1. 2. 3. 4. 18 5.


3 4 6


ROTATIONAL REPORTS OF VARIOUS SECTIONS 26 • Production control 27 • Management service 30 • Antennae fabrication 32 • Machine shop 39 • Fabrication shop 47 REPORT ON NUMERICAL CONTROL CELL 54 • CNC (Computer Numerical Control) Machine 57 • DNC ( Direct Numerical Control) Machine 57 • Introduction to programming 58 • Working Procedures of NC Cell 59 • System codes 61 CONCLUSION 69



First of all I would like to express my gratitude to Mrs VANEETA BHANDARI, MANAGER HRD department for arranging my training for duration of six weeks. The training schedule prepared by his got me to have an insight into working methodology and procedures at BEL. I want to thank department of HRD for cooperation from their part. I offer my sincere gratitude to my guide Mr. D K Khanna Dy. Manager Machine Shop for his continuous guidance and support. I take the opportunity to thank Mr. P K S Nair, Dy. Engineer (N C CELL) for helping me to complete Project. It will be in debt of my part if I forgot to extend my thanks a lot to all those visible and invisible hands that helped me throughout my training period.



DY.CERTIFICATE Dated: 28-07-2012 This is to certify that MR. ADARSH CHOUDHARY. In this period he worked hard and made valuable contribution in developing the project. NOIDA successfully completed her six week training in BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED.SKYLINE INSTITUTE OF ENGG. All his work is genuine and original and was timely completed. &TECHNOLOGY Gr.TECH (Mechanical Engineering). student of B. Manager (M/C shop) 4 . SBU – R” was assigned to his. GHAZIABAD from 19 JUNE 2012 to 28 JULY 2012 Project “THE STUDY OF CNC MACHINES IN MACHINE SHOP.

TECH.N. (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING) from SKYLINE INSTITUTE OF ENGG. A project was assigned to his. R. GHAZIABAD from 19 JUNE 2012 to 28 JULY 2012. In this period he worked hard and made valuable contribution in developing the project. student of B. & TECHNOLOGY has successfully completed his summer training in BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED.TYAGI (HRD) 5 . ADARSH CHOUDHARY. All his work is genuine and original and was timely completed.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that MR.


Having started with a HF receiver in collaboration with T-CSF of France. BEL was born to meet the growing needs of Indian Defense services for electronic systems. broadcasting.Over the years. Radars and strategic components. its engineers have fructified it into a world class organization.BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED (BEL) THE INDUSTRY BEL was established in 1954 as a Public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence as the fountainhead to manufacture and supply electronics components and equipment. Civil Defense and telecommunications as well as the component requirement of entertainment and medical X-ray industry . its manufacturing and product assurance facilities have also undergone sea change. the company established its own electron valve manufacturing facility. In the component arena also. solid-state discrete component to the state-of-art integrated circuit technology. To keep in pace with the component and equipment technology. BEL. multi-unit and technology driven company with track record of a profit earning PSU. The design groups have 7 . with a noteworthy history of pioneering achievements. It moved on to semiconductors with the manufacture of germanium and silicon devices and then to manufacture of Integrated circuits. the company’s equipment designs have had a long voyage through the hybrid. BEL has grown to a multi. With the Research & Development efforts.product. has met the requirements of state-of —art professional electronic equipment for Defense. BEL has diversified to meet the needs of civilian customers as well and has provided products and network solutions on turnkey basis to customers in India and abroad. BEL has progressed manufacturing state-of-the-art products in the field of Defense Electronics like Communications including encryption. Employing the best engineering talent available in the country. Over the years. The company has a unique position in India of having dealt with all the generations of electronic component and equipment.

Product mix of the company are spread over the entire electromagnetic(EM) spectrum ranging from tiny audio frequency semiconductor to huge radar systems and X-ray tubes on the upper edge of the spectrum. A team of more than 800 engineers is working in R&D . Optical & Opto-electronics. the manufacturing has CNC machines and a Mass Manufacture Facility. About 70% of BEL‘s products are of in-house design. BEL has nurtured and built a strong in-house R&D base by absorbing technologies from more than 50 leading companies worldwide and DRDO labs for a wide range of products. etc. Telecommunications. Central Research Laboratory (CRL) at Bangalore and Ghaziabad works as independent agency to undertake contemporary design work on state-of-art and futuristic technologies. BEL could not progress in its computer manufacturing plans. Most of its software requirements are in real time. Electronic components. EMCCA. Today BEL’s infrastructure is spread over nine locations with 29 production divisions having ISO-900119002 accreditation. BEL assembled a limited number of 1901 systems under the arrangement with ICIL. All these facilities have been established to meet the stringent requirements of MIL grade systems.Cad’s facility. Radars. Its manufacturing units have special focus towards the product ranges like Defense Communications. 8 . As many of its equipment were microprocessor based. etc.Each unit has its own R&D Division to bring out new products to the production lines. At the moment. However. Automatic testing machines. Sound and Vision broadcasting. following Government’s decision to restrict the computer manufacture to ECIL. and QC checks are performed with multi-dimensional profile measurement machines. both hardware and software. Calibration of test & measuring instruments. BEL was amongst the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and peripherals under arrangement with International Computers India Limited (ICIL) in 1970’s. Besides manufacturing and supply of a wide variety of products. software intensive naval ships control and command system is probably one of the first projects of its nature in India and Asia. the company is installing MSSR radar at important airports under the modernization of airports plan of National Airport Authority (NAA). Contract Manufacturing. BEL offers a variety of services like Telecom and Radar Systems Consultancy. environmental labs to check extreme weather and other operational conditions are there. the company continued to develop computers based application.

HYDERABAD 7. • To generate internal resources for financing the investments required for modernization. Productivity. COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENTS & MICROWAVE COMPONENTS.BEL has won a number of national and international awards for Import Substitution. Bangalore complex is the BEL’s first and largest unit and it accounts for two-thirds of both the Company’s turnover and manpower. CORPORATE OBJECTIVES • To become a customer-driven company supplying quality products at competitive prices at the expected time and providing excellent customer support. MACHILIPATNAM 5. PUNE 6. expansion and growth for ensuring a fair return to the investor. In total BEL has got 9 units. Quality. GHAZIABAD 3. 9 . Safety etc. mission and objectives: CORPORATE MOTTO “Quality. VARIOUS UNITS: Its corporate office is at Bangalore. These are distributed in all over the India as: 1. CHENNAI 8. PANCHKULA 4. TALOJA The passionate pursuit of excellence at BEL is reflected in are pulsion with its customers that can be described in its motto. • To achieve growth in the operations commensurate with the growth of professional electronics industry in the country. KOTDWARA 9. This unit’s product range covers over 300 Defence and Civilian products. Ghaziabad is the second largest unit of BEL and it specializes in RADARS. Technology and Innovation” CORPORATE MISSION To be the market leader in Defence Electronics and in other chosen fields and products. BANGALORE (Corporate Office) 2.

Universities and Academic institutions. Mutually beneficial alliances with suppliers. which encourages members of the organization to realize their full potential through continuous learning on the job and through other HRD initiatives? QUALITY POLICY BEL is committed to consistently deliver enhanced value to our customers.• In order to meet the Nation’s strategic needs. QUALITY OBJECTIVES 1. Continual improvement of processes through innovation. an institute called Bharat Electronics Quality Institute (BEQI) was established in1999. in the company. (BEL). through continual improvement of our products and processes. has established and nurtured a strong in-house R&D base over the years to emerge and remain as a market leader in the chosen areas of business in professional electronics. • To retain the technological leadership of the company in Defense and other chosen fields of electronics through in house Research and Development as well as through collaboration/co-operation with Defense/National Research Laboratories. • To progressively increase overseas sales of its products and services. 4. Enhanced customer satisfaction by on-time delivery of defect free products and effective life cycle support. Continual up gradation and utilization of infrastructure and human resources. Bharat Electronics Ltd. Accordingly. 5. Effective and Efficient design and development process.. Regular training programs are conducted for all employees working in different units of the company. considering the present and future needs of customers. Need was felt to impart Education I Training to all the officers on the various facets of quality management. to strive for self-reliance by indigenization of materials and components. The management of BEL is convinced of the need for Quality Enhancement. Business Excellence models being followed by different organizations are studied and efforts are being made to implement the best possible practices in the functioning of the organization. International Companies. on a continuous basis. • To create an organizational culture. technology and knowledge management. 3. 2. a premier Professional Electronics Company of India. Each of the nine manufacturing units 10 .

there are two Central Research Laboratories (CRL) located at Bangalore and Ghaziabad. Naval Systems. and manpower with relevant technical expertise for product development. and Electronic Components. Military Communication Products. CRL performs the dual role of carrying out blue sky research for the development of future technologies and supporting the D&E Divisions of BEL’s nine units with state-of-the-art core technology solutions in areas like Embedded Computers and applications. VLSI designs. to address futuristic technologies of interest to BEL. Sound and Vision Broadcasting Equipment and Systems. Software packages etc. On an average.of BEL is having its own in. BEL’s R&D Units have state-of-the-art R&D infrastructure. List of world class companies with whom BEL has technological collaborations for different state-of-the-art products are as given below: Company Oerlikon Contraves. Technological collaborations with some of the Multinational companies and subsequent absorption of these technologies also have enhanced the technological base at BEL. test equipment. Opto-Electronic Products. BEL jointly works with them to tap suitable indigenous designs for commercialization. Switzerland Product Naval FC Systems 11 . State of the art infrastructures. are augmented every year for the R&D divisions. RE & Microwave Communication Technologies. computers & workstations. BEL R&D Units are recognized by the Department of Scientific & Industrial Research under the Ministry of Science & Technology. Electronic Warfare Systems. Telecommunication products. Government of India. Software modules etc. There are about 1000 engineers working in BEL on various D&E projects. and 33 % of it is through foreign technology transfers. CSIR. about 67% of BEL’s turnover is from indigenous design. BEL spends around 5 % of company turnover for the year on R&D every year. Main areas of R&D activities at BEL include development of Military Radars. Radar Signal Processing. R&D Units of BEL have close interactions with other National Design Agencies like DRDO. R&D Division to develop new products in its field of operations. facilities. HRD Divisions of BEL take adequate initiatives for the all round development and expertise up gradation of R&D human resources. C-DOT and a number of Technical Institutes.

DSIR National R&D Award 1993 (For in house R&D efforts under Electronics & Electrical Industries Sector) (For D&E projects handled at BEL-Bangalore. Gol) (For BELGhaziabad’s developments of various 1FF Systems) 8. DSIR National R&D Award 1995 (For in house R&D efforts under Electronics Industries Sector) (For D&E Projects handled at BEL-Bangalore & Ghaziabad) 5.AWARDS WON BY BEL R&D Divisions of BEL have been receiving number of National R&D awards. 1. 12 . Award for Excellence in Professional Electronics 2000. Gd) (For BEL-KOTs excellent performance in Production. (Sponsored by Ministry of Information Technology. Award for Excellence in R&D for the year 1998 2000-2001 (Sponsored by Ministry of Information Technology. Defense Technology Absorption Award ‘98 1999-2000 (Sponsored by DRDO) (For D&E projects handled at BEL-Hyderabad) 7. DSIR National R&D Award 1998 (For successful commercialization of Public Funded R&D) (For D&E projects handled at BEL-Bangalore & Panchkula) 6. FICCI Award for Research in Science & Technology 1990 (For the corporate initiative of R&D) 2.2001 For the year 1998. Machilipatnam & Ghaziabad) 4. A list showing the various R&D awards received by BEL since 1990 is as given below. DSIR National R&D Award 1992 (For successful commercialization of Public Funded R&D) (For D&E project handled at BEL-GAD) 3.

BEL offers Contract Manufacturing Services for both domestic and international customers in the following areas: PCB ASSEMBLY (SMT. Shankar. Manufacturing infrastructure is amply supported by the applicable Quality Assurance infrastructure and skilled technicians.) H. The company has set up impressive infrastructure and manufacturing facilities spread over nine ISO 9001 I 9002 certified modern production units around the country. The infrastructure is regularly upgraded with the latest and state. BGA) and Testing BEL has set up an exclusive Mass Manufacturing Facility and achieved proficiency in assembly of a wide variety of circuit board designs including Surface Mount Technology (SMT). Director (R & D) for The year 2001-2002 (Sponsored by Society for Defense Technologists — SODET) DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING SERVICES Bharat Electronics Limited today has an integrated approach and systems capability. Award for Contribution in areas of Defense R & D 2001-2002 To Col. Retd.of-the-art facilities. Standards Division of BEL optimizes the processes on a continuous basis. 13 . Mixed Technology and Plated I Pin Through Hole Technology (PTH). Process and QA standards generated by BEL are used as reference by a number of companies in India. which is a direct result of its commitment to providing tailormade solutions to the customers through its philosophy of quality management.R&D & its commitment to Quality & Service) 9.. S. BEL also offers most modern facilities for testing of the products manufactured. With the strengths in infrastructure and skilled/experienced manpower. through hole.

. Defense. IF. audio frequency. Multilayer PCB Design and Manufacturing BEL has established an excellent infrastructure to manufacture variety of Printed Circuit Boards ranging from single sided to 18 layers. “Quickto. Collimator assembly & Imaging assembly. The facility is also qualified for the manufacture of CBand Receiver for satellite systems. wedges etc. windows. air arc. filament etc. Visible and IR spectrum. pulse. computer. and electrical products being used in commercial. enclosures. modulation. rack mounts. The facilities are equipped to manufacture high technology quick turn prototypes. aerospace and telecommunication industries. radar systems including airborne and space related subsystems. brackets. Optical components include lenses. Microwave integrated Circuit Assemblies BEL manufactures a variety of Microwave Components and sub-systems using microchip technology which are required for wide range of applications in communication. Products manufactured include chassis. etc. molded. Design and Manufacturing of Professional Grade Transformers BEL manufactures a wide range of transformers (power. card cage flanges and covers. pot case. mirrors.) Chokes (smoothing. large and medium modular frames and precision machined parts for the electronic. and Optical assemblies include Objective assembly. Cable assemblies and Wiring Harnesses BEL specializes in the manufacture of cable assemblies and builds custom wiring harness required for its electronic equipment for commercial and military applications.) coils (audio frequency. Opto Electronic Components and Assemblies Bharat Electronics offers cost effective services for design and manufacture of optical and opto-electronic products and components operating in the UV. modulation. prisms.Precision machining and Fabrication BEL has the experience and expertise in the manufacture of high Precision Machined and Fabricated Parts in its state-of-the-art facilities equipped with latest CNC and special purpose machines.. panels. radio frequency. radio 14 . Eyepiece assembly. build-up multi layers (micro vias) and ultra fine lines/spaces.Market products” and undertake volume production of buried and blind vias.

USA for XRay Tubes. Many foreign companies like AT&T-USA. etc.frequency. Scitex. Holland for Image Intensifier Tube and General Electric Medical Systems. Antenna Manufacturing Bharat Electronics Limited is engaged in development and production of various types of antennas for use in Radars. 15 .). TVBroadcasting. ELOP-Israel. Communications.. USA.. ECHOSTAR-USA. ENCON International-USA. Elisra. BEL has also established Joint Venture Companies with DeIft. Elta.) and Sub-assemblies (HV Units.. EHV units. There is also a facility to produce thin film MIC components that are extensively used in phased array antennas. etc. The R&D and production efforts are supported by wellequipped microwave testing laboratory and a microwave outdoor antenna test range. Ortek. VishayAustria. Multitone-UK. CREC Products IncCanada. Technology Rendezvous Inc.SWEDEN and many more are using our facility for meeting their outsourcing requirements. The antenna production division also includes a FRP shop capable of producing antennas with hand-lay-up technology. Satellite Communication etc. ERICSSON. Most of these products meet the stringent defense specifications for use in Defence equipment. GE-Medical-USA.


GHAZIABAD UNIT Formation In the mid 60’s. 1972 saw the commencement of construction activities and production was launched in 1974. the industrial license for manufacture of radar and microwave equipments was obtained. At about the same time. In December 1970 the government sanctioned an additional unit for BEL. BEL was then entrusted with the task of meeting the development and production requirement for the plan ADGES and in view of the importance of the project it was decided to create additional capacity at a second unit of the company. In 1971. Organizational Structure of BEL: The operations of BEL Ghaziabad are headed by General Manager with Additional/Deputy General Manager heading various divisions as follows 17 . the unit has successfully manufactured a wide variety of equipment needed for Defence and civil use. It has also installed and commissioned a large number of 1FF systems needed to match a variety of Primary Radars. the government focused its attention to strengthen the Air Defence System. Over the years. This led to the formulation of a very major plan ADGES with Prime Minister as the presiding officer of the apex review committee. public attention was focused on the report of the Bhabha Committee on the development and production of electronics equipment. The Ministry of Defence immediately realized the need to establish production capacity for meeting the electronics equipment requirements for its plan ADGES. More than 3 versions of IFFs have already been supplied traveling the path from vacuum tubes technology to solid-state to latest Microwave component-based system. for the Air Defence Network. in particular the ground electronics system support. while reviewing the Defence requirements of the country.

Design &Engineering Divisions: • Development and Engineering-R • Development and Engineering-C • Development and Engineering-Antenna Equipment Manufacturing Divisions: • Radar • Communication • Antenna • Systems • Microwave Components Support Divisions • Material Management • Marketing and Customer Co-ordination • Quality Assurance and Torque • Central services • Information Systems • Finance and Accounts • Personnel and Administration • Management Services Design and Engineering: The pace of development and technological obsolescence in the field of electronics necessitates a strong Research and Development base. This is all 18 .

which are equipped with latest drafting and engineering software. BEL’s own homegrown ERP system. Communication. BEL Ghaziabad has well defined standards and process for as well as manufacturing and testing activities. Activities are divided into various departments like Production Control. strict adherence to specifications and tolerances has to be in-built into the design and manufacturing process. About 170 graduate and post-graduate engineers are working on research and development and indication of the importance R&D has in BEL’s growth. Radar and Antenna. 19 . BEL was awarded the Gold Shield for Import Substitution. A central Records and Printing section takes care of the preserving the engineering documents and distribution thereof.the more important in the area of Defense Electronics. For the development and production of the Mobile Troposcatter System and the 1FF equipment. The manufacture and control of production is through a central system. these divisions are further divided into different departments to look after products of a particular nature. For this. Equipment Manufacturing Divisions: As a supplier to the defense services and professional user. Design facilities are also constantly being modernized and substantial computer-aided design facilities are being introduced including installation of mini and micro-computers and dedicated design application. BELMAC. Each of them has a drawing office attached to them. About 70% of its manufacture today relate to items developed in-house. Most of the engineering documents are available online. Three Design and Engineering groups are product based viz. The PCB layout and PCB master making is done at CADD’s center. BEL Ghaziabad has since its inception laid a heavy emphasis on indigenous Research and Development. Works assembly and QC works.

this facility will be the main center for the MIC requirements of all the units of the company. Inwards good store. When in full operation. Custom clearance cell. Owing to the crucial and building block nature of the technology involved. Chemical store. involves scalar as well as vector measurements. For this state of the network analysis are used. synthesizers etc. A separate NC programming cell has been set up to develop the programs for execution on the CNC machines. directional couplers. assembly of miniaturized components viz. BEL Ghaziabad has been equipped with several Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machines for ensuring repeat occurrences and increased throughput. This division is divided into Purchase. It also takes care of disposal of unused or waste material. Inventory management & disposal. The manufacturing facilities of hybrid microwave components available at BEL Ghaziabad includes facility for the preparation of substrates.Apart from conventional machines. Microwave Integrated Circuits(MIC) used extensively in the production of subsystems for radar and communication equipment constitutes a very vital part of the technology for these4 systems and is generally imported. storage binding. issue of purchased parts as well as raw materials required to manufacture various equipment and spares. Microwave Component Group: Frequencies greater than 1 GHz as Microwaves. Material Management: Material Management division is responsible for procurement. phase shifters. BEL is currently setting up a modem MIC manufacturing facility at a planned expenditure of Rs 2crores. Marketing department looks after the order 20 . Marketing and Customer Co-ordination: This division is responsible for acquisition and execution of customer orders and customer services. Component store. low noise amplifiers. raw material store.

Commercial department looks after the order execution. and Shipping takes care of the packing and dispatch of material to customer Quality Assurance & Torque. All material for the consumption in the factory passes through stringent inward goods screening in IGQA department before being accepted for use Subsequent to manufacture and inspection. calibration and repair facility of test instruments used in the factory is under the control of Test Equipment Support. Communication and Antenna are also 1S09002 certified. Coil and Magnetic. Technical literature. BEL has therefore established stringent processes and modern facilities and systems to ensure product quality-from the raw material to the finished product. All the production divisions of BEL Ghaziabad are 1S9000 certified. The testing. the end product is again put through a rigorous cycle of performance and environmental checks in Environmental Labs. Single sided PCB blanks-having circuit pattern only on one side of the board and double-sided-having circuit pattern on both sides of the board are manufactured in house. In the area of professional defense electronics. transport etc. telephones.acquisition. Central Services: Central Services Division looks after plant and maintenance of the estate including electrical distribution captive power generation. PCB Fabrication & Magnetics: PCB Fabrication. Radar. having many layers of circuit are obtained from other sources. The microwave division is 1S09001 certified whereas the remaining three divisions viz. All the instruments come to this department for periodic calibration Quality Assurance department facilitates 1S09000 certification of various divisions. 21 . Multilayered PCBs. Test Equipment Support and QA departments are grouped together under this division. Printing press and Finished goods are the areas under this division. the importance of Quality and reliability is of utmost importance. However. IGQA Environmental labs.

Industrial Relations. HRD. It comprise of almost all modules a modern ERP system but is host and dumb terminal based. Finance &Accounts: The F&A division are divided into Budget & Compilation.Magnetic department makes all types of transformers & coils that are used in different equipment. Personnel & Administration: There are at present about 2300 employees at BEL Ghaziabad. Cost and Material Accounts. Management Services: 22 . of which more than 400 are graduate and post graduate engineers. Welfare. Security and Ml Room. Establishment. Cash sections. Coils and transformers are manufactured as per various specifications laid down in the documents released by the D&E department. Bills payable. Information Systems: IS department is responsible for BEL’s own homegrown manufacturing and control system called BELMAC. PF section. Payrolls. P&A Division is divided into various departments like Recruitment.


Then D&B department develops the equipment and releases the following engineering documents: KS Key sheet GA General assembly diagram WD Wiring diagram PL Part list CL Connection list Now the production control takes the responsibility of manufacturing the equipment. for items to be manufactured by other companies and prepares documents for items to be made inside the company. PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL Production control The main goals of the production control are: 1. The management service department. Its basic function is to identify the parts /operations to be made the best way of making them. The equipment stop order (ESO) is released by commercial department. This is for the calculation of the cost of the project. • • • • • 24 . To reduce the capital investment 5. Pc decides for items to be purchased from outside. issue the work order for the quality of the equipment to be made. and the time when they have to make and to arrange the production resources to the optimum. 2. Production control is responsible for producing the product.1. right from the stage engineering drawing are received to the stage where it is store credit as finished products. The commercial department obtains order for equipment through quotations. To ensure own time delivery product to customer 3. To improve the profit of the company by better resource management. To reduce the working capital needs by better inventory management. To improve quality of the products 4.

Documents issued by PC 1. 25 . TOOL PLANNING Some of the items while under fabrication require the use of some jigs and fixtures or some special purpose tools. it is used in electronic assembly. 3. Process sheet (Assembly): This is similar to PS (fabrication) except that. Testing 7. Dispatch. fasteners and PP’s: This gives the gross requirement for raw materials. cable from the cable assemblies. Every item timed by productivity services 2. PCB assemblies. Process sheet (Coils): This indicates operational analysis for transformer and coils. Procurement of raw material. purchased parts. Procurement of PPS 2. This department arranges all these items. Schedule for RM. 3. fasteners etc. The working format of this department is as follows: 1. because the jobs can e made fast and accurate by using any jig or fixture. Assembly activity 6. Launching of manufactured parts in various shops 5. Process sheet (Fabrication): this process sheet indicates the process and the sequence of operation to be followed in various work cells and work centres. Writing of process sheet for machines shop • Sheet metal working • Turning shop • Welding shop • Process sheet for assembly 4. Based on this material control department initiates procurement action and store requisitions are released with reference to this schedule. 4.

EDP section Productivity service The basic work of this department can be summarized as: 1. Productivity service 2. It is broadly classified into the major sections: 1. The division further consists of two departments: 26 .MANAGEMENT SERVICES This department deals with the flow of information to or from the company. 2. To prepare plans for next five years called “Roll-on” plan and evaluate the current “roll on” plan that has been drawn 5yrs age. revenue and budget plans are got approved by the board of management 3. Report on production value is evaluated for each unit. Material management The responsibility given to this section is to obtain raw materials and items essential towards daily usage of the factory. 4.2. Standard hour is approved by the department. The cost estimation.

Vertical height of 6mtrs.2mtrs Horizontal depth of 2. 2. 5. 3. 7. 1. 3 motors Eight sensors Sprocket chain drive mechanism 54 components housing trays adjusted to some height (changeable) 27 . Its specifications are:1. Components store BEL as a frontrunner has installed three automatic components holding machine in its component store. less as well as time saving (components to man instead of man ) 3. Purchase 2. 4. The system is KARDEX system installed in 2002. This systems aims at.5mtrs. Tray length if 1. Making the process of searching components. fatigue. 6. Utilizing vertical space for storing 2.1. Also provide facility of inventory control.

Ext. Remote operated with control unit Various sections in this shop are: a. c. Manually operated or motor controlled operated b.C-Band • Feed support assembly • Mount assembly a. Rotary joint assembly v. Transportation frame assembly b.3. C-Band b. Satellite antennae of different diameter consist of: • Reflector: a. Main panel fixture or reflector ii. Backup frame iv. FRP sandwich type b. Radar or communication antennas consists of: i. Precision Fitting Dip brazing Welding Painting Fiber reinforced poly urethane molding shop(FRPE) 28 . b. Feed fixture assembly iii. ANTENNA Various antennas types are being fabricated and assembled in this shop: a. e. d. Panel fixture type • Feed: a.

29 . welding. grease and freed of excess oxide.TYPICAL ALUMINIUM DIP BRAZIG SHOP DIP BRAZING Dip Brazing is a process of joining of Aluminum alloy parts by means of flowing a filler metal between the joint interfaces at a temperature below the melting point of the base metal. Parts to Be Dip Brazed Are  Cleaned of oil. Leak-proof Consequently the application has been use in those areas: • Where the job is intricate and conventional manufacturing process is either very costly or takes a longer cycle time. with all the bends and twists. The wave guides. • Leak proofing at joints • Joining of thin sheet to a thicker one. soldering in following aspect: a) No distortion b) Close dimensional accuracy c) More than scores of joints can be dip brazed in one dip d) Quick. This process is different from other joining process e. • No distortion is allowed in the parent item after joining process. are the ideal items for dip brazing. Upon cooling to the solid state it forms a strong metallic bond throughout the joined area. for RF plumbing of any communication Equipment.g. brazing.

4) Reassemble: .  Heated to approximately 580 deg Celsius for about 45 minutes  Immersed in molten flux at 605 deg Celsius for about 2-3 minutes. The various stages involved are: 1) Cleaning of raw material: . Assembled and jigged along with the necessary filler metal (dry flux).Guiding them reassembles the material parts.  Degreasing  this can be done by treating it with Tetra-chloro ethylene (TCE). 5) Application of Filler material: . cooled and cleaned.S. It is a welding method. One joint or a hundred can be formed during the few minutes the assembly is submerged in the molten salt.the different parts to be joined of various types can be set by tag welding or by tightening by wires.  The assembly is now ready for use for further treatment.This filler material of aluminum powder of same compound is applied on the place where it is to be welded. which involves welding of material via an unknown salt or aluminum power exported from U.A.It involves the surface cleaning of the material part to be joined. 30 .  Removed from the molten flux. 2) Setting of raw material: . 3) Cleaning  Descaling  It can be done by treating it with HNo3 + HF in the ratio of 6:4 (Removal of scales).

10) Further cleaning is done ADVANTAGES OF DIP BRAZING LESS DISTORTION: Large and extremely complex shapes can be brazed with minimal distortion at relatively lower than welding temperatures. Dip Brazing utilizes uniform application of heat both in the pre-heating furnace & in molten salt bath and works in conjunction with high thermal conductivity properties associated with Aluminum. The time period depending upon the job. which is at a temperature of 605o c.The job is then air-cooled. This uniform application of heat reduces the incidence of distortion. it sweeps into the joints.It is put in salt bath. 9) Hot water cooled: .It is done in order that the stresses may not develop if sudden cold water is applied. Then due to capillary action. It is done so that it gets hardened and also external powder is washed away. 7) Dipping in Salt water: . REDUCED TOOLING COST: 31 .6) Pre-heating: . 8) Air-cooling: .the material is heated to a temperature of 580oc so that it may come to plastic state.

32 . MATERIAL SAVINGS: Unlike castings or machined parts. DESIGN FREEDOM:  The design engineer will enjoy a greater range of options using the dip brazed process. dip brazing can be done at near final dimension.The dip brazing process uses little if any specialized tooling. LOWER COST: The dip brazed process yields the lowest cost given the superior characteristics achieved. conductivity is clearly better than that achieved with an adhesive bonded or mechanically attached assembly. Fixturing is generally accomplished with common fixtures that allow for quick and inexpensive configuration changes. IMPROVED STRUCTURAL INTEGRIT: Dip brazing offers a continuous leak-proof and EMI shielded joint even with a variety of material thicknesses. BETTER CONDUCTIVITY: As the dip brazed joint is made up of aluminum.

Antennae shop also houses Shot blasting machine. the red oxide and it is left for drying for 24 hours. which is sprayed under pressure to remove rust. The procedure adopted is: 1. 2. Enamel paint b. 33 . It takes 8-24 hours to dry. Any stress of the assembly is evenly distributed around the fillet and disperses the stress uniformly over a large stress area. mono…. of BEL done by enamel paint. 4. Painting After production the work comes for painting which is the last operation on the job. The OIC primer is put on it i. Then the paint is sprayed over it. Cleaning: cleaning work on the job is done by applying Tricloro ethylene. Nitro cellulose polyurethane Enamel paint: It is used in writing work for example. Reduced Tooling Costs  Reduced Design Change cost and implementation time FATIGUE AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: The natural shape of the meniscus formed by the filler material is ideally shaped to resist fatigue. Then primer sur…. 3. He paints used are: a.. It is coated such that the paint may have strong catch and is left for 24 hours to dry. Nitrocellulose and polyurethane: It can’t be done by brush as it dries down very fast so it is done by spray. 2. This machine is used for removing rust from heavy rusted assemblies before painting them. It consists of steel grit.e. Is put on it which is of grey colour for 24 hours.

34 . Fiber reinforced poly urethane section: The transmitters and covers of track antennae are manufactured here. After setting it is put in Curing chamber for Thermosetting. For making antennae for RADARS. It is covered with polyester resin +1% accelerator +1% catalyst (depends upon climate. the procedure is: Mould which is used for making antennae is covered with the separator gel which also doubles up to give better surface finish. The redum covers of RADAR are made here. in stage 1 the temperature maintained is 250C and in stage 2 it is reduced to 125C. which I flux. 3. Carbon fibers improve the electrical properties of components The constituents for making reinforced assembly are fiberglass mats. Fiberglass is used as reinforcing material to increase mechanical strength as well as insulation properties.) • Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG): It uses argon gas and electric arc Filler material is aluminum. Welding Various types of welding being used are: • Silver brazing with brass base metal (brazed with Ag because it has lower MP as compared to brass. It also makes reflectors for reporter as well as FLYCATCHER RADAR.3. • Arc welding using consumable electrode. They are of 3 types: • Winovin mat • Surface mat • Zobistan mat. room temperature and conditions). It is then set in mould for about 24hours. coated.

Different operations are carried out to complete the job as required. Milling (conventional) 3. their manufacturing parts are processed in machine shop. Operations mainly covered under machine shop are: 1. CNC turning 4. CNC milling 35 . Turning (conventional) 2. RADAR AND MACHINE SHOP MACHINE SHOP To meet the requirement of various projects.4.

Sheet metal work TURNING Turning is done on a lathe machine. Centre lathe Capstan and turret lathe Engine lathe There make/types are as follows: 36 . iii. Different process performed on lathe machine. In turning normally single point cutter tool is used. job is generally hold in chuck or collet (fixture) that rotates and tool is allowed to cut the material.5. Grinding 7. • Turning • Facing • Drilling • Boring • Knurling • Taper turning • Thread cutting • Parting off • Chamfering There are various types of lathes in this section i. Jig boring 6. ii.

which can be set as per required dimensions.m MILLING In cell-22.1.m. 135 specify the height of center. the speed depends upon the diameter of the work piece. 37 . Job diameter range is 15 – 440mm. It is centre lathe.p. Job diameter range: 2 – 25mm and speed range: 440 – 3600 r.5m and its speed is 40 – 2300 r. milling operation is done on milling machines. 3. 2. On milling machines operations are performed by multipoint cutting tool known as milling cutter. cutter hold in arbor and the job hold in the vice/fixture/machine bed and required machining operations are performed as per drawing. It is generally used for machining of large sized precise jobs. with an additional provision of utilizing two more tools on auxiliary slide. GEE DEE WEILER: It is having a turret a capacity of SIX tools. It is also a centre lathe. It is of type H22 is the height of centre. HMT LATHE: It is also a very accurate machine and can take heavy load as well. It is used for manufacturing small jobs in large quantity. length of the bed is 1. Generally.p. SCHAUBLIN 135: It is a very precise machine and is used to perform high accuracy jobs.

There is a D. Specifications: 38 . ii. it is known as CLIMB MILLING. CLIMB (DOWN) MILLING If the rotation of the cutter and feed of the job is in same direction. which stands for Digital Read Out. it is known as up milling.Milling operation is basically of two types: i. TYPES/MAKE OF MILLING MACHINES: . as it may be adapted to very wide range of milling operations. Its bed moves in longitudinal. It is a Swiss machine. crosswise & vertically. SCHAUBLIN: It is a universal type-milling machine. In this process we can take heavy cut but finishing is not good. Conventional (up) milling Climb (down) milling CONVENTIONAL (UP) MILLING If the rotation of the cutter and feed of the job is in opposite direction.O attached to it. In this process we cannot take heavy cut but finishing is good.R.

HURON: It is an omniversal type milling machine. 0.p. 38 to 1510 r. Specifications: Feed range Speed range 3.Bed movement Longitudinal Crosswise Vertical Feed range Speed range 2.m 39 . 700mm 30 to 2050mm/rev.8 to 410 mm/ rev. - 700mm 200mm 500mm 12 to 1050mm/rev.p. It is one of the oldest machines in Cell-22. 40 to 250 r. It is a French machine. Specifications: Bed movement Longitudinal Vertical Head movement Crosswise Speed range Feed range Bed Head 1.m PRAGA-GAMBIN: It is one of the few Indian machines in BEL. 1100mm 600mm 10 to 160mm/rev.6 to 820 mm/ rev. It is also a universal milling machine.

Specifications: Bed movement Longitudinal Crosswise Vertical Feed range Speed range 400mm 200mm 400mm 8 to 400mm/rev. DECKLE FP 3L: It is universal type milling machine.m DECKLE FP2: It is conventional milling machine. Specifications: Bed movement Longitudinal Crosswise Vertical Feed range Speed range 5. 40 to 2000 r. It has a head movement of 45° on both sides. Both vertical and horizontal work can be done on it. It has a fixed bed and has a D.4. 40 to 2000 r. It is a French machine.m 40 .R.p. - 800mm 300mm 400mm 10 to 500mm/rev.p.O attached to it.

in which two are from Index. 12 (in numbers) 175 mm 700 mm 32 KW 9 to 30 mm 100mm (max. Specification (WASINO): Bar capacity Chuck capacity Spindle speed range Feed rate range Tool station X-axis turning Z-axis turning Spindle power Specification (Index-GU 600): Bar capacity Chuck capacity Spindle speed range Feed rate range Tool station X-axis turning Z-axis turning Spindle power Specification (Index-GS 600): Bar capacity Chuck capacity Spindle speed range Feed rate range Tool station X-axis 41 - 77 mm (max.5 to 7000 r.) 25 to 5000 r.CNC TURNING: In cell-21 there are three CNC lathes.) 260 mm (max.) 8 to 3000 r.) 37. (FRANCE) and one from Wasino (JAPAN). 12 (in numbers) 330 mm 500 mm 15 KW - 10 to 65 mm 200 mm (max.p.p.m 0.p. Index CNC is based on SINUMERIC system and used for small/medium size large quantity precise jobs. Turret 1 Turret 2 12 8 95 mm 100 mm . Wasino CNC is based on FANUC system and is used for large size job.m 0.001 to 400 mm/rev.001 to 400 mm/rev.001 to 400 mm/rev.m 0.

Z-axis Spindle power - 238 mm 32 KW 128 mm CNC MILLING In cell-22 there are four types of CNC milling machine.m 0.m 0.1 to 5000 mm/rev . In which two are from Kitamura (JAPAN) and the other two from Mitsui Seiki (JAPAN).1 to 4000 mm/rev 12000 mm/ min. Specification [Mycenter-4 (Kitamura)]: X-axis travel Y-axis travel Z-axis travel Spindle speed range Feed rate range 42 914 mm 508 mm 571 mm 60 to 4000 r.p.p. Both are based on the FANUC 6M system. Specification (Mitsui Seiki VR3A): X-axis travel Y-axis travel Z-axis travel Spindle speed range Feed rate range Rapid Transverse 750 mm 450 mm 450 mm 60 to 6000 r.

0 to 4000 mm/ min.p. Specification [Jigcenter-7 (Kitamura)]: X-axis travel Z-axis travel Z-axis travel Spindle speed range Feed rate range Rapid transverse 1100 mm 850 mm 460 mm 50 to 3500 r. . There are two types of jig boring machines.1 to 5000 mm/rev 10000 mm/min.m 0. Specification: Henry Hauser(Type I) X-axis travel Y-axis Rapid transverse Feed range 43 700 mm 500 mm 1200 mm/ min.Rapid transverse - 10000 mm/ min. both are Swiss made Henri Hauser. They are very temperature sensitive. These machines are also very accurate and give repeatability very precise in microns. They work at 20°±2°C. JIG BORING: Jig boring operations are preformed to get close tolerance on different types of holes/bore and counter bore as per requirement.

m upto 0.m Henry Hauser(Type I) X-axis travel Y-axis Z-axis Speed range Accuracy 400 mm 250 mm 400 mm 60 to 3000 r. After cutting the sheet the work piece is sent to punching machine.For sheet metal work first of all the work is done on sheering machine. There are several kinds of machine used for different kind of operation.Speed range - 60 to 600 r.1 microns 6. Shearing machine cuts the sheet.p. FABRICATION SHOP Fabrication Shop is one of the mechanical workshops in the company. It firstly bends the sheet & then breaks the sheet by application of heavy force through a ram. This punching machine is a 44 .p. In this machine punch can make holes of any shape.

Radial Drilling Machine. 120 T. which has twenty-tool station. CNC-LVD Punching Machine. job is sent forward for other operations. which are moving in opposite directions. ( AUTO MULLER ) The brief description and working of the machine is given below: 1. 7. 3. Leveling Machine. After punching. Now after performing such operation the level of the sheet get wreck so before performing more operations. Shearing Machine (PC-1):Shearing Machine is one of the most important machines of the fabrication shop.Bending Machine 5. The sheet is inserted in the machine and machine levels the surface. 6. NPB. 4.Bending Machine. It is sent to leveling machine in which there are rollers. 2. In Fabrication Shop there are various kinds of machine but mainly the work is done on some machine and they are: 1. Shearing Machine (PC-1). This 45 . In circular saw the waste material is cut of the original piece.CNC machine. Tapping Machine. because the work starts from this machine as it cuts the sheet. After punching if there is any bending work in that job then it is sent to bending machine where bending work is done. Circular Saw. 8. The program is feed into the machine manually. by floppy or by compact disc.

Actually this machine do not cut. The ram is fixed and it slides horizontally and cut the sheet. when we press the button first the hammer press the and then the ram perform its work. For the long life of the cutter the ram do not act from both side.5 .3mm 3mm 18-28 30HP 415V 7 tones 2. it bends the sheet and then breaks by the action of ram. Specification:Maximum sheet thickness Aluminum Mild steel Stainless steel Maximum length of the sheet Number of strokes per minute Distance of frame cutting slide Voltage of motor Approximate weigh 0.4 mm 0. As the sheet bends and the work done in great accuracy so clearance must be taken in account before cutting the sheet .machine works on hydraulic pressure.5 . instead of that it starts cutting from one side just like scissor.The clearance is the 3% of the thickness of the sheet.6 mm 0. For holding the sheet firmly. CNC-LVD Punching Machine: 46 .5 .

second by magnetic tape/reel.7 mm) 2C type (dia 31. Their jaws are operated by oil compression.9 mm . third way is by floppy and fourth by compact disc. In this machine there are four ways to feed the program.7 to 31.9 mm) 47 .80 Kg 0. For holding the job firmly there are two vices. X & Y indicates the desired length & width of the sheet.7 to 50. first way is simple manual programming. Programming is based on trigonometry.9 mm) 4D type (dia up to 88. Specification: Company Model CNC control Electric consumption Maximum punch tonnage Working Area Maximum sheet thickness Maximum punch dia Maximum work piece weight Position Accuracy Average repeatability Number of tool stations LVD Belgium Delta 1000 thick turret 3 indexes Fanuc 180i 23. which are movable and which moves the sheet.1 mm 0.7 mm) 7B type (dia 12.4 KW 200 KW 1275 mm 6 mm 88. which acts as there programming. The machine automatically works and finally completes the job.05 mm 20 7A type (up to 12.This machine is a CNC turret machine in which there are 20 – tool stations in a turret. Working of the machine is simple the data is fed into machine by any one of the method & the sheet is inserted in the machine.

The die is selected and fitted at the die holder. instead bed move upward and downward and the bending work is done. The job. It’s an air compressor operated machine in which applying air pressure does the work. It is also an automatic machine. Of index station Inhibited clamp zone Maximum speed Nibbling Punching Noise level - 3(D type) 220 mm (X direction) 80 mm (Y direction) 75 mm/min for X & Y direction 106 mm/min for X & Y movement 400 mm/min (+/.No.5 %) for X= 1mm And y=0 (without sheet) 200 mm/min (+/. The most important feature of this machine is that in this machine the ram do not move. which is to bend. NPB Bending Machine:- In this machine the tool is fixed between the jaws and the die is selected as per our need. is placed on the die.5 %) for X = 25 mm And Y = 0 (without sheet) 90 to 100 dB 3. 48 . which is fixed on the bed.

Tapping Machine:- Tapping machine in its simplest kind consists of AC motor in which the spindle is fitted from which a belt is fitted from motor spindle to chuck spindle on the both spindle. so the power of stroke. which is filled with oil and is used as a fluid for hydraulic piston.This is a kind of automatic machine. In this machine the bed is stationary and the ram moves upward and downward. the die and bending angle all are set manually. The bending angle is set by die and stroke length is set up by scale. which holds the job. which is situated on the machine. working on hydraulic principle. 5. An important feature of this machine is that the chuck of this machine can be rotated clockwise when the moving chuck is pressed upward. 4. It has two hydraulic cylinders. length of stroke and the dimension of the job is numerically control where the angel of bending is dependent on the die. so the stroke length. which are attached with the hydraulic pistons. By using this machine we can tap from 2 mm to 10 mm. Its tonnage is 120 tones and is completely manual operated machine. As this is a manually operated machine. There is oil tank behind the machine. by means of that the speed of machine is controlled. There are some steps for the belt. 49 . To hold the job firmly there is also clamp. 120T Bending Machine:- This is simple kind of press.

when the surface of the sheet gets wrecked after performing the operation such as cutting. The cutters used in the machine are of two types: • Diamond edge cutters Diamond edge cutter is a simple cutter. as the name indicates is a saw. In this machine there are rollers. In this machine the thickness of the sheet must be pre entered and the sheet of roller must also be set. when sheet is inserted in machine the rollers press the sheet by which the sheet gets leveled.6. 7. punching etc. which is circular in shape. in which small particles of diamond are fixed on the edge of the cutter. It has two types of cutting saw used as per need. Leveling Machine:- Leveling Machine is used only for leveling the surface of sheets. FS Circular Saw:- Circular saw. Both cutters cannot be fitted on the machine simultaneously. parallel and moving in opposite direction. which are fitted. The blade is ejected and changed when we need. This type of cutter is used 50 .

5 mm to 5 mm. high-speed steel (HSS) and other kinds of hard metals. This cutter is used to cut the sheets of varying thickness of 5 mm to 50 mm. which is attached with drill chuck. and the chuck is hanging on the shaft. This machine can drill up to 29 mm diameter. This machine is called Radial drilling machine because it can move 360 degree. 0. 51 . and it also cuts cut acrylic or non-metal sheets varying thickness from only for cutting non-metals. To set it in any position there is a magnetic lock which the shaft and do not allow it to move. which can move in the angles. 8. which is attached with drill chuck. and the chuck is hanging on the shaft. Radial drilling machine:- Radial drilling machine in its simplest kind consists of motor. The most important feature of this machine is that it is used • Metal edge cutters This is a type of cutter in which the blades are made up of metal such as high carbon steel (HCS).


In this series of efforts. Air force. In 1948.S. 53 . The system must automatically interpret at least some portion of numerical data. offer by existing mechanically automated machines. control of machine tool by means of numbers. were designed and automated.NUMERICAL CONTROL INTRODUCTION Numerical control machines are those which are capable of being controlled by a series of formatted data. it become clear that fixed type of automation. was insufficient to handle complex and small batch requirement of aircraft parts. During World War II. NEED OF NC Human being has always tried to reduce his efforts in carrying out various tasks to make life more and more comfortable. machine tools like lathe and milling machines etc. DEFINITION: Systems in which action are controlled by direct insertion of numerical data at same time. For this machines have been designed right from sharpened stones to turbines and computers. John T Parson demonstrated the concepts of NC to U. called NC part program. OR Simply as. and thus produce desired output without the need of human intervention. The first prototype of NC was developed and demonstrated at MIT in 1952. The NC part program can be changed at any time to get different desired outputs.

• Reduce human error.Present competitive word demands that a variety of quality products be produced at high rate of production at a minimum of cost. • Accuracy and consistency. • In process. low WIP (work in progress). • Highly skilled programmers and machine operator required. humidity and dust controlled environment required. Some are indicated as below:• High productivity. • Temperature. NC technology also suffers from limitation. measurement not required. • Low operator fatigue. ADVANTAGES OF NC: NC machines are today serving a host of industry in a variety of applications. LIMITATION: As is with any other system of technology around the world. • Flexibility in manufacturing. which can be termed as FLEXIBLE-AUTOMATION. NC machine enables us to meet this challenge by providing a solution. 54 . some of which are enumerated as below. • Complicated and costly maintenance.• High capital and revenue cost of machines.

CNC machines certainly offers better and easy machining. DIRECT NUMERICAL CONTROL (DNC) DNC is the first step towards the factory of future. The diode was replaced by transistor in 60’s giving rise to more reliable. Also microprocessors replaced large sized hardware circuitry in NC machines. The best thing about CNC is that for some further modifications. which made arithmetical and logical operations easier. Its essential functions in addition to NC/CNC are: (1) (2) (3) To use memory of the central computer for storing part programs meant for several NC/CNC machines. It is a manufacturing system in which a central computer communicates with the controllers of several machine tools by a direct connection in real time. But in practice CNC machines have been continued to be mentioned NC in general.COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL (CNC) MACHINES Since 1970. To transfer or download directly the part programs from central computer to individual MCU’S of machines. CNC based MCU’S have been increasingly replacing the hardware MCU’S and currently only CNC systems are manufactured. relatively smaller than MCU. we need not require a new hardware but we can simply upgrade the software and modify it as required. To provide downloading in real time on shop floor. 55 .

Taking out the list off on the machine getting it approved for the production. Handling over the blue print of TLO. Updating program if required and if any change in drawing. However it may be added that one set of documents is sent to production Control Engineer in advance which help him in getting time study done in 56 . 5. 3.e.(4) To stabling two way communication i. 6. in addition to down loading central computers can also receive messages and other manufacturing information in real time. 4. Writing the program and tools lay Out (TLO). Feeding the program into computer and taking out of tape. Selection of tools (normal). special tools (if required). Study of drawing and deciding the process of manufacturing on CNC. 8. 7. 9. 1. Updating of master file. WORKING PROCEDURE OF NC CELL The NC cell works with a model practice. punched tape. Receiving of drawing with programming request. 2. Pre-machining and post machining details and drawing as and when required to the CNC MACHINING CELL..

Normally the NC operates according to the main program.advanced and also he can know about pre and post machining operation details. but when a command calling a sub-program is encountered in the main program. COMPOSITON OF PROGRAM A program is divided into a main program and a sub-program. The part program tells the NC the tool path and auxiliary motions of the machine tool. the tool path and other machining conditions are programmed. This program is called a part program. The program on this process sheet is punched on a paper tape (or taken on any other suitable medium). While machining a part using a NC machine tool. WHAT IS PROGRAMMING? The NC machine tool moves as directed by a program punched on a NC tape. This is written on the process sheet. control is passed to the sub-program and when the command in sub-program says to return to the 57 .

main program, control is return to the main program. Total of 95 main and sub-programs may be stored in the NC memory. BLOCK: Program is composed of several commands, each command is known as block. WORD: Block is composed of one or more words. Word has an address followed by number. Address is the letter, which prescribes the meaning of the numerical value following the address. Example: Address X -- 100 Numerical value WORD

INPUT FORMAT: Input format used by the system -6M is known as the variable block format since the number of words in a block and the number of characters in a word can be changed. Input can be in inch or metric system. For example: X L +0 5 3


3 digits below the decimal point 5 digits above decimal point Leading zero suppression With sign Absolute or incremental Address

DECIMAL POINT PROGREAMMING: FANUC 6T can take the input numerical values with decimal point.

ABSOLUTE AND INCRMENTAL PROGRAMMING: The distance of tool travel in each axis may be commanded by either by incremental or absolute command. Using incremental command traveling distance in the block is directly programmed while in absolute command the end location of the tool within a block is represented by coordinate values in the work coordinate system and the coordinate values are also programmed.



*G00 : This code is for positioning is for positioning the tool. For each axis the point is programmed by the address X, Y, Z or U, V, W. in FANUC-6T only X and Z-axis are programmed. G00 X--- Z--any movement in ’X’ and (or) ‘Z’ axis will result in movement with given rate of feed under address ‘F’. G01 X--- Z--- F--*G02/03: These codes are for circular interpolation/movement. Starting point is point where tool presently stayed or it is determined by previous block. End point of arc or circle is determined by given axis value. The interpolation parameters determine circle center by using ‘I’ and ‘K’ with sign over a range of 0 t0 360 degrees. G02 / G03 X--- Z--- R--- I--- K--- F--*G04 : It is used for dwell, when the previous block is completed and the next block is about to start.


giving screw end point (is incremental command) or screw end point (in absolute command) and the thread lead are given by z and F respectively. commanding an increment or a decrement for a lead per screw revolution enables variable thread lead cutting to be performed.K--- 61 . G33 X--. G27 checks whether the tool is positioned at this point. By G28 the tool is positioned at the reference point automatically.F--*G34: It is used for variable lead thread cutting. G27/G28/G29 X--. the tool is positioned at the command point via all intermediate point.Z--*G31: This code commands linear interpolation. The end point of this command is called the intermediate point.Z--. input of skip signal during execution of this command interrupts the rest of block and executes the next.G04 (or P) Time in seconds *G27 / G28 / G29: A point fixed on the machining plane is called the reference point and by reference point return function the tool is positioned at this point. By G29. *G33: This is used for thread cutting.F--. K specifies an increment or decrement in the following command G34 X---Z--.

G91 is used for incremental data input means that each dimension corresponds to distance to be traversed.H. Using CRC codes the workpiece contour is programmed. When using G90. threads. The code G42 is used when tool is left to workpiece and tool is to traverse right to left as tool carriage traverse when producing R. 62 . threads. The benefit of using CRC codes is that there is no contouring error left.H. The control calculate the path for tool tip radius center (equidistant* calculation) and the intersection points of these equidistant paths at acute transition. As we assume machining behind the tuning axis G41 code is used when tool is left to workpiece and tool be to traverse left to right as tool carriage traverse when producing L. CRC codes may be used for inside and outside contouring obtuse and acute angles and at acute and tangential transition. We are using the metric data input system. For data input in inch code is G70 otherwise it is G71. All ‘X’ values are recognized as diameter.*G40/G41/G42:These are tool nose radius compensation codes. The codes G41 and G42 are deactivated by using G40 code. *G20/G21:these are codes for determining the input system that is the data supplied are in INCHES or METRIC system. *G90/G91:these are code for absolute or incremental data input. absolute data input all data refers to the fixed zero point of workpiece. These codes are effective in a block and programmed with or without path data and with codes G00/G01.

M03 is used for spindle for spindle rotation in clockwise direction. M05 is used for spindle rotation stop. *M03/M04/M05: these all are spindle control command. M04 is used for spindle rotation in counterclockwise direction. All ‘X’ values are recognized as radius. This is unconventional stop and operational in all automatic modes.Incremental data are preferred in the subroutine programming. *M02: with use of this code (end of program code) program return to program start is written in last block. MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS ‘M’ *M00: it makes possible in order to make a measurement or some other similar purpose. *M17: this code is for end of subroutine is written in last block of the subroutine. 63 .

This will result in orientation of spindle by 90 degree.*M30: this code is used for end of program and is similar to M02. *M19: this code is used for oriented spindle stop. T WORD TOOL COMMAND T CODE: 64 . Whereas M09 is used for to off coolant associated with tool. Whereas using G91 (incremental programming code) the input values for X axis refer to the radius. This code is used when drilling or milling is required on periphery of workpiece (this is done with help of driving attachment). Spindle always orient in C. PATH DATA ‘X’ AND ‘Z’ AXIS COMMANDS: The address for the axis commands X and (or) Z determines the axis which is to be traversed in accordance with the associated digital value. *M08/M09: both of these codes are used to control coolant. Orientation of spindle is given under address ‘S’. Both axes can move simultaneously or individual according to path data is fed.W direction.C. The command is given as M19 S90 LF. When using G90 (absolute programming code) input data treated as diameter values for x-axis by the control. M08 is used for to on coolant associated with tool.

it is find out on machine with help of an equipment (accessory) provided by manufacturer. So when these tools are fitted to turret (too magazine) their cutting edge projections are different.) are made under different designation and length.-. Tool command is given as below T mm. Even tool used for similar operation are not of same length.) required for a particular machining section and also relevant tool data (tool offset number).The tool command determines the tool (tool no. Tool length offset x-axis Z…. So a given program zero is not suitable for all tools as some were short to workpiece and some dig into the workpiece with respect to their size. Tool offset consists of: X…. Therefore it is necessary either to set different zeros for different tools or to give an instruction initially that this much length tool travels less or more to approach the workpiece without damaging or being short to it. for drilling.e.-Tool command address =T Tool number 00 to 99 (1 or 2 decades) = mm Tool offset number (to select: 01 to 16) = n (To cancel: 00) TOOL OFFSET As we know that different tools (i. According to distance tool offset are given number from 01 to 16. turning. boring etc. The distance it has short or more then ZERO set with respect reference tool is known as tool offset. Tool length offset z-axis 65 .

B_. Z (2). B+. Means insertion of chamfer. SEQUENCE NUMBER. Z (1) ] which is to be rounded or to be chamfered with B code and followed by the position coordinates [ X (2). means insertion of radius. The inserted radius/chamfer must not be bigger than the smaller one of the both distances. The instruction is given as: N10 X (1). ‘+’ writing is optional This code is given with path data of sharp corner [ X (1).CHAMFER AND RADIUS COMMAND To insert a radius or a chamfer can be inserted automatically by using B code. The program number is used to differentiate one program from another.. 66 .. N12 X (2). Z(2). Z (1). N12 X (2). Z(2). Z (2) ] at which tool to reach. PROGRAM NUMBER: This control can store program in its memory.. N12 X (2).

A tool may return to this point rather than the start point to cut down the idle time. Usually. PROGRAM ZERO POINT AND COORDINATE SYSTEM: While programming. S.NO 1 GCODE G00 FUNCTION POSITIONING 67 . information of the block with /n of the number corresponding to switch number n are ignored.A sequence number can be specified with a number (1-9999) following the address. OPTIONAL BLOCK SKIP: With a slash followed by the number (/n) (n=1 to 9) programmed at the beginning of a block. START POINT AND REFERENCE POINT: A tool moves from the start point and the program also starts from the start point. It is placed at the head of the block. The reference point is the fixed position of the machine tool. a program zero point and a coordinate point must be determined. program zero point is placed at an arbitrary position on the workpiece and the coordinate system is called the work coordinate system. With the optional block skip switch n on the machine operator’s panel set ON. but the NC must know the coordinate values of the start point. The order of the number is arbitrary and need not be consecutive.


This training has added a whole new dimension to my observation and practical approach as well as introducing me to Organizational Hierarchy. A good insight into inspection and Quality check of products. like understanding of machines as well as procedure followed in manufacturing a product. This training was helpful to me in various direct and indirect ways. ------------------------------------------ 69 .The practical training aims at familiarizing the students with the working condition in a professional firm as well as to apply their theoretical knowledge acquired in the institute into practice.