants to transform the Internet into the inn-ternet. Best Western..com Hotels.P. Corporate Information Hotels.

Fax 214-361-7299 .

26. and private investors. TripAdvisor claims to be the largest travel community on the web. TripAdvisor. TripAdvisor is an example of Consumer Generated Media.com is a free travel guide and research website that offers reviews and information to help plan a vacation. The site has been criticised for allowing users to publish fraudulent reviews. In response. where users list what to see or what to do. a wiki for users to provide facts and tips on destinations. Inc. the Bollard Group.com covers more than 270.com TripAdvisor. and was purchased by InterActive Corporation in 2004. attraction.000 destinations worldwide. Original financing was obtained from Flagship Ventures. they claim that all reviews are moderated by their staff. interactive maps based on the Google Maps engine. TripAdvisor makes its money from advertising. somewhat like travel itineraries. . and "TripAdvisor Forums".000 hotels and attractions in over 30. TripAdvisor was founded in February 2000. primarily by browsing the thousands of reviews posted on the website each week by other travelers.. and they have algorithms to detect abuse. Corporate Information TripAdvisor. With more than 10 million reviews and opinions and nearly 30 million unique visitors a month. TripAdvisor is now owned by Expedia. a traveler message board area. and restaurant reviews written by travelers. It features hotel. Users research places to visit and hotels to book. similar in concept to a travel guidebook. "goLists".

Priceline also got into the online auction business with Priceline Yard Sales. It first gained prominence for its Name Your Own Price system. Priceline is the brainchild of venture capitalist Jesse Fink and of digital entrepreneur Jay Walker. Connecticut. (According to the web site. providing comparative pricing from an assortment of service companies. where travelers would name their price for airline tickets. it has moved to a more traditional model where travelers are presented prices and are also told the name of the establishment.com (NASDAQ: PCLN) is a commercial website which helps users obtain discount rates for travel-related items such as airline tickets and hotel stays. or the car will be rented. through a partially owned affiliate. hotel rooms. The price would be compared to undisclosed prices in the Priceline database. airline.) Priceline's cut of the proceeds was the difference between the price an individual named and the price charged by the service establishment. the company's origins were closely tied with Walker's company Walker Digital.com also experimented with selling gasoline and groceries under the Name Your Own Price model in 2000. or car rental agency with the promise that the service would be sold and the seat or hotel will be filled. Priceline also sold long distance telephone service and automobiles under the Name Your Own Price model. WebHouse Club.27.com Priceline. and car rentals. The company is not a direct supplier of these services. More recently. United States. where individuals would use the Priceline system to haggle for various second hand items and trade them in person. at the height of the dot-com bubble. or hotel only after the purchase had gone through. It is headquartered in Norwalk. Hong Kong company Cheung Kong Holdings later purchased a significant portion of Priceline's stock. Travelers can still choose to name their price but the number of participants in that program has significantly diminished. airline. it is similar to a web portal. with no rights to cancel. Priceline. Corporate Information Priceline. with the purchaser knowing the location and name of the rental car company. All of these experiments . the no-cancellation no-refund policy is because Priceline offers the price to the hotel.

were terminated in 2002. Another experiment, the Name Your Own Rate system for home loans, continues under a license with EverBank. In 2002, Priceline licensed its “Name Your Own Price” travel system to eBay. Priceline returned to its original focus on travel products, such airfares and rental cars, with the addition of cruise sales and a special emphasis on hotel bookings in its commercials. During November 2007, Priceline “permanently” eliminated all booking fees on published airfares. For years, Priceline's official spokesperson was William Shatner, who agreed to do the spots for free in exchange for stock in the company. The arrangement turned out to be quite profitable for Shatner, who sold much of the stock shortly before its value plummeted in the dot-com bust. An early ad campaign featuring Shatner had him belt out popular songs in spoken word, in the style of his album, The Transformed Man. He was "replaced" in 2004 by his Star Trek co-star, Leonard Nimoy. Shatner still appeared in spots for Priceline, running into Nimoy as his replacement. When that campaign ended, Shatner again became Priceline's sole spokesperson.

28. Introduction to Cyberweb Hotels Company Background: Cyberweb Hotels is owned by CGS Infotech, Inc. CGS Infotech is a global information technology & media company serving customers in 40 countries since 1995. CGS Infotech is an ISO 9001:2000 company with precisely documented processes to deliver consistent quality of service. CGS Infotech’s mission is to “Create a New Level of Success” for its clients and partners worldwide. CGS Infotech is a debt-free, profit-making public limited company with a goal to achieve revenue of US $ 10 million in next 5 years. Infrastructure: CGS Infotech operates out of spacious software development center & call center with capacity of 100 people in Mumbai, India. CGS Infotech has multiple redundant Internet connectivity and dedicated leased line. CGS call center are buzzing with activities 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. All centers of CGS Infotech are equipped with high-speed computers, routers, switches, high-performance software and productivity tools. CGS Infotech owns and manages high-end Windows and Linux servers in most reliable data-centers in Tampa, Florida and Mumbai, India. People: CGS Infotech staff members are energetic technocrats with vast experience in software, internet and web technologies. Each of the CGS staff members go through rigorous training on customer service, communication, leadership and producing effective results along with the latest technical training on range of technologies. CGS Infotech has 53 senior full-time staff members, project leaders and customer service representative. CGS Infotech staff members are committed to create a new level of success for its clients. Services:

CGS Infotech offers outstanding Software Development, Business Process Outsourcing, Website Design and Internet Marketing services. The company’s vast array of services are designed the enable clients to reduce cost, increase profits, protect their business and build the brands. B2b Directories and Portals: CGS Infotech owns popular high-traffic Internet Yellow-pages, B2b directories and portals such as Mumbaipage, TradeIsha and Indiafashion. Clients: Super 8 Motel, Howard Johnson, Comfort Suites, Hampton Inn, Days Inn, Quality Inn, Americas Best Value Inn & Suites, Sleep Inn, Best Western, Regency Inn, Rodeway Inn, Country Hearth Charlotte, Holiday Inn, Comfort Inn, Econo Lodge, Super Lodge. http://www.starwoodhotels.com/westin/common/components/content/global_ footer_brand_popup.html http://www.marriott.com/aboutbrands/default.mi http://www.hilton.com/en/hi/info/family_brands.jhtml?adId=fob,hihomepage,3 0 Global Partnership: CGS Infotech is having partnership with Network Solutions, Inc and NTT Verio. Susan Baron (Manager - VeriSign - Now Network Solutions) has expressed following sentiments to describe their relationship with CGS: "Cyberweb Global Services (CGS) is our Premier Partner since 1996. We are certain that you will be as pleased with the performance of CGS Infotech as we are." We are registered with Dun & Bradsheet and US Federal

Government as Contractor:

Our Dun and Bradsheet number is 624759036.CGS Infotech is a company incorporated and having registered office in Delaware.EIN-98-0421775. We have an offshore development center in Mumbai. CGS Infotech has always supported the associations such as AAHOA. Our Employee Identification Number is . India with 65 staff members. We are registered with Dun and Bradsheet and US Federal Government as registered contractor. We have also provided valuable service to some of these associations. Some of the leading members of these associations are our satisfied clients. AHLA and SLPS. LPS Nash Patel Godrej HDFC Reliance Gujarat Times Business India DNA Money         .

The cost of this package is only $ 249 per year. Search Engine Optimization Package Search Engine Optimization is the process of listing your website at top in Search Engine such as Yahoo. The cost of SEO-PRO package is US $ 900 (7 Keywords and 3 pages) The other SEO packages are: . We will also send you Ranking Report that shows the ranking of your website on major search engines every quarter. Flash Website Design Package The cost for designing a 5-page website with Macromedia Flash images will be US $ 499 The cost of this package is only $ 499 per year. Social Media Optimization (SMO) Social Media Optimization refers to the technology of boosting your websites popularity on Web2. The cost of all-inclusive SMO package will be US $ 1299 per year. Myspace. Facebook and other portals. Smart-Sell Package Charges for Website Design and Search Engine Optimization Static Website Design Package Our website design charges are $ 249 for a small 5 page static website. The package includes Domain Name Registration and 100 MB Webspace on highspeed US server. Google. Stumple Upon.29.0 websites such as Digg. We will promote 5 pages of your website under 15 top keywords. Delicious. AOL and other top search engines.

N o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SEO Package Name SEO Basic SEO Plus SEO PRO SEO Premium SEO Gold SEO Platinum SEO Sapphire Keyword s 7 12 16 20 30 50 400 WebPages 3 6 8 10 15 25 200 Link 10 12 16 25 50 150 800 Annual Investment $ 900 $ 1475 $ 2249 $ 4550 $ 8950 $ 32750 $ 146999 .

Internet Brand Protection (IBP) Under IBP Package. we will scan all major 8 portal and alert you on any negative review that you might have. The cost of this package is only $ 950 per year.Supporting 35 guests to post positive experience.Supporting 3 guests to post positive reviews. 1299 US US $ $ Special discounted all-inclusive package for Hotel Owners . IBP packages start at US $ 399 per year. Web-Promotion and Listing your site at top positions in Yahoo! and Google . US $ 399 IBP-PRO .Supporting 15 guests to post positive experience.3 pages and 7 keywords Education and strategic support to build positive travel reviews . . IBP-Basic . Web-Hosting on high-speed servers 5-Page website design with Flash. The cost of IBP package will depend on the time spent on communicating with your guests and enabling you to get positive reviews and management responses to negative reviews. We will also help you to build the positive reviews.SMARTSELL PACKAGE "Smart-Sell" is an all inclusive Travel E-Commerce package that consists of: Domain Name. 799 IBP-Premium .3 Reviews Basic social media optimization for Digg and Delicious.

O.2885 1689 USA : 501 Silverside Road. Dubai Investment Park. Suite 105. Birchwood Court Montrose Street. Green Community. Contact Us Mumbai : 201. O. Gundecha Industrial Estate. UAE : Building 3. Brisbane Qld 4000 . Phone : 2885 2015 Fax:. P. Wilmington.212880 UK Address: Gainsborough House. Akurli Road. Phone : 302-351-2434. Vorna Valley P. DE 19809. Next to Big Bazaar. Fax: 302-351-6292. Box 11666. Ground Floor. Midrand 1686 Australia: Level 18. Kandivali (East).30. Riverside Centre 123 Eagle Street. 81 Oxford Street London W1D 2EU United Kingdom Phone : +44-808-238-1330 South Africa: West Wing. Mumbai – 400101. Box .

Australia Phone : +61-290-370-230 .

Cyberweb Hotels Advertisement designed by Nirmal Raval .

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