What is Life?

This perennial question the answer to which has somehow eluded the most brilliant minds. For while scientists have identified many years ago the right mix of the atoms and molecules that constitute cellular material, they have not succeeded in ‘switching it on’ to make it alive, or ‘breathing life’ into it (Rabago et.al,2006)

In this module you will: a. Explain the concepts of the cell theory b. Identify the parts of a cell c. Describe the function of each cell part d. Differentiate prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells e. Compare plant and animal cells

A. The Cell Theory All living things are structurally made up of cells. The cell is the fundamental unit of life.
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1. What are living things made of? 2. What can cells do? 3. Where do cells come from?

Cells come from the division of pre-existing cells.

B. Cell Structure and Composition

CELL MEMBRANE -Serves as the outer boundary of the cell. It is a selective permeable membrane which permits the entrance of substances throughout the cell.

CYTOPLASM -Serves as the reservoir of the organelles as it contain all the lifesustaining components. It is a jellylike structure.

NUCLEUS -Usually located at the center and known as the control center of the cell. It regulates and coordinates all the activities of the cell.

C. Organelles in the Cytoplasm

ORGANELLES Membrane

STRUCTURE Components

FUNCTION

Module 8 A. 1. smooth endoplasmic reticulum – usually the site for fat metabolism; forms vesicles for transporting large molecules to other cell parts 2. mitochondria – sites of cellular respiration 3. Golgi apparatus – involved in modifying, sorting and packaging macromolecules for secretion or for delivery to other organelles 4. nuclear membrane – a double membrane which separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm 5. nucleolus – the site where subunits of ribosomes are formed 6. nuclear pore – serves as pathway for the exchange of materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm 7. rough endoplasmic reticulum – studded on its outer surface with ribosomes for the synthesis of protein

Eukaryotic Cell A typical Prokaryotic Cell A typical Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cells Pro = “before”. . prokaryotes are supremely successful. animals. Eukaryotic Cells Eu = “true”.D. evolving from a prokaryote-like predecessor. karyon = “nucleus” Prokaryotes are evolutionarily ancient. Most of the living things that we are typically familiar with are composed of eukaryotic cells.1 Prokaryotic Cell vs. fungi and protists. plants. They were here first and for billions of years were the only form of life. And even with the evolution of more complex eukaryotic cells. karyon = “nucleus” Eukaryotic cells are more complex. All bacteria and bacterialike Archaea are prokaryotic organisms. Variations in Cell Structure and Function d. Eukaryotic organisms can either be single-celled or multi-celled.

: Ribosomes: Vesicles: Golgi apparatus: Mitosis: Chloroplasts: Present More than one Multicellular Present Animals and Plants Present (Linear DNA) Mitosis and fusion of gametes Present Present Present Present Present Yes larger Present Present Yes Present (in plants) Microscopic in size. usually arranged as nine doublets surrounding two singlets Selective Yes Only in plant cells (chemically simpler) Present 10-100um EUKARYOTIC Absent One--but not true chromosome: Plasmids Unicellular Absent Bacteria and Archaea Circular DNA doesn't need telemeres Partial. composed of only one fiber not present Usually no Usually chemically complexed Present 1-10um Flagella: Permeability of Nuclear Membrane: Plasma membrane with steriod: Cell wall: Vacuoles: Cell size: . chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasm Submicroscopic in size.PROKAYOTIC Nucleus: Number of chromosomes: Cell Type: True Membrane bound Nucleus: Example: Telomeres: Genetic Recombination: Lysosomes and peroxisomes: Microtubules: Endoplasmic reticulum: Mitochondria: Cytoskeleton: DNA wrapping on proteins. undirectional transfers DNA Absent Absent or rare Absent Absent May be absent No smaller Present Absent No---but has binary fission Absent. membrane bound.

d. Animal Cell Plant Cell Animal Cell .2 Plant Cell vs.

Present only in lower forms. This becomes the cell wall between the two daughter cells. Absent Animal cells divide with the formation of a cleavage furrow. there are a number of small vacuoles spread throughout the cytoplasm that store water. Cell Wall A rigid cell wall (made of cellulose) is present around a plant cell that helps it maintain its shape. Instead two small clear areas called polar caps are present. This pigment is present in the chloroplasts. Complex golgi bodies are present close to the nucleus. Cell division takes place by the formation of cell plate in the center of the dividing cell. The vacuole stores water and maintains turgidity of the cell. Present. As animals lack this pigment. It takes up almost 90% of the cell volume. Present. This is formed as the chromosomes move to the ends of the microtubule spindle formed by the centrioles. This allows animal cells to adopt different shapes. Cell wall is absent. Plants instead have microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) that produce the microtubules. Present.Characteristics Plant Cell Cell Size Large Cell Shape Rectangular Vacuoles A single centrally located vacuole. . ions and waste materials. Present Golgi Bodies In place of golgi bodies. Chlorophyll is the pigment that traps sun's energy which is utilized by plants to make food through the process of photosynthesis. Centrioles help in division of animal cells by creating microtubule spindles that pull the chromosomes to opposite ends for cell division to occur. Cell Division Centrioles Centrosome Lysosomes Absent. its sub units known as dictyosomes are present. Lysosomes are vesicles that contain enzymes that destroy dead cell organelles and other cells debis. Chloroplasts Animal Cell Smaller than plant cells Circular If any. they cannot make their own food. Absent.

Their role is to maintain the organ in a healthy state by repairing any damage it suffers. each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function. It is also hoped that studying stem cells will provide vital clues about how the tissues of the body develop. promises to solve some of the trickiest practical and ethical issues. Are there different types of stem cell? Yes. The latest technique. Among the conditions which scientists believe may eventually be treated by stem cell therapy are Parkinson's disease. This is because they are pluripotent . stroke. . It is thought their potential to become other types of cell is more limited than that of embryonic stem cells. as large numbers of cells are needed for stem cell replacement therapies. or compromised by disease. adult stem cells are rare in mature tissues and science is still working on ways to grow them in the lab in sufficient numbers. Stem cells are different. it should be possible to use stem cells to generate healthy tissue to replace that either damaged by trauma. and cannot be transformed to suddenly take on the role of a heart cell. and retain the potential to turn into many different types of cell. This is an important distinction. Can they be easily grown in the lab? Large numbers of embryonic stem cells can be relatively easily grown in culture.they have the ability to become virtually any type of cell within the body. 16:42 GMT Stem cells are thought to hold huge potential for treating a wide range of disease and disability. Why are they so useful? When a stem cell divides. diabetes. Stem cells are also found within adult organs. They have not taken on a final role. arthritis. Articles about Cell BBC NEWS-Last Updated: Tuesday. heart disease. Scientists believe it should be possible to harness this ability to turn stem cells into a super "repair kit" for the body. and have the potential to become any of the major specialized cell types within that organ. burns and spinal cord damage. and how disease takes hold. Scientists around the world are working on techniques to Refine stem cell therapy. Stem cells may also provide a useful way to test the effects of experimental drugs. But there is evidence that they are still relatively "plastic". However. What are stem cells? Most adult cells in the body have a particular purpose which cannot be changed. nuclear reprogramming.E. a liver cell is developed to perform specific functions. Alzheimer's disease. Theoretically. For instance. 20 November 2007. Scientists believe the most useful stem cells come from the tissue of embryos. They are still at an early stage of development.

but these cells are foreign to the body. They strongly advocate the use of stem cells from adult tissue. Secondly. Similar results were achieved by two teams using a different combination of gene-controlling proteins. whether created in the lab or not. These cells are typically taken from lab-created embryos that are just four or five days old. Why is the nuclear reprogramming an advance? There are two big potential benefits.avoiding the issue of rejection of the cells. in which cells isolated from skin tissue called fibroblasts are modified by inserting gene-controlling proteins. the technique does not require the creation of. have the potential to go on to become a fully-fledged human. and run the risk of rejection if used to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissue. opponents argue that all embryos. Some research has also raised the possibility that stem cells may turn cancerous. . This chemical cocktail causes the cells to be "reprogrammed" to take on the plastic quality of embryonic stem cells. and so is not ethically contentious. However. or destruction of an embryo. The current methods derive stem cells from from existing lab lines.Is the use of stem cells controversial? Very. and as such it is morally wrong to experiment on them. Work also still needs to be done to refine the new technique. Are there safety concerns? Yes. Some researchers fear that it is possible that stem cell therapy could unwittingly pass viruses and other disease causing agents to people who receive cell transplants. What is nuclear reprogramming? A new technique. Nuclear reprogramming can potentially produce a supply of stem cells derived from a patient's own tissue . In both cases the success rate in producing new stem cells was also low. Campaigners are vehemently opposed to the use of embryonic stem cells. and are little more than a microscopic ball of cells.

Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. "For example. Bone stem cells introduced onto an artificial 'scaffold' then implanted into mice also appeared to behave in a similar way to normal bone cells. extracted these from fluid samples taken as part of unrelated diagnostic tests during pregnancy. and carried out further tests to look at how they performed in a living creature. and use them to grow new tissue in the laboratory. They found that they had the potential to turn into a wide variety of different cells ." Dr De Coppi it might be possible to take amniotic stem cells from a child diagnosed before birth with a problem. Researchers successfully extracted the cells from the fluid that fills the womb in pregnancy and then grew them in lab experiments. "However. “ It shouldn't be seen as a race between embryonic stem cells and other sources ” Prof Colin McGuckin Newcastle University However. Dr Paolo De Coppi. then encouraged them to grow in the laboratory. Again. which would be ready to use . forming bone even months later. 08:58 GMT 'New stem cell source' discovered US scientists say they have discovered a new source of stem cells that could one day repair damaged human organs. who worked on the study. But this has created ethical concerns because the embryos are destroyed in the process. many of which come from the developing foetus. the scientists said it should be possible to harness the cells' ability to grow into different tissue to treat disease. embryonic stem cells injected into muscle can form teratomas . The team from Wake Forest University School of Medicine. Implanted in mice Writing in Nature Biotechnology. the range of applications for these stem cells may be more narrow than for embryonic stem cells. with the stem cells spreading and starting to produce key body chemicals in both brain and liver. They then transplanted them into mice. now of Great Ormond Street Hospital. Great interest The conclusion of the researchers was that the amniotic cells were 'pluripotent' .capable of becoming many different cell types. He said: "Our research suggests that for some clinical applications they may work better than embryonic stem cells. embryonic stem cells. 8 January 2007.the hallmark of potentially useful stem cells. said the amniotic stem cells were similar to. but not identical to. The types of stem cell with potentially the most use have so far been derived from specially grown human embryos.particularly on the child from whose mother they were taken. the results were encouraging. Amniotic fluid contains a large number of cells. UK experts had doubts about the feasibility of the technique. Opponents say this is tantamount to cannibalism. Supporters say stem cells offer real hope in treating illnesses like diabetes. They said gathering amniotic fluid from large numbers of women might be difficult. and that they held the potential for treatment .Last Updated: Monday. for whom they are an exact tissue match.amniotic stem cells do not do this. in North Carolina.

" However. In theory. "You could conceivably gather amniotic fluid during a caesarean section. He welcomed the report. it might also be possible to genetically modify a foetus' own stem cells and inject them back into the amnioitc fluid to correct gene disorders." . but that process could interfere with the experience of giving birth.to treat the child when it was born. the wider public won't understand that. In this country. "If it is a natural birth. Unless researchers do work to demonstrate there are alternatives to embryonic stem cells. the waters break and they are all over the floor. the majority of women give birth naturally. saying that it was 'thorough' and demonstrated the potential of amniotic stem cells. is researching the use of similar cells taken from the umbilical cord at birth. "It shouldn't be seen as a race between embryonic stem cells and other sources. Possible limitations Professor Colin McGuckin. "The best thing is to have a variety of stem cell sources to provide the best stem cell for patients. from Newcastle University. and you've lost them. which means that fluid could not be collected. he said that harvesting amniotic fluid presented particular difficulties in many cases.

" . minimising the chances of rejection and avoiding the need to take immunosuppressant drugs. Four out of the six dogs who received these stem cells saw the return of dystrophin and regained muscle strength. The researchers. 15 November 2006." 'Excellent work' Dr Marita Pohlschmidt. but turned to dogs for their next trial because they replicate the musclewasting disease more accurately. This condition. Overall. 18:00 GMT Stem cells 'treat muscle disease' A stem cell breakthrough could lead to a treatment For muscular dystrophy (MD). Mobility returned The researchers used a form of stem cells. one died early and the other. Of the remaining two. They isolated the stem cells from both healthy dogs and also from MD dogs. Italy. The experiment to inject MD dogs with their own "corrected" stem cells proved less successful. which are "programmed" to turn into muscle cells. The team had previously seen promising results when they injected stem cells into mice with a version of this disease. Writing in the journal Nature. It shortens life span and there is currently no cure. looked at the most common form of the disease. director of research at the Muscular Dystrophy Campaign. Duchenne muscular dystrophy. although the dytrophin protein returned. Scientists said it was a major step forward and bolstered the idea that stem cells could be used to treat MD. the scientists believe. said: "We feel encouraged by the work because the results provide initial evidence that we might be one step closer to a stem cell treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. which usually only affects boys. should stem cell treatment move into humans.Wednesday. UK. gathered from blood vessels. called mesoangioblasts. This approach was investigated because. appears in about one in every 3. did not receive enough cells. in Milan. “ This is the first piece of research that has convinced me that stem cell therapy could play a role in treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy ” Professor Dominic Wells Muscular dystrophy is a group of genetic disorders that cause the muscles in the body to gradually weaken over time and mobility to be lost. and two dogs injected at a late-stage of the disease had their mobility returned. the team said the work paved the way for future trials in humans. research has revealed.500 male births and is caused by mutations in a particular gene that lead to a lack of dystrophin. injections of stem cells taken from healthy dogs showed the most improvement. a protein involved in maintaining the integrity of muscle. One dog that was injected at an early-stage of the disease retained the ability to walk. with the latter's stem cells then being modified to "correct" the mutated gene. The researchers wrote: "The work reported here sets the logical premise for the start of clinical experimentation that may lead to an efficacious therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. it would mean patients could be injected with their own cells. led by a team at San Raffaele Scientific Institute. An Italian-French team found transplanting stem cells into dogs with a version of the disease markedly improved their symptoms. They found that transferring the stem cells five times at monthly intervals produced the best results. The scientists proceeded to inject these different types of stem cells into dogs with MD.

"This is the first piece of research that has convinced me that stem cell therapy could play a role in treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. . she said. she added that the researchers needed to find out why not all dogs responded positively. London." The data. it is nevertheless an important study in developing therapies for muscular dystrophies." Professor Dominic Wells. said: "This is yet another example of the vital contribution animal research makes to the development of treatments for human disease. University of Oxford. However." Kay Davies of the MRC Functional Genetics Unit.Dr Stephen Minger. changed this view. a stem cell researcher at Kings College London. but the actual delivery of such therapy is thought to be many years away. said: "This is an excellent piece of work demonstrating significant functional improvement in a naturally occurring disease in dogs that is very similar to that in humans. of the gene targeting group at Imperial College. "Although it will likely to be some time before this work can move to humans. said: "The use of stem cells to treat human disease holds great promise.

The transplants were successful. one of the study's leaders. a stage when the retina is about to be formed.either mimicking the human disease retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration.key to allowing them to see again. It is thought the retina is one of the best places to try out cell transplant therapy because photoreceptor loss initially leaves the rest of the wiring to the brain intact. The team took cells from three to five-day-old mice.Early stage retinal cells are taken from a newborn mouse  2 . which can turn into any kind of cell in the body. Tests showed that the mice's pupils responded to light and that there was activity in the optical nerve. funded by the Medical Research Council. “ This is a stunning piece of research that may in the distant future may lead to transplants in humans to relieve blindness ” Professor Andrew Dick University of Bristol If the results can be translated into a treatment for human eye disease.  1 . UK experts welcomed the study. scientists are also seeking to help those already affected. restoring some sight to the mouse. and already programmed to develop into photoreceptors. published in the magazine Nature. it could help the millions of people with conditions ranging from age-related macular degeneration to diabetes. they cannot be replaced. 16:48 GMT Cell transplants 'restore sight' Cell transplants have successfully restored vision to mice which had lost their sight. 8 November 2006. They were able to help them see again by transplanting immature retinal stem cells into their eyes.The cells implant and connect with existing cells in the eye. said: "Remarkably.They are transplanted into the retina of a mouse which has lost its sight  3 . Dr Jane Sowden.Wednesday. the photoreceptors implanted and made electrical connections to the animals' existing retinal nerve cells . While treatments are being developed which might prevent or delay the loss of these cells. scientists from the University College London Institutes of Ophthalmology and Child Health and Moorfields Eye Hospital transplanted cells which were more advanced. UK scientists treated animals which had eye damage similar to that seen in many human eye diseases. in the hope that they will become photoreceptors have failed because the cells were not developed enough. . But previous attempts to transplant stem cells. Once the cone and rod photoreceptors in a retina are lost. we found that the mature retina. The cells were then transplanted into animals which had been genetically designed to have conditions which meant they would gradually lose their sight . showing signals were being sent to the brain. leading to hopes people could benefit in the same way. saying it was "stunning" research. Harvest In this study.

which the team says could be suitable. I sit in my clinic and have to tell patients that there's nothing I can do. is in fact able to support the development of new functional photoreceptors. superb research . this is a stunning piece of research that may in the distant future lead to transplants in humans to relieve blindness. however. However. Dr MacLaren stressed it would be some time before patients could benefit from such a treatment. But Dr Robert MacLaren. He said the aim now would be to look at adult stem cells to see if they could be genetically altered to behave like the mouse retinal cells. said they did not want to go down that route." . if I see a young patient. But at least now." Dr Stephen Minger. a specialist at Moorfields Eye Hospital who worked on the research. "I don't want to give patients false hope." 'Not false hope' To get human retinal cells at the same stage of development. a stem cell expert at King's College London." But Andrew Dick.it clearly shows that the host environment is important in directing the integration of transplanted cells.previously believed to have no capacity for repair. There are some cells on the margin of adult retinas that have been identified as having stem cell-like properties. "Every day. I can say that there might be something within your lifetime. but he said that at least it was now a possibility. said: "I think this is important. professor of ophthalmology at the University of Bristol. added: "As with any basic research we have to be careful not to overhype. would involve taking stem cells from a foetus during the second trimester of pregnancy.

Activities about Cell .F.

Name ________________________ Date ____________________ Drawing An Animal Cell Directions: In the space provided below. cell membrane (yellow) mitochondria (orange) nucleolus (blue) nucleus (red) lysosome (green) ribosome (black) cytoplasm (light green) vacuole (brown) Animal Cell . Identify each part by coloring it the color indicated in the word box. draw an animal cell. Make sure to draw and label all of the part listed below.

Name ________________________ Date ____________________ Drawing A Plant Cell Directions: In the space provided below. cell membrane (yellow) mitochondria (orange) cell wall (blue) nucleus (red) chloroplast (green) ribosome (black) cytoplasm (light green) vacuole (brown) Plant Cell . Make sure to draw and label all of the part listed below. draw a plant cell. Identify each part by coloring it the color indicated in the word box.

MITOCHONDRIA CYTOPLASM CHLOROPLAST CHLOROPHYLL NUCLEOLUS NUCLEUS TISSUES ORGANS VACUOLE CHROMOSOME ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ . you have 25 minutes to write a brief story using the words below.Name _______________ Date _____________ Cells Group Creative Writing Directions: As a group.

Plant Organelle Cell Wall Plasma (Cell) Membrane Nucleus Function within the Plant cell Who at your school has a similar job? Cytoplasm Chloroplast(s) Mitochondrion Vacuole(s) Chromosomes (DNA) Ribosome(s) .Name _______________________ How Does A Plant Cell Relate To Your School? Directions: In the space provided below describe the function of each cell organelle and then state what person in your school serves a similar function in your school.

What's your job? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 3. Do have any co-workers who's job and appearance is different from you? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 5. Pretend you are this organelle for the remaining questions. ? Worksheet Cells 1. what do you do? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ... ____________________ Organelle Name _________________________________________________ 2. Choose a organelle from the cell. How others of you are there in your cell? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 4..Name _______________ Date _____________ If I Were A. When food gets taken into the cell.

. Take the top part of the cell and carefully place it on the top.) 2.. making for a very messy cell. Just pushing the food pieces into the Jello causes it to crack and come apart. Every 6 oz package will make up 4 or 5 cells. you can put the parts back into the plastic cup. Getting the Jello Ready (Bill Cosby Impressions are encouraged!) Follow the package directions to mix up batches of Jello gelatin mix. If the cell feels soft. 3. There are some suggestions that you might spray the cup with Pam or some other non-stick material. Pour the Jello/Knox mixture into individual 9 oz Solo brand plastic cups until they are about two-thirds full. then turn it over onto the paper plate. Running warm water over the cup may also loosen the Jello. Pick a light colored flavor. 5. Make sure to label your cups! You are going make 2 cells (one animal cell and one plant cell. Cut the Jello/Knox in half and remove the top half. those students who wish to can feast on their cell... Parts can be put into both the top and bottom half of the Jello/Knox cell 6. Edible Cell! Problem: What are organelles? What organelles are found in a cell (plant/animal)? What are the functions of those organelles? Hypothesis: __________________________________________________________ ___ Materials: * 2 blue or green pieces of fruit roll up . Then carefully remove the plastic cup. This is the end of today's work. Use the spoon to dig out a hole in the bottom half of the Jello/Knox cytoplasm . Place the gumball in this hole to represent the nucleus of the cell. Add some unflavored Knox gelatin to the Jello to make it set up a little stiffer (just regular Jello fell apart during our first test). Day Two time to eat! Remove the Jello from the plastic cup onto the paper plate. Mitochondria * 4 chocolate covered raisins .The Incredible.. Ribosomes * 4 hot tamales .. We did not get a chance to try this yet. place the other cell parts into the cell. Using the spoon to make spaces and your diagram as a guide. Turn over the top and set it on the plate beside the bottom half 4. The students may need to run the knife around the very outside edge of the Jello to loosen it. Vacuoles * 1Jello/Knox mixture in plastic cup * 1 paper plate * 1 small Dixie cup full of cell parts (organelle) materials * 1 plastic knife * 1 plastic spoon Procedures: 1. Endoplasmic Reticulum * 1 teaspoon of round cake sprinkles . Please use clean spoons in case the spoon you were working with fell on the floor or the table. We had some problem with this. Put them into a refrigerator to set. Golgi Bodies * 2 red or yellow pieces of fruit roll up . After reviewing the parts one final time. 7.

After you have finished your design. . Allllllllllliiiiiiivvvvveeee! Background: You will be in groups of three. Before we start be aware that on the final day you must present your cell to the class. pepper. Procedure: 1. aluminum foil. 4. Materials: Play-doe. scissors. the Contractor and Architect will collaborate to design the plant cell. you can start to build your cell. and Surveyor. Building should be the role of the contractor. Problem: What does a 3-dimensional cell look like? What are the various parts of plant cells? Hypothesis: ______________________________________________________. purple. is to build the most realistic life-like plant cell the world has ever seen. food coloring or tempera paints (red. Architect. each with your own job. as a group. plastic wrap. white). The Surveyor's job is to basically take notes all the way through. so if the final product doesn't come out as planned the Surveyor can look back at their notes and answer why. 1 pair of gloves. The jobs to choose from are Contractor. yarn or undercooked spaghetti. Architect's watch the builders to make sure they are doing it exactly as planned. Alive. Along with this the Surveyor must make a copy of the design that the group can use when building it. blue. If it is approved. 2. plastic-bubble packing. glue. green. Your job. It should be colored the same color it will appear when it is built. After you have decided upon your jobs. hand it in and your teacher will approve it.It's Alive. The design should be drawn up on a piece of paper that explains what materials will be used for each organelle. Throughout this entire process the Surveyor should be writing down the order in which each organelle was designed and the order in which it will be built. This should be completed early on day two. 3. Take your time and make a good drawing. 1 large knife. Surveyors should take notes on how it is built and also can assist the Architects to make sure it is being built as planned. pencil shavings.

c. pencil. 3. 4. colored pencils.It's Just a Phase They're Going Through! Problem: What phases do cells undergo during mitosis? What happens at each phase? Hypothesis: ________________________________________________. crayons. b. 1. Procedure: Procedure Part A: Slide Preparation Onion Skin a. . Carefully put on a cover slip remembering to angle it. Examine the cell under low then medium power. cover slips. label each box created (front + back) numbers 1 . f.4 as shown on the right. knife (used by teacher only). 3. Within the large area you will draw the stages of mitosis. d. Bring the slide to the leader for a drop of iodine stain. 2. onion (fresh). Front Data Sheet Procedure Part B: Data Preparation 1. Back 4. iodine stain. Create a large box within numbered box. light microscope. Within the smaller box you will write the name of each stage shown. Adjust your microscope to a higher power. and give a full description of what you see happening. Put it flat on a slide. You will take your paper fold and it in half. as shown. toothpicks. e. 2. Materials: Unlined paper (1 sheet). First take a piece of onion skin off the onion. make them colorful. slides.

Name _______________ Date _____________ Plant And Animal Cells KWL K What I Know W What I Want To Learn L What I Have Learned .

Name _______________ Date _____________ Cells Maze Worksheet Directions: Help the DNA find the cell. .

Name _______________ Date _____________ Comparing Animal and Plant Cells Venn Diagram Animal Cells Plant Cells .

mitochondrion . chromosome 4. cell wall 8. the mass of like cells in an animal or plant body. nucleolus 9. a musical instrument consisting of a keyboard attached to a device that forces air through a number of pipes to produce a wide range of sounds. nucleus 12. cell membrane 6. organ 10. A structure inside the nucleus where RNA is transcribed. This organelle is where photosynthesis takes place. the green (in color) pigment found in chloroplasts where photosynthesis takes place. The enclosure of the cell that provides the body for all the organelles. this cell organelle helps take food and manufacture energy from it. as they form a specific organ: Thin. or highly concentrated part around which other parts are grouped. an egg shaped body that appears green from all the chlorophyll they contain. Mostly made of cellulose. this is the tough and rigid outer layer of plant cells. the ground protoplasm of cells that is outside the nucleus. Shaped like a bean. tissue the central. storage areas of the cell known for storing mostly water and/or food. chloroplast 7. chlorophyll (chlorophyl) 5. cytoplasm 11. 2. pipe organ. 1.Name _______________ Date _____________ Cells Vocabulary Quiz Directions: Match the vocabulary words on the left with the definitions on the right. esp. vacuole 3. essential. intertwined pieces of DNA found in the cell's nucleus.

Name _______________ Date _____________ Cells Word Chop Worksheet Directions: The table below contains words that have been chopped in half. Find the pieces that fit together and write them in the answer area below. osome tis leus ans nucl cyto vac cell embrane ondria nuc mitoch sues chlor ophyll cell m chlor uole chrom org eolus oplast plasm wall Answers: ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ .

Name _______________ Date _____________ Cells Word Search Worksheet Directions: All words are positioned left to right. P O N T Z E J A T I S C P U I N N B M B R H R D B T B J S Z D F P A J D M F B T J O A B A X MITOCHONDRIA CYTOPLASM CHLOROPLAST C J CHLOROPHYLL NUCLEOLUS NUCLEUS TISSUES ORGANS VACUOLE CHROMOSOME N Y T Z C H U N Z N U C L E O L U S L A S T G I B N C E C H L O R O P X N R A Z H E D O X Z H N M D W H R A Z P B C M N P F R L G H P I P Y O C H R O M O S O M E Y C I T D C S Y X H X S N T A D G M Y W E M N L J R T Z C I W D S X O R G A N S Z E V K A J B L M V C A U K I O D C J C W V F S S U E S D I X I F D E M P K A K R W J B F X O P I G S T I V D Z L J I G M R Z W P I L W I C H L O R O P H Y L L V B P I A H D W G E B J E O J D D E H V A C U O L E M O R L M P Y X L N U C L E U S E T R Z I G V S E V H V P M M M U Q U B E A M O H W N T S G C S N I B M I D Y N Z M X C Y Q D Y O F T O C H O N D R I L Y S M A L S S A Y V I A V O C C F C Y T O P L A S M W K L F L L A K U F O C G V B W G G G P B K T R R R Q T A M U T J W U R J .

stm http://news.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/health/7104218.co. L. (2005) Microbiology .com Bauman.. Rabago. et.stm Park Talaro.bbc.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/health/6120664.co.co. References http://news.bbc.bbc.stm http://news.bbc.G.al. 2006 www.co. K.m. Functional Biology.stm http://news. R.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/health/6144908.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/health/6231099. (2008) Foundations in Microbiology. Vibal Publishing house.teach-nology.