7th Saudi Engineering Conference

“Conventional and Unconventional Methods to Enhance Oil Recovery”


• • Introduction Stages of Oil Field Development
• • • Primary Recovery Secondary Recovery Tertiary Recovery

• •

Evaluation of Conventional Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery
• • • • Recovery mechanisms EOR Classification Selection Criteria Applications



and – Existing fields The ratio of discovery rate to consuming rate is one to four barrel of conventional oil. thus. the gap between discovery and consumption is big and may grow. we should focus on the existing wells. 28-Sep-08 Introduction Stages of Oil … Stages of Oil Field Development • Primary Recovery: Oil is produced using the natural energy inherent in the reservoir • Secondary Recovery: Oil is produced by pumping a fluid into the reservoir. including stripper wells.Introduction General Aspects Potential additions to HC reserves come from two sources – New discoveries. either to maintain reservoir pressure or to displace the oil directly • Tertiary Recovery: It refers to reservoir processes that recover oil not produced by secondary processes 28-Sep-08 . Therefore.

Percentage of Total Oil Produced United States World Source: EIA & OGJ 2004 28-Sep-08 . depending on the oil and rock properties as well as drive mechanism • The ultimate recovery factor can be increased to around 40 % by employing the secondary recovery method Therefore.15 % of the original oil in place.Introduction Stages of Oil … Statistics • The average primary recovery rate is around 10 . oil left in the reservoir after the primary and secondary methods is the potential target of the enhanced oil recovery methods (EOR-methods) 28-Sep-08 EOR Oil Production Worldwide EOR.

Evaluation of Conventional Oil Recovery 28-Sep-08 Introduction Stages of Oil … Evaluation of … Causes for poor recovery • Physical Reasons: – Existence of the interfacial tension between oil and water and wettability (capillary forces) – High mobility ratio between water and oil (viscous forces) • Geological Reason: – The heterogeneities in the reservoir rock 28-Sep-08 .

the viscosity of oil must be reduced or the viscosity of the displacing water must be increased 28-Sep-08 .Capillary Pressure Oil Pc = Pnw − Pw = 2σ cos θ r σ = IFT [mN/m] θ = Contact angle r = Pore size 28-Sep-08 Mobility ratio • The viscosity is very important factor that holds oil back in the reservoir • In order to recover more oil from the reservoir.

Nc is 10-6 to 10-7 (under certain assumptions) If the Nc can be increased to 10-4 to 10-2. Thermal) – Act on both phenomena at same time (Nc) 28-Sep-08 Ratio of viscous forces to capillary forces NC = υ ∗η = σ  ∆P  k   ∆L  Capillary number σ υ = Displacing fluid velocity [m/day] η = Displacing fluid viscosity [mPa.s] σ = Interfacial tension [mN/m] For waterflooding. 28-Sep-08 . the residual oil saturation will be reduced significantly.EOR Mechansims • The mechanisms of EOR: – Eliminate or reduce capillary and Interfacial tension to improve the displacement efficiency – Improve sweep efficiency by reducing the mobility ratio between injected and displaced fluids (Polymer.

1977 EOR Processes Tertiary Recovery Thermal Steam drive Chemical Polymer Miscible CO2 Inert gas Other Microbial Vibration Steam stimulation Surfactant Hot water Caustic Miscible Solvent Electrical Flue gas In-situ combustion Combination 28-Sep-08 .Waterflooding Zone 28-Sep-08 Stegemeier .

Steam drive 28-Sep-08 Steam Flooding (Huff and Puff) 28-Sep-08 .

Gravity causes the mobilized oil to flow downward to the lower well for production. special focus on carbonate reservoirs • Simple handling and Low cost 28-Sep-08 . Steam injected into the upper well melts surrounding oil (bottom). specially in many depleted and waterflooded reservoirs Opportunities exist under economic conditions and current oil prize Chemical Properties Desirable: • Good solubility (low concentration) • High injectivity • Long-term stability against: – Electrolytes – Bacteria – Temperature – Oxidation – pH-Value changes • Low adsorption on the rock. 28-Sep-08 SPE 101463 Chemical Flooding • • Chemical flooding offers good opportunity to maximizing the reserves.Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Horizontal wells drilled in stacked pairs form the basic unit of SAGD project (top).

000 200.000 100.000 50.000 15.OBJECTIVES OF CHEMICAL FLOODING • Increase the Capillary Number Nc to mobilize residual oil • Decrease the Mobility Ratio M for better sweep • Emulsification of oil to facilitate production 28-Sep-08 CHEMICAL FLOODS HISTORY USA 300.000 0 19 78 19 80 19 82 19 84 19 86 19 88 19 90 19 92 19 94 19 96 19 98 20 00 20 02 20 04 20 06 CHINA Total Oil Production.000 25. B/D Surfactant 250.000 1995 Polymer Micellar Alkaline 1997 1999 2001 2003 28-Sep-08 Source : SPE .000 150.000 5.000 Total Oil Production.000 10. B/D 20.

January 1992 .Polymer Flooding Injection Injection Production Production Injection of water only Injection of water containing polymer 28-Sep-08 Combination of Surfactant & Polymer Surfactant-polymer flooding to increase oil recovery using injector and producer 28-Sep-08 Oilfield Review.

1995 28-Sep-08 .Miscible Flooding – CO2 • • • It dissolves in oil and reduce the capillary forces It dissolves in oil and reduce its viscosity and increase its volume CO2 is better than C1.200 bar compared with 250 bar Increase the permeability in the carbonate rocks. 200 . C2 . 250 . . It needs 130 . MMP 40 . 300 0 50 20 100 Pressure [bar] PhD Thesis of R.Meyn.6 m 0. It dissolves in water and form acids with react with carbonate increasing its permeability CO2 flood will normally provide incremental recovery of 8 % to 16 % of the original oil in place • • 28-Sep-08 Determination of Minimum Miscibility Pressure 100 Residual Oil Sat.C6 in the required miscible pressure. 150 . . [% PV] Oil: Sample Length: Permeability: Velocity: Bramberger 8.3 D 15 m/d 80 60 .

Other Methods (MIOR) Properties of Selected Bacteria • Average Length 1 . Halophile • Strict or facultative anaerobic • Indigenous • Significant amount of metabolites • No special nutrient requirements 28-Sep-08 Advanced Methods to EOR .5 . Thermophile.0 mm (Bacteria: bore throat Ratio is 1:7) • Barophile.4mm and radius 0.1.

and the viscosity of the crude oil. • EOR has been utilized to overcome or to minimize the physical and geological effects to mobilize additional oil. Conclusion • The forces holding back the oil in the porous rock are the interfacial tension between oil and water.meet the demands of the current generation without destroying the needs of future generations.Exciting Challenges Sustainability . • It’s usually applied after primary and secondary recovery. • There is no universal method to be applied in any reservoir 28-Sep-08 .

such as horizontal drilling etc… 28-Sep-08 . Conclusion • Certain reservoir and fluid parameters have to be considered by selecting any EOR methods • Improvement of EOR can be achieved in conjunction with other advanced technologies.Cont….