Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) is defined as a self commutated switching power converter supplied from an appropriate electric energy source and operated to produce a set of adjustable multiphase voltages, which may be coupled to an ac power system for the purpose of exchanging independently controllable real and reactive power. The STATCOM has been defined as per CIGRE/IEEE with following three operating structural components. First component is Static: based on solid state switching devices with no rotating components; second component is Synchronous: analogous to an ideal synchronous machine with 3 sinusoidal phase voltages at fundamental frequency; third component is Compensator: provided with reactive compensation [17]. (Or) A static synchronous generator operated as a shunt connected static VAR compensator whose capacitive or inductive current can be controlled independent of the AC system voltage[18].

Fig. 1.1 (a) Single line diagram of STATCOM

E b and E c of the synchronous rotating machine are in phase with the system voltages V a . the three phase induced EMFs E a .STATCOM is one of the key Converter-based Compensators which are usually based on the VSI or CSI. and signal generator and control circuit. STATCOM finds a wide application in the field. V b and V c .1.1.2 (a).2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION: The Basic principle of reactive power generation by a voltage-sourced converter is akin to that of the conventional rotating synchronous machine shown schematically in fig. 1.1. Due to its versatile nature and speedy response. coupling transformer. both as a reactive power compensating device and harmonic absorber. . Fig. The reactive current I drawn by the synchronous compensator is determined by the magnitude of the system voltage V.1(b) VSC based Statcom Fig.1(c) CSC based Statcom VSC are often preferred over current sourced converters for FACTS applications. For purely reactive power flow. The STATCOM is composed of a VSC with a dc capacitor.

The STATCOM regulates voltage at its terminals by controlling the amount of reactive . STATCOM is a primary shunt device of the FACTS family. 1. and can be controlled to draw either capacitive or inductive current from the line in a similar manner of a synchronous condenser. It operates as a controlled SVS connected to the line through a coupling transformer.that of the internal voltage E. but much more rapidly.2 (a) Synchronous Condenser (1-1) The corresponding reactive power Q exchanged can be expressed as follows: (1-2) The STATCOM is basically a DC-AC voltage source converter with an energy storage unit. Fig. usually a DC capacitor.2 (b) shows the schematic configuration of STATCOM.1. and the total circuit reactance (synchronous machine reactance plus transformer leakage reactance plus system short-circuit reactance) X. The controlled output voltage is maintained in phase with the line voltage. Fig. which uses power electronics to control power flow and improve transient stability on power grids.

For computation purposes.1.Power injected into or absorbed from the power system. On the other hand. the voltage V2 generated by the VSC is in phase with V1 (∂=0. In steady state operation. we assume that the active and reactive power is transferred between two sources V1 and V2.2 (b) . The operating principle of STATCOM is explained in Fig. The variation of reactive power is performed by means of a VSC connected on the secondary side of a coupling transformer. STATCOM is observing reactive power. angle of V1 with respect to V2) so that only the reactive power is flowing from V1 to V2. where V1 represents the system voltage to be controlled and V2 is the voltage generated by the VSC. . The VSC uses forced commuted power electronics devices (GTO’s or IGBT’s) to synthesize the voltage from a dc voltage source. if V 2 < V 1 then current Iq flows from ac system to the converter and converter absorbs inductive reactive power from ac system.e. i. It can be seen that if V 2 > V 1 then current I q flows from the counter to ac system through reactance and converter generates capacitive reactive power for ac system.

3 (b).3 V-I AND V-Q CHARACTERISTICS: The STATCOM is essentially an alternating voltage source behind a coupling reactance with the corresponding V-I and V-Q characteristics shown in fig.3 (a) and fig. the maximum capacitive or inductive output current of the STATCOM can be maintained independently of the ac system voltage.3(a) V-I Characteristics Fig :-1. system voltage levels. Fig :-1. 1. and the maximum VAR generation or absorption changes linearly with the AC system voltage.3(b) V-Q Characteristics .1. typically about 0.2 p.1. These show that STATCOM can be operated over its full output current range even at very low (theoretically zero). In others words.The amount of reactive power is given by: (1-3) A capacitor connected on the DC side of the VSC acts as a dc voltage source.u.

The capability of providing maximum compensating current at reduced system voltage enables the Statcom to perform in variety of applications. it could be pointed out that this possibility would generally not exist if the converter poles were operated to produce a pulse width modulated waveform when the current conduction between the upper and lower values is transferred several times during each fundamental half cycle. which would in principle allow the realization of a higher transient rating in this range than that attainable in the capacitive range. The transient current rating of the Statcom in the inductive range is theoretically limited only by the maximum permissible e GTO junction temperature. The VI and VQ characteristics illustrate. because if an expected natural commutation would be missed for any reason converter failure requiring a forced shut down would likely occur. the Statcom may depending on the power semiconductors used have increased transient rating in both inductive and capacitive regions. However.The STATCOM provides voltage support under large system disturbances during which the voltage excursions would be well outside of the linear operating range of the compensator. Even with the non-PWM converters abnormal operating conditions should be carefully considered in the implementation of transient ratings above the peak turn off current capability of the semiconductors employed. The maximum attainable transient over current of the Statcom in the capacitive region is determined by the maximum current turn of capability of the power semiconductors (GTO) employed. .


Reactive compensation of AC-DC converters and HVDC links 5.2. 1. . Effective voltages regulation and control 9. Improvement of steady-state power transfer capacity 7. Reduction of temporary over-voltages 8. Damping of power system oscillations 2. Damping of subsynchronous oscillations 3. Reduction of rapid voltages fluctuations (flicker control)[4]. Balanced loading of individual phases 4. Improvement of transient stability margin 6.1 APPLICATIONS OF STATCOM The STATCOM has the following applications in controlling power system dynamics.

TYPES OF CONTROL OF STATCOM 3. different state space presentations have different effects on the controller design algorithm. All of them can be measured from the power system. There are several open loop system properties we need to know before we design the controller. these are two important criterions that must be established before any attempt in controller design is done. 1.9).2 Open loop characteristics of STATCOM Model Having the linearized system state space model as equation (3. Obsevability and Controllability The state space model of STATCOM has three state variables . For a given system. Another important property of a system is its open loop dynamic response characteristic that gives us not only the background information about the system performance but also the guideline for controller design.i. we can use the linear system method to analyze the characteristics of STATCOM model. . which means the system is observable. These two characteristics of a system depend on the state space presentations of the system. V. . Although system observability and controllability are the properties of the system presentation.