The Use of VALDYN in the Design of the Valvetrain and Timing Drive of the new Ferrari V8 Engine

Domenico Noceti Ferrari Maranello, Italy

Riccardo Meldolesi Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd, UK

Abstract

Figure 1: Front engine view

A fully dynamic model of the cranktrain and timing drive of the Ferrari V8 engine was developed using the computer program VALDYN with the objective of understanding the interactions amongst the various components. The intent was to design the components to allow good control of the valve motion and the forces in the system. Results of a parametric study at low engine speed and low power output are presented. The work provided a thorough understanding of the factors affecting the phenomenon of rattling noise in the gears of the timing drive.

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such as low speed. suitable for simulating the engine in conditions when the timing drive is not significantly influenced by the cranktrain. which is shown in Figure 1.Introduction The Ferrari philosophy is to use the most advanced technologies to design and develop sportcars with a unique character. to simulate the valve dynamics (Figure 2) • A simplified model of the whole timing drive.5 litre V8 engine. the Ferrari two seater. to investigate any working condition of the model (Figure 4) This paper presents the results of the parametric activity carried out with the second model for light load. mid engined sportscar. For the study of the engine. looking in particular at the behaviour of the first stage gear reduction. three different models were developed: • A fully detailed model of a single valvetrain. This is achieved utilising materials and design tools that were successfully tested in the highly competitive world of Formula One. In Ferrari the program was utilised for the optimisation of the new 3. for the successor of the F 355. low power demand (Figure 3) • A fully detailed model of the whole timing drive and cranktrain. VALDYN has since proved a very valuable tool for the analysis of the whole timing drive. The Ricardo software VALDYN is already a well established tool for the optimisation of valvetrains in Formula One engines [1]. Figure 2: Single Valvetrain Model 2 . low speed.

Figure 3: Low Speed Model Figure 4: Complete Model 3 .

The choice of two stage reduction in the timing drive follows from the need for: • High volumetric efficiency • High combustion efficiency Which in turn dictates: • Five valves per cylinder arranged radially in order to achieve a hemispherical shaped combustion chamber • Small angle between inlet and exhaust valves • Direct attack valvetrain layout with hydraulic bucket tappet Figure 5: First stage gear reduction 4 . The improvement of engine performance.Background The new Ferrari engine is an uprated version of the existing V8 used on the F 355 car. in terms of both power and driveability. including: • • • • • Increased inlet and exhaust valve size New intake and exhaust port geometry New and more aggressive cam profiles Variable geometry intake system Variable exhaust valve timing The adoption of more aggressive cam profiles and camshaft phase changing devices increased the torque required to drive the camshafts as well as their rotational inertia. At the same time the use of materials and surface treatments suitable for the reduction of friction losses reduced the damping in the system. was achieved by increasing the engine displacement and introducing new features.

The total gear ratio between crankshaft and camshafts being two and 3/2 being already implemented in the gear drive. but it must be avoided on road cars. the timing belt drive reduces the motion with a ratio of 4/3 (Figure 6). ensuring high performance and low emissions. The gear ratio is 1. that contributes to achieving precise control of the valve event. one for each cylinder row. The rattle noise would not be a problem on racing applications. Figure 6: Belt drive 5 .This resulted in a very compact design of the cylinder head. one on the crank nose and the other two in either side of it. The second stage is realised via two conventional toothed belts. The first motion reduction is achieved via three gears as displayed in Figure 5. The downside of this architecture is a cost increase and possibility of generating gear rattle noise from the first stage reduction. The impossibility to accommodate large diameter pulleys for the drive by the toothed timing belt made the adoption of a two stage reduction unavoidable. to transmit the motion to the two cylinder rows.5. This layout for the timing drive results in a very compact and stiff design. giving a short distance between the axis of the two overhead camshafts.

The valve springs were modelled as a constant linear stiffness and the mass of the active coils of the springs included into the valve mass • The two exhaust valves of each cylinder were grouped together doubling mass. stiffness and damping values of a single valve. where the timing drive gear is located. tooth stiffness [3]. tuned to the crankshaft natural frequency. The accuracy of the predictions were not reduced by this simplification. characteristic of impact events. The second crankshaft mass was moved at a constant angular velocity to simulate the condition of light load. This allowed the size of the model to be reduced. tooth damping. but the central one had to be modelled separately. all the rest of the system was modelled in all its details [2]: • The gear support stiffnesses were modelled. single stiffness system. since the camshafts were simulated as infinitely stiff • The same was done for the two side inlet valves.Other aspects considered in the design and development stage were: • Reliability • Sound quality • Good refinement With these objectives in mind a dynamic analysis of valvetrains and timing drive was carried out with the purpose of verifying the design. gear assembly mass and polar inertia • In addition. The gearcase vibrations are then transformed into sound noise and radiated outward. the gear backlash was modelled and used as a parameter in the parametric study 6 . excited by the different orders of the force on the gear supports. since its timing is offset with respect to the others • Simplified modelling of the crankshaft with a two mass. together with the tooth pressure angle. this allows the crankshaft to react to the forces coming from the timing drive gears. One of the masses is concentrated on the crankshaft nose. with constant linear stiffness of the hydraulic lash adjuster. Modelling approach The assumptions made during the modelling of the system to investigate the low speed conditions were: • Camshaft mass concentrated into two masses representing the camshaft and the camshaft pulley-cam phaser assembly • Simple model of the valvetrain. The gearcase vibrates at its natural frequency. The energy involved in the impact is transmitted to the gear supports with a broad frequency content. where the angular speed variation due to cylinder pressure and crankshaft torsional vibrations can be neglected Apart from these simplifications. Identification of rattle The rattle noise is caused by the torque reversals making the gears separate and impact.

needing to be greater than the inertia forces on the valvetrain. in the load conditions examined. leaking passages and piston mass Results The analysis of the VALDYN results showed that. Figure 8: Harmonic content of camshaft driving torque at 1800 rev/min 7 . internal check valve. the cam to tappet contact forces are high over the whole opening cycle. Because the valvetrain is designed to run up to very high speeds. where the inertia relief is low. the valve spring loads required to keep the valves under control are very high.• The timing belt was modelled using the specific VALDYN element that reacts with a force only when the timing belt is stretched • The effect of the tensioner arm rotation on the timing belt tension was also implemented • The belt tensioners were also fully modelled. As a consequence at low speeds. that vary with the engine speed square. volume of the high pressure oil chamber. the main source of excitation in the system comes from the valve actuation. Figure 7: Camshaft driving torque at 1800 rev/min The harmonic content of the camshaft torque when an infinite camshaft torsional stiffness is assumed. including expansion spring. this results in high friction and a requirement for considerable levels of torque to drive the camshafts. shows harmonics at multiples of four camshaft revolutions. as shown on Figure 8. Figure 7 shows a plot of the torque to drive the inlet camshaft at 1800 rev/min.

when the engine speed varies. Second Order Sixth Order Fourth Order Figure 10: Order plot of the Belt force in the tight span. 8th and 4th.The different harmonics excite the timing drive causing torsional vibrations of the system according to its natural modes. become the 6th. a peak in the vibration amplitude is observed. These. Figure 9 Shows the first two mode shapes of the timing drive torsional vibrations. where one of the nodes is always close to the belt pulley driven by the crankshaft via the gear reduction stage. the mode that is more likely to cause gear rattle noise is the first mode. For timing drive systems the cam torque harmonics that have significant amplitudes are the 12th. as displayed in Figure 10. This is because the cranktrain inertia is much greater than the one of the camshafts. right side 8 . because this mode of vibration generates torque reversal on the gears. Generally the first mode prevails on the others in magnitude. For the way the vibrations occur. expressed in engine orders. When the frequency of an excitation coincides with the natural frequency of the first mode. First Mode Second Mode Figure 9: Modes of vibration of the timing drive As in the more familiar case of crankshaft torsional vibrations. 4th and 2nd. the different harmonics of the camshaft torque excite the timing drive that vibrate in a combination of its natural modes.

In order to control the timing drive dynamics and the noise emissions. They show high noise at 1750 rev/min which is attributed to the 6th order resonance. Therefore. this is because the latter had proved to be too nervous and too much influenced by the level of tooth damping to be reliable.At the resonance speeds. it is important to gain a good understanding of the system and the effect of the many design parameters of the whole valve actuation system. the forces that excite the engine structure are an appropriate measure of noise level in the parametric study. Figure 11a shows the time history of the force in the tight side of the drive to the first camshafts.a quiet period between 2000 and 2500 rev/min and high noise from 2500 rev/min upwards. Parametric study The transmission of gear rattle noise outside the engine is mainly structural rather than airborne. that contains the results of the simulation at the 6th order resonance speed of 1800 rev/min. This was done undertaking a parametric study with VALDYN. These measurements were taken with a close field microphone and setting large values for the gear backlash. particularly the ones in the first stage gear reduction. This phenomenon is shown in Figure 11 a-d. The parametric study was undertaken on the following parameters and features: • • • • • • • • Gear backlash Gear inertia Split gears Belt tensioner Belt pretension Tooth stiffness Valve springs Camshaft damper 9 . The effect of these impacts can be detected into the gear support forces (Figure 11d) as high frequency vibrations that can cause noise. energy is fed into the systems and it is dissipated into the timing belt and impacts when the backlashes present in the system close. It was decided to use the magnitude of the gear support forces instead of the tooth contact forces. The effect of speed variation on the gear support forces can be seen in Figure 12 a-d: • At 600 rev/min there is no resonance and the impacts are not severe • At 1800 rev/min the 6th order is in resonance and energy is fed into the impacts • At 2200 rev/min there is no resonance as the speed lays in between the two resonances of the 6th and 4th order and the impacts are less severe (see also figure 14) • At 2800 rev/min there is the 4th order resonance and again the impacts are more severe The result in terms of noise emission are displayed in Figure 13. This gives alternate contacts between the gear teeth from the driving side (Figure 11b) to the trailing side (Figure 11c).

Figure 11 a (top) to d (bottom): Generation of gear rattle 10 .

Figure 12 a (top) to d (bottom): Time histories of gear support forces at various speeds 11 .

It allows placement of a lower limit to the force level achievable changing only the gear backlash. Tests at Ferrari though showed that fitting the gears with discs of high damping material like copper or cast iron. leaving the impact velocity constant. A reduction in the gear inertia can be achieved by keeping it as narrow as possible and having lightening holes in the hub. it can be imagined that. high tooth backlash) The results of the above parametric study were: • Gear backlash The backlash was set to three different values: • • • 0 µm 35 µm (baseline) 80 µm The results are shown in Figure 14. The results for the baseline and the cases with zero tooth backlash will be shown in dashed lines in all the following graphs as a background reference • Gear inertia When thinking of a body hit with an hammer. It follows that the best solution is to make the gears the lightest possible and then fit them with copper discs to increase their intrinsic damping. as the rattle noise will arise inevitably as the backlash is increased. the range of the gear support force is affected by the gear inertia. A higher limit is also set. in the same way.4000 3000 Rpm Measured 2000 Pa (dB A) 1000 0 1000 2000 Hz 3000 4000 5000 Figure 13: Noise measurements (Close field microphone. despite the increase in the gear inertia. Figure 15 shows that reducing the gear inertia reduces the gear support forces and vice versa. 12 . As it can be seen. can reduce the noise emission significantly. the impact energy will depend on the hammer size [5]. which allows the gear to operate avoiding or sensibly reducing the amount of contact in the back side of the teeth. • Split gears A split gear is composed by two gears connected together by a torsional spring that has a preload. the gear support force shows a significant sensitivity to the backlash.

Figure 14: Effect of gear backlash Figure 15: Effect of gear inertia This results in a reduction of the support forces. • Belt tensioner The belt tensioner is responsible for keeping the belt in tension and for this purpose has a spring that assures initial tension in the belt. The figure also shows that the forces on the gear supports increase as well and this is not wanted. The downside of this option is the increase in friction and in the cost of producing split gears. The tensioner also has a chamber filled with oil that has its own compressibility which is proportional to the volume of the high pressure chamber itself. this spring has relatively low stiffness. as displayed in Figure 16. in order to compensate the thermal expansion without varying the preload too much. There is also a lower limit to the tensioner stiffness. 13 . increases the stiffness of the drive and the resonance speeds as can be seen on Figure 17. when the engine is running at full load and the crankshaft torsional vibrations are significant this can create problems of cam timing accuracy. The results are shown in Figure 18. • Belt pretension The belt pretension was tested at two completely different levels: • • 125 N 1250 N (baseline) The first value allows the belt to go slack. Reducing this volume. where it can be seen that the range of the gear support force is not affected very much. because the lower the stiffness the higher the amplitude of the vibrations. Therefore it is advisable to keep the belt pretension at moderately low values in order not to overload the belt and increase its life. whilst the second exclude any loss of tension in the belt.

Their use though is possible and can be very effective. 14 . Figure 19 shows what can be achieved reducing the total spring fitted force and the spring rate by 20%.Figure 16: Effect of split gears • Tooth stiffness The tooth stiffness was set to two levels: • • 2. • Camshaft damper The use of camshaft torsional vibration dampers is an option when other attempts to reduce the cam TVs have proved insufficient [6]. any reduction in the spring load via an optimisation of their design and a reduction of the valvetrain mass results in a reduction in friction and in camshaft driving torque that is responsible for feeding energy into the tooth impacts. • Valve springs At low speed the valve actuation is the main excitation of the timing drive. hence. In the Ferrari V8 the use of the damper was simulated (Figure 20). the simulations showed that the effect was negligible. Its effect was to smooth away all the peaks in the gear support forces.5 * 106 N/mm Figure 17: Effect of tensioner stiffness Usually increasing the compliance in the region close to the impact point reduces the peaks of the impact forces. Camshaft dampers are unusual in these kind applications and represent an extra cost for the engine. In this case though.1 * 106 N/mm (baseline) 1.

Figure 18: Effect of belt preload Figure 19: Effect of reduction in spring force Figure 20: Effect of camshaft damper 15 .

Derek Smith: “Gears and their vibrations” Macmillian Press Ltd. The results of the simulations allowed decisions to be made on the design and development of this new power unit at Ferrari. Fifth edition 1998 5 J. • Fitting a suitably tuned camshaft torsional vibration damper The parameters that did not show significant effects on the generation of gear rattle noise were: • Belt pretension level • Tooth stiffness. Chapman and Hall. From the analysis it emerged that the key point is to control the energy involved in the impact and this can be done by: • Implementing a tight control on the value of gear backlash • When dealing with gear inertia. Ferrari racing team: “The use of VALDYN in the design of Formula 1 valvetrains” . Detroit. Third edition 1968 16 . 28 February 1997 2 Valdyn 2. References: 1 Guido di Paola. making the gears as light as possible and then fitting them with elements that increase their intrinsic damping. • Setting the lowest possible values for valve spring fitted force and spring rate. • Appropriately tuning the oil volume in the high pressure chamber of the belt tensioner.1983 6 Ker Wilson “Practical solution of torsional vibration problems”. VALDYN has proved to be a very valuable tool for the concept study and the development of the engine.Proceedings of the 2nd Ricardo Software International User Conference.0 user manual . this results in a reduction of the support forces. Thomson “Theory of vibrations with applications” ed Chapman and Hall. .Conclusions The use of VALDYN in the simulation of timing drive dynamics quantified the effect of the various design parameters on generating gear rattle noise.Ricardo Consulting Engineers 3 MAAG Gear Company “Maag Gear Book” .ed 1990 4 William T. • Adopting a split gear that can operate avoiding or sensibly reducing the amount of rattle.