Genice M.

Aristo BSN4A
Theory NEED theory David McClelland and his associates proposed McClelland’s theory of Needs / Achievement Motivation Theory. This theory states that human behaviour is affected by three needs – Need for achievement is the urge to excel, to accomplish in relation to a set of standards, to struggle to achieve success. Need for power is the desire to influence other individual’s behaviour as per your wish. In other words,

NCM107 Mrs. Urgel

Need for affiliation is a need for open and sociable interpersonal relationships

-People with a high need for achievement seek to excel and thus tend to avoid both low-risk and high risk situation. They prefer to work alone or with other high achievers. - They want that their views and ideas should dominate and thus, they want to lead. Such individuals are motivated by the need for reputation and selfesteem. They are more determined and loyal to the organization they work for -they need harmonious relationship with other people and need to feel accepted by other people. They tend to conform to the norms of their work group. The individual makes choices based on estimates of how well the expected results of a given behavior are going to match up with or eventually lead to the desired results. Motivation is a product of the individual’s expectancy that a certain effort will lead to the intended performance, the instrumentality of this performance to achieving a certain result, and the desirability of this result for the individual, known as valence.

Expectancy Theory proposes that a person will decide to behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be.

leaders should be able to place more or less emphasis on the task. It is the subtle variables that also play an important role in the feeling of equity. and more or less emphasis on the relationships with the people they're leading.Equity theory is a theory that attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships. willingness and ability to take responsibility for the task. It focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to both relational partners. Effective leadership is taskrelevant. which may result in the employee not performing well at work anymore. Situational leadership theory is that there is no single "best" style of leadership. Just the idea of recognition for the job performance and the mere act of thanking the employee will cause a feeling of satisfaction and therefore help the employee feel worthwhile and have better outcomes. not only with the person or group that is being influenced. depending on what's needed to get the job done successfully. Effective leadership varies. proposes that individuals who perceive themselves as either under-rewarded or overrewarded will experience distress. and relevant education and/or experience of an individual or a group for the task") of the individual or group they are attempting to lead or influence. Equity is measured by comparing the ratios of contributions and benefits of each person within the relationship an employee wants to feel that their contributions and work performance are being rewarded with their pay. and the most successful leaders are those that adapt their leadership style to the maturity ("the capacity to set high but attainable goals. and that this distress leads to efforts to restore equity within the relationship. but it also depends on the task. job or function that needs to be accomplished Transactional theory presumes that It involves motivating and directing . If an employee feels underpaid then it will result in the employee feeling hostile towards the organization and perhaps their co-workers.

The leader believes in motivating through a system of rewards and punishment. and if he does not go as per the wishes of the leader. morale and performance of followers through a variety of mechanisms. and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers. followers primarily through appealing to their own self-interest. If a subordinate does what is desired.perception is based on unconscious assumptions about a person's environment. These assumptions can be viewed as probabilities of transactions that may occur in that environment. being a role model for followers that inspires them. Transformational leadership enhances the motivation. challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work. -Realize the vision through small planned steps and small successes in the path for its full implementation. the exchange between leader and follower takes place to achieve routine performance goals. and the perceived reality and its properties are built up via a series of interactions or transactions. kind . what is perceived is highly dependent on the knowledge gathered during interactions with the environment. such as outgoing. The main goal of the follower is to obey the instructions of the leader. so the leader can align followers with tasks that optimize their performance Trait theory suggests that individual personalities are composed broad dispositions. These include connecting the follower's sense of identity and self to the mission and the collective identity of the organization. decisiveness and optimism about the vision and its implementation. Therefore. a reward will follow. according to the transactional theory. Chances are that you would list a number of traits. -transformational leaders motivate and empower employees to achieve company’s objectives by appealing to higher ideals and moral values -Express confidence. a punishment will follow. Consider how you would describe the personality of a close friend. The power of transactional leaders comes from their formal authority and responsibility in the organization. Here.

connectionism. . Try to arrange the difficulty of the questions so the response is always correct and hence a positive reinforcement 4. OPERANT CONDITIONING . or solving a math problem.Based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Ensure that good performance in the lesson is paired with secondary reinforcers such as verbal praise. hitting a ball. consider the implications of reinforcement theory as applied to the development of programmed instruction (Markle.g. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word. Practice should take the form of question (stimulus) . When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded). By way of example. The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism (e. drive reduction) is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus. the individual is conditioned to respond. 1969. Require that the learner make a response for every frame and receive immediate feedback 3. Skinner. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. 1968) 1. A trait can be thought of as a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways.answer (response) frames which expose the student to the subject in gradual steps 2. prizes and good grades..and even-tempered.