Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) is a set of hybrid car technologies developed by Toyota and used in the company's Prius

, Highlander Hybrid, Camry Hybrid, Lexus RX400h/RX 450h, Lexus GS 450h, Lexus LS 600h/LS 600hL, and Lexus HS 250hautomobiles. It is also used in the Nissan Altima Hybrid. HSD technology produces a full hybrid vehicle and allows the car to perform on the electric motor only as opposed to most other brand hybrids which cannot and are considered mild hybrids; it also combines an electric drive and a planetary gear set which performs similarly to a continuously variable transmission. The Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wire system with no direct mechanical connection between the engine and the engine controls: both the gas pedal/accelerator and the gearshift lever in an HSD car merely send electrical signals to a control computer.HSD is a refinement of the original Toyota Hybrid System (THS) used in the 1997± 2003 Toyota Prius. The second generation system THS II first appeared on there designed Prius. The name was changed in anticipation of its use in vehicles outside the Toyota brand (Lexus; the HSD-derived systems used in Lexus vehicles were termed Lexus Hybrid Drive since 2006). The Lexus Hybrid Drive system has since been touted for its increase in vehicle power as well as environmental and efficiency benefits. By May 2007 Toyota sold one million hybrids and by the end of August 2009had sold a total of two million. Toyota hybrids make up approximately 75% of United States hybrid sales

PRINCIPLE Automobile hybrid systems combine two motive power sources, such as an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, to take advantage of the benefits provided by these power sources while compensating for each other's shortcomings, resulting in highly efficient driving performance. Although hybrid systems use an electric motor, they do not require external charging, as do electric vehicles. Characteristics of Hybrid Systems Hybrid systems possess the following four characteristics:1) Energy-loss reduction The system automatically stops the idling of the engine (idling stop), thus reducing the energy that would normally be wasted.2) Energy recovery and reuse The energy that would normally be wasted as heat during deceleration and braking is recovered as electrical energy, which is then used to power the starter and the electric motor.3) Motor assist The electric motor assists the engine during acceleration.4) High-efficiency operation control The system maximizes the vehicle's overall efficiency by using the electric motor to run the vehicle under operating conditions in which the engine's efficiency is low and by generating electricity under operating conditions in which the engine's efficiency is high. The series/parallel hybrid system has all of these characteristics and therefore provides both superior fuel efficiency and driving performance.

The three types of Hybrid Systems The following three major types of hybrid systems are being used in the hybrid vehicles currently on the market: 1) Series hybrid system The engine drives a generator, and an electric motor uses this generated electricity to drive the wheels. This is called a series hybrid system because the power flows to the wheels in series, i.e., the engine power and the motor power are in series. A series hybrid system can run a small-output engine in the efficient operating region relatively steadily, generate and supply electricity to the electric motor and efficiently charge the battery. It has two motors-a generator (which has the same structure as an electric motor) and an electric motor. This system is being used in the Coaster Hybrid. 2) Parallel hybrid system In a parallel hybrid system, both the engine and the electric motor drive the wheels and the drive power from these two sources can be utilized according to the prevailing conditions. This is called a parallel hybrid system because the power flows to the wheels in parallel. In this system, the battery is charged by switching the electric motor to act as a generator, and the electricity from the battery is used to drive the wheels. Although it has a simple structure, the parallel hybrid system cannot drive the wheels from the electric motor while simultaneously charging the battery since the system has only one motor. 3) Series/parallel hybrid system This system combines the series hybrid system with the parallel hybrid system in order to maximize the benefits of both systems. It has two motors, and depending on the driving conditions, uses only the electric motor or the driving power from both the electric motor and the engine, in order to achieve the highest efficiency level. Furthermore, when necessary, the system drives the wheels while simultaneously generating electricity using a generator. This is the system used in the Prius and the Estima Hybrid.

Engine and Motor Operation in each system The chart below shows how the ratio of use between engine and motor differs depending on the hybrid system. Since a series hybrid uses its engine to generate electricity for the motor to drive the wheels, the engine and motor do about the same amount of work. A parallel hybrid uses the engine as the main power source, with the motor used only to provide assistance during acceleration. Therefore, the engine is used much more than the motor. In a series/parallel hybrid (THS in the Prius), a power split device divides the power from the engine, so the ratio of power going directly to the wheels and to the generator is continuously variable. Since the motor can run on this electric power as it is generated, the motor is used more than in a parallel system. Ratio of engine and motor operation in hybrid systems (conceptual diagram)

Hybrid system comparison Fuel economy improvement Driving performanceIdlingstopEnergyrecoveryHighefficiencyoperationcontrolTotalefficiency A ccelerationContinuous highoutputSeriesParallelSeries/parallelExcellent Superior Somewhat unfavora

What’s special about Hybrid Synergy Drive? The Toyota HSD replaces a normal geared transmission with an electromechanical system. Because an internal combustion engine (ICE) delivers power best only over a small range of torques and speeds, the crankshaft of the engine is usually attached to an automatic or manual transmission by a clutch or torque converter that allows the driver to adjust the speed and torque that can be delivered by the engine to the torque and speed needed to drive the wheels of the car. When required to classify the transmission type of an HSD vehicle (such as in standard specification lists or for regulatory purposes), Toyota describes HSD-equipped vehicles as having E-CVT(Electronically-controlled Continuously Variable Transmission).

In the "standard" car design the alternator (AC generator) and starter (DC motor) are considered accessories that are attached to the internal combustion engine (ICE) which normally drives a transmission to power the wheels propelling the vehicle. A battery issued only to start the car's internal combustion engine and run accessories when the engine is not running. The alternator is used to recharge the battery and run the accessories when the engine is running. HSD replaces the gear box (transmission), alternator and starter motor with a pair of powerful motor-generators (designated MG1 and MG2, ~60 Hp total) with a computerized shunt system to control them, a mechanical power splitter that acts as a second differential, and a battery pack that serves as an energy reservoir. The motor-generator uses power from the battery pack to propel the vehicle at startup and at low speeds or under acceleration. The ICE may or may not be running at startup. When higher speeds, faster acceleration or more power for charging the batteries is needed the ICE is started by the motor-generator (acting as a starter). These features allow the ICE to normally be turned off for traffic stops²accessory power (including air conditioning if needed) is normally provided by the battery pack. When a moving vehicle operator wants the vehicle to slow down the initial travel of the brake pedal engages the motor-generator(s) into generator mode converting much of the forward motion into electrical current flow which is used to recharge the batteries while slowing down the vehicle. In this way the forward momentum regenerates (or converts) much of the energy used to accelerate the vehicle back into stored electrical energy) Harder braking action engages standard front disk and rear drum brakes which are also provided for faster stops and emergency use. This wastes energy which could have been recovered and is discouraged for normal use.

Hybrid Transmission The hybrid transmission consists of the power split device, the generator, the electric motor and the reduction gears, etc. The power from the engine is split into two by the power split device. One of the output shafts is connected to the motor and the wheels while the other is connected to the generator. In this way, the motive power from the engine is transmitted through two routes, i.e., a mechanical route and an electrical route. An electronically controlled continuously variable transmission is also provided, which can change speed while continuously varying the rpm of the engine and the rpm of the generator and the electric motor (in relation to vehicle speed).THS II also reduces friction loss by about 30% by using ball bearings in the transmission and low-friction. System Start-up and Stop Like modern jet planes, THS II hybrid vehicles use by-wire control, in which the driver's instructions are converted into electrical signals (through wires) to be used in integrated control. In by-wire control, system reliability is the highest control priority. When a smart key sends information indicating that the driver has gotten inside the vehicle, the system power supply is turned on. First, whether or not the hybrid computer itself is functioning normally is monitored, and an operational check is performed before the ignition button is pressed. When the ignition button is pressed, the system checks whether or not various sensors, the engine, the motor, the generator and the battery are functioning normally. Then, the switches for the components in the high-voltage system, such as the motor, the generator and the battery, are turned on, making the vehicle ready to run. This is the start-up control sequence. W hen the driver presses the ignition button again before leaving the vehicle, the components in the high-voltage system are disconnected and, after confirming that such systems are turned off, the hybrid computer shuts down. Safety checks are also being carried out while the vehicle is moving, and, based on various types of information such as changes in driving conditions, the system controls the vehicle so that it can operate in an emergency mode in the unlikely event of failure in the hybrid system or lack of fuel.

Major components of hybrid Synergy Drive: Battery

World's top level input/output to weight ratio - light weight In addition to being light-weight, the high power output nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery used in the Toyota hybrid technology provides a high input/output to weight ratio.(power output in relation to weight)The cooling system for the battery cells including the cooling duct is optimized, while components such as the system main relay are designed for reduction in size and weight. Furthermore, the system maintains the battery charge at a constant level at all times by monitoring and computing the cumulative amount of discharge under acceleration, and recharging by regenerative braking or with surplus power under normal running conditions. The hybrid battery (traction battery) has a limited service life. The lifespan of the hybrid battery (traction battery) can change in accordance with driving style and driving conditions.

Engine The gas/petrol engine used in Toyota hybrid technology is more energy-efficient, producing higher output than conventional gas/petrol engines. The new (2009) Prius' 1.8L 2ZR-FXE highexpansion-ratio Atkinson cycle engine replaces the former 1.5L 1NZ-FXE. The wealth of torque created by an increased displacement decreases the engine rpm during high-speed cruising. Further improvements in fuel efficiency have been achieved through the following new mechanisms. Electric water pump The water pump is now driven by electricity from the battery. Elimination of the drive belt decreases mechanical loss, and the flow of the coolant can be controlled even more precisely according to the vehicle's conditions. Exhaust heat recirculation system: This system utilizes exhaust heat -what used to go wasted- for the heater and to warm up the engine, allowing quicker heater and engine warm-ups. Cool-EGR system Flow volume of the exhaust gas is controlled carefully by the electric EGR valve and is channeled into the intake manifold, alleviating negative pressure in the manifold and decreasing pumping loss in the engine. Cooling the exhaust gas with the EGR cooler actualizes large volume EGR. Roller rocker arm The valve train system features roller rocker arms, decreasing friction loss in valve movements. Maximum power output: 73kW (99PS)/5,200 rpm Maximum torque: 142Nm (14.5kgf m)/4,000 rpm

Electric Motor

Employing synchronous A/C motor for compact packaging, light weight and high efficiency Toyota’s hybrid technology uses synchronous A/C motors, which can efficiently produce strong torque up into the high revolution ranges and provide freedom to control motor revolutions and torque. Toyota has also succeeded in making electric motors more compact, light-weight and efficient, for smoother starts/acceleration.- 3phase A/C- Optimum control of the angle between rotating magnetic field and rotor magnetsPermanent rotor magnets positioned in the ideal V-figure configuration Max. Output: 60 kW (82PS) Max. Torque: 207 Nm (21.1 kgf m)

Power Split Device

Splitting power produced by the gas/petrol engine between the drive train and the generator the power splitting device distributes the power produced by the gas/petrol engine to the drive train and to the generator. To divide the power efficiently, it uses a planetary gear consisting of a ring gear, pinion gears, a sun gear and a planetary carrier.1. The rotating axle of the planetary carrier is directly connected to the gas/petrol engine and rotates the perimeter ring gear and the sun gear inside via the pinion gears.2. The rotating axle of the ring gear is directly connected to the electric motors, and thus transfers the driving power to the wheels. The axle of the sun gear is directly connected to the generator and converts the power produced by the gas/petrol engine into electric energy.

Regenerative Braking

Reuse of kinetic energy by using the electric motors to regenerate electricity Toyota’s hybrid technology can reuse kinetic energy by using its electric motors to regenerate electricity in what is called "regenerative braking". Normally, electric motors are turned by passing an electric current through it. However, if some outside force is used to turn the electric motors, it functions as a generator and produces electricity. This makes it possible to employ the rotational force of the driving axle to turn the electric motors, thus regenerating electric energy for storage in the battery and simultaneously slowing the car with the regenerative resistance of the electric motors. The system coordinates regenerative braking and the braking operation of the conventional hydraulic brakes so that kinetic energy, which is normally discarded as friction heat when braking, can be collected for later reuse in normal driving mode. Typically, driving in city traffic entails a cycle of acceleration followed by deceleration. The energy recovery ratio under these driving conditions can therefore be quite high. To take advantage of this situation, the system proactively uses regenerative braking when running the car in the low speed range. Taking the Prius as an example, the system can save the energy equivalent of 1l of gas/petrol while running in city traffic for 100 km.

Generator

High speed rotation for higher maximum power output as with electric motors, Toyota's hybrid technology uses a synchronous AC generator capable of high speed axial rotation, realizing substantial electrical power whiles the car is running in the mid-speed range. Toyota has put together the ideal generator, high output electric motor and gas/petrol engine combination to enhance low to mid-speed range acceleration. The new Prius (2009) has a more compact, light-weight design realized through centralized winding of the coils.

Power Control Unit

Toyota's hybrid technology is equipped with a Power Control Unit that consists of an inverter, a Voltage-Boosting Converter and an AC/DC converter to run the car on electric motors. Inverter The inverter converts DC supplied by the battery to A\C to turn the electric motors and to use in the generator. Conversely, it converts AC generated by the electric motors and the generator into DC to recharge the battery. Direct cooling of switching device is featured in the new (2009) Prius, improving cooling efficiency and enabling inverter downsizing and weight reduction. Voltage-Boosting Converter The Voltage-Boosting Converter sleeplessly increases the normal 201.6 V DC supply voltage to a maximum of 650 V to feed the electric motors and the generator as required. This means more power can be generated from a small current to bring out high performance from the high output motors, enhancing overall system efficiency. It also means that the inverter could be made smaller and lighter. EDC/DC Converter The DC/DC converter steps down the 201.6 V supply voltage from the battery to 12 V, to be used by ancillary systems and electronic devices like the ECU.

Reduction Gear

Reduction gear amplifies torque from the electric motors Toyota’s hybrid technology incorporates the newly developed reduction gear. The reduction gear is designed to reduce the high rpm of the front electric motors so that the power produced can be transferred to the wheels, with the added benefit of torque amplification, i.e. with greater power. This torque amplification effect, coupled with higher revving capability of the front electric motors, combines to provide seamless acceleration at will. E.C.U: The Brain, Running the car safely, comfortably and at maximum efficiency

The various devices of the car are centrally controlled by the ECU*, which could be said to be the car's "brain". HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE uses the ECU to constantly monitor the operational status of these devices, and of energy consumption, on a real-time basis. This