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**Digital Image Processing
**

Question & Answers

**1.Discuss the frequency domain techniques of image enhancement in detail.
**

Enhancement In Frequency Domain: The frequency domain methods of image enhancement are based on convolution theorem. This is represented as, g(x, y) = h (x, y)*f(x, y) Where. g(x, y) = Resultant image h(x, y) = Position invariant operator f(x, y)= Input image The Fourier transform representation of equation above is, G (u, v) = H (u, v) F (u, v) The function H (u, v) in equation is called transfer function. It is used to boost the edges of input image f (x, y) to emphasize the high frequency components. The different frequency domain methods for image enhancement are as follows. 1. Contrast stretching. 2. Clipping and thresholding. 3. Digital negative. 4. Intensity level slicing and 5. Bit extraction.

1. Contrast Stretching: Due to non-uniform lighting conditions, there may be poor contrast between the background and the feature of interest. Figure 1.1 (a) shows the contrast stretching transformations.

Fig.1.1 (a) Histogram of input image

GRIET/ECE

1

www.jntuworld.com

jntuworld. GRIET/ECE 2 www. It is the case in which the parameters are α = γ = 0.com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers Fig.1 (c) Histogram of the transformed image These stretching transformations are expressed as In the area of stretching the slope of transformation is considered to be greater than unity.e. Threshold of an image is selected by means of its histogram.1. Clipping and Thresholding: Clipping is considered as the special scenario of contrast stretching. b].2. 2.jntuworld. a and b can be determined by examining the histogram of the image. Let us take the image shown in the following figure 1.1 (b) Linear Law Fig.www..1. Clipping is more advantageous for reduction of noise in input signals of range [a.com . The parameters of stretching transformations i.

www.e. Fig.2 The figure 1.2 (b) consists of two peaks i.3.4. The thresholding transformations are shown in figure 1.jntuworld. This selected threshold (D1) can separate background and object to convert the image into its respective binary form.com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers \ Fig.3 3. At the abscissa of histogram minimum (D1) the threshold is selected. Digital Negative: The digital negative of an image is achieved by reverse scaling of its grey levels to the transformation. A digital negative transformation of an image is shown in figure 1. 1. GRIET/ECE 3 www. background and object.jntuworld..com .1. They are much essential in displaying of medical images.

Fig.5 GRIET/ECE 4 www.com .jntuworld. Intensity Level Slicing: The images which consist of grey levels in between intensity at background and other objects require to reduce the intensity of the object.jntuworld. They are expressed as The histogram of input image and its respective intensity level slicing is shown in the figure 1.4 4.www.1.1.com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers Fig. This process of changing intensity level is done with the help of intensity level slicing.5.

y). y) Applying convolution theorem G(u.www.+ kB-1 2 + kB Then.. y) and linear position invariant operation h(x. The term spatial domain refers to the aggregate of pixels composing an image and spatial domain methods are procedures that operate directly on these pixels. y) = T[f(x..com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers When an image is uniformly quantized then. Distinguish between spatial domain and frequency domain enhancement techniques. Let. Frequency domain techniques are based on convolution theorem. u = k1 2B-1 + k2 2B-2 +……………. y) i. y) is the processed image and T is the operator on f defined over some neighborhood values of (x. y) is the input image g(x. the nth most significant bit can be extracted and displayed.e. y) = h(x. v) = H(u. The spatial domain refers to the image plane itself. y) be the image formed by the convolution of an image f(x. g(x.jntuworld. g(x.com .jntuworld. and approaches in this category are based on direct manipulation of pixels in an image. v) GRIET/ECE 5 www. y) * f(x. Let g(x. Image processing function in the spatial domain may he expressed as. the output is expressed as 2. y)] Where f(x. v) F(u. Frequency domain processing techniques are based on modifying the Fourier transform of an image.

h and f respectively. Ideal Filter: A 2-D ideal lowpass filter (ILPF) is one whose transfer function satisfies the relation where D is a specified nonnegative quantity. The problem is to select a filter transfer function H (u. Hence blurring (smoothing) is achieved in the frequency domain by attenuating us the transform of a given image. v) is the Fourier transform of an image to be smoothed.jntuworld. Explain about Ideal Low Pass Filter (ILPF) in frequency domain. v) that yields G (u. y). v) by attenuating the high-frequency components of F (u.com . v) is called the transfer function of the process. In the terminology of linear system the transform H (u. v) to the origin of the frequency plane. v). v) where F (u. Figure 3 (a) shows a 3-D perspective plot of H (u. H and F are the Fourier transforms of g. The edges in f(x. The inverse transform then will yield the desired smoothed image g (x. y) can he boosted by using H (u. 3. and D(u. v) u a function of u and v.jntuworld. v) = H (u. v).com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers Where G. Lowpass Filter: The edges and other sharp transitions (such as noise) in the gray levels of an image contribute significantly to the high-frequency content of its Fourier transform. that is. G (u.www. v) to emphasize the high frequency components of F (u. The name ideal filter indicates that oil frequencies inside a circle of radius GRIET/ECE 6 www. v) is the distance from point (u. v) F(u.

the point of transition between H(u.jntuworld.jntuworld.com . Do are passed with no attenuation. The sharp cutoff frequencies of an ideal lowpass filter cannot be realized with electronic components. specifying a cross section extending as a function of distance from the origin along a radial line is sufficient. For an ideal lowpass filter cross section. the point Do traces a circle giving a locus of cutoff frequencies.3 (a) Perspective plot of an ideal lowpass filter transfer function. v) = 0 is often called the cutoff frequency. For this type of filter. for example. In the case of Fig. It also serves as a common base for comparing the behavior of different types of filters. the cutoff frequency is Do. The complete filter transfer function can then be generated by rotating the cross section 360 about the origin.www. as Fig. all of which are a distance Do from the origin. As the cross section is rotated about the origin. although they can certainly be simulated in a computer.3 (b). (b) filter cross section. Specification of radially symmetric filters centered on the N x N frequency square is based on the assumption that the origin of the Fourier transform has been centered on the square. GRIET/ECE 7 www. v) = 1 and H(u. The lowpass filters are radially symmetric about the origin. whereas all frequencies outside this circle are completely attenuated. 3 (b) shows. The cutoff frequency concept is quite useful in specifying filter characteristics.com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers Fig.

v) = Do: GRIET/ECE 8 www. H (u.com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers 4. Fig. For filters with smooth transfer functions.5 (down 50 percent from its maximum value of 1) when D (u.jntuworld. The following simple modification yields the desired value when D (u. Butterworth filter: The transfer function of the Butterworth lowpass (BLPF) of order n and with cutoff frequency locus at a distance Do. Unlike the ILPF. Another value commonly used is 1/√2 of the maximum value of H (u.jntuworld.www. v) is down to a certain fraction of its maximum value is customary. v). defining a cutoff frequency locus at points for which H (u. the BLPF transfer function does not have a sharp discontinuity that establishes a clear cutoff between passed and filtered frequencies.com . Discuss about Butterworth lowpass filter with a suitable example. from the origin is defined by the relation A perspective plot and cross section of the BLPF function are shown in figure 4. v) = Do.4 (a) A Butterworth lowpass filter (b) radial cross section for n = 1. v) = 0. In the case of above Eq.

As in the case of the ideal lowpass filler. Fig. which attenuates the low-frequency components without disturbing high-frequency information in the Fourier transform.www. because it completely attenuates all frequencies inside a circle of radius Do while passing.com . Figure 5. This filter is the opposite of the ideal lowpass filter.1 Perspective plot and radial cross section of ideal high pass filter GRIET/ECE 9 www. Ideal filter: 2-D ideal high pass filter (IHPF) is one whose transfer function satisfies the relation where Do is the cutoff distance measured from the origin of the frequency plane.com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers 5. High pass Filtering: An image can be blurred by attenuating the high-frequency components of its Fourier transform. all frequencies outside the circle.jntuworld. image sharpening can be achieved in the frequency domain by a high pass filtering process. Discuss about Ideal High Pass Filter and Butterworth High Pass filter.1 shows a perspective plot and cross section of the IHPF function. Because edges and other abrupt changes in gray levels are associated with high-frequency components.5. without attenuation. the IHPF is not physically realizable.jntuworld.

com Digital Image Pro ocessing Question & Answers s Butter rworth filte er: ion The tra ansfer functi of the B Butterworth high pass f filter (BHPF of order n and with cutoff F) c frequen locus at a distance D from the origin is d ncy Do e defined by th relation he d ion BHPF funct tion.com . v) = Do. v) is dow to ½ of its maximu value.2 Perspectiv plot and radial cros section fo Butterw ve ss or worth High Pass Filter with n = 1 r GRIET T/ECE 10 0 www. Fig.5.jntuworld.jntuworld. com s mmon practi is to sel the cuto frequenc locus at points for w ice lect off cy which H (u. H (u. Note th when D hat Figure 5.www.2 shows a perspective plot and cross secti of the B wn um As ase Butterworth h (u. A in the ca of the B lowpass filter. v) is do to 1/√2 of its maxim own mum value.

(b) Filter displayed as an image. the filter is down to 0.607 of its maximum value. Fig. Gaussian Lowpass Filters: The form of these filters in two dimensions is given by where.com .jntuworld.www.1 (a) Perspective plot of a GLPF transfer function. D(u.jntuworld. v) is the distance from the origin of the Fourier transform. By letting σ = Du. (c) Filter radial cross sections for various values of Do. When D (u. σ is a measure of the spread of the Gaussian curve. we can express the filter in a more familiar form in terms of the notation: where Do is the cutoff frequency. Discuss about Gaussian High Pass and Gaussian Low Pass Filter.6. Gaussian Highpass Filters: The transfer function of the Gaussian highpass filter (GHPF) with cutoff frequency locus at a distance Do from the origin is given by GRIET/ECE 11 www.com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers 6. v) = Do.

com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers The figure 6. and cross section of the GHPF function. image. it follows that The expression inside the brackets on the left side of the above Eq. and cross section of a typical Gaussian high pass filter Even the filtering of the smaller objects and thin bars is cleaner with the Gaussian filler. 7. y).2 shows a perspective plot.2.jntuworld. Fig. Thus. image representation. we have the important result GRIET/ECE 12 www.com . The Laplacian in the Frequency Domain: It can be shown that From this simple expression.www.jntuworld. Explain how Laplacian is implemented in frequency domain. Perspective plot. is recognized as the Laplacian of f(x.6.

www. Fig. Figure 7(c) is the Laplacian in the spatial domain. All other values are negative. v): Conversely. As before. also centered.' Figure 7(e) is a horizontal gray-level profile passing through the center of the zoomed section.com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers which simply says that the Laplacian can be implemented in the frequency domain by using the filter As in all filtering operations. Finally.7 shows. GRIET/ECE 13 www. obtained by multiplying by H (u. v) by (-1)u+v .jntuworld.com . and multiplying the real part of the result by (-l)x+y . v) has been centered by performing the operation f(x. Figure 7(d) is a zoomed section at about the origin of Fig. Figure 7(a) is a 3-D perspective plot. v) = (0. has some interesting properties. v) by H(u.jntuworld. We express this dual relationship in the familiar Fourier-transform-pair notation The spatial domain Laplacian filter function obtained by taking the inverse Fourier transform of Eq. as Fig.7 (f) shows the mask to implement the definition of the discrete Laplacian in the spatial domain. The function is centered at (M/2. N/2) in the frequency rectangle.7(c). v). v) as an image. Figure 7(b) shows H (u. the center of the filter function also needs to be shifted: The Laplacian-filtered image in the spatial domain is obtained by computing the inverse Fourier transform of H (u. v) F (u. taking the inverse Fourier transform. and its value at the top of the dome is zero. N/2). this operation shifts the center transform so that (u. 0) is at point (M/2. the assumption is that the origin of F (u. If f (and F) are of size M X N. y) (-1) x+y prior to taking the transform of the image. computing the Laplacian in the spatial domain and computing the Fourier transform of the result is equivalent to multiplying F(u.

com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers Fig. (e) Gray-level profile through the center of (d).www.com .7 (a) 3-D plot of Laplacian in the frequency domain. (f) Laplacian mask GRIET/ECE 14 www. (c) Laplacian in the spatial domain obtained from the inverse DFT of (b) (d) Zoomed section of the origin of (c).jntuworld. (b) Image representation of (a).jntuworld.

com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers A horizontal profile through the center of this mask has the same basic shape as the profile in Fig. we obtain This result is based on a highpass rather than a lowpass image. using above Eq. This approach. by adding back the entire image to the filtered result. called high-boost filtering. Sometimes it is advantageous to increase the contribution made by the original image to the overall filtered result.com . As A increases past 1. High-Boost Filtering and High-Frequency Emphasis Filtering: All the filtered images have one thing in common: Their average background intensity has been reduced to near black. this means obtaining a highpass-filtered image by subtracting from the image a lowpass-filtered version of itself. a negative value between two smaller positive values). Using frequency domain terminology. Write about high boost and high frequency filtering. high-boost filtering gives us the flexibility to increase the contribution made by the image to the overall enhanced result. This equation may be written as Then. enhancement using the Laplacian does precisely this.www. the contribution made by the image itself becomes more dominant. This is due to the fact that the highpass filters we applied to those images eliminate the zero-frequency component of their Fourier transforms. high-boost filtering reduces to regular highpass filtering. That is High-boost filtering generalizes this by multiplying f (x. 7(e) (that is. y) by a constant A > 1: Thus. GRIET/ECE 15 www. In fact. Unsharp masking consists simply of generating a sharp image by subtracting from an image a blurred version of itself.jntuworld. We form an enhanced image g(x. is a generalization of unsharp masking. When A = 1.jntuworld. y) by subtracting the Laplacian from the original image: 8.

com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers We have Fhp (u.v) = F (u. in other words. high-boost filtering can be implemented with the composite filter with A > 1.v) – Flp (u. y) in the spatial domain. unsharp masking can be implemented directly in the frequency domain by using the composite filter Similarly.com . Multiplication of the real part of this result by (-l) x+y gives us the high-boost filtered image fhb (x. 9. An image f(x.jntuworld. GRIET/ECE 16 www. But Flp (u.v)F(u.www.jntuworld.v).v). The process consists of multiplying this filter by the (centered) transform of the input image and then taking the inverse transform of the product. y) can be expressed as the product of illumination and reflectance components: Equation above cannot be used directly to operate separately on the frequency components of illumination and reflectance because the Fourier transform of the product of two functions is not separable. Explain the concept of homomorphic filtering. where Hlp is the transfer function of a lowpass filter.v) = Hlp (u. Therefore. Homomorphic filtering: The illumination-reflectance model can be used to develop a frequency domain procedure for improving the appearance of an image by simultaneous gray-level range compression and contrast enhancement.

jntuworld. y) and ln r(x. respectively. v) then. v) is the Fourier transform of the result. y).1 Homomorphic filtering approach for image enhancement GRIET/ECE 17 www. y). v) are the Fourier transforms of ln i(x. y) was formed by taking the logarithm of the original image f (x.com . denoted by g(x. as z (x. In the spatial domain.www. the inverse (exponential) operation yields the desired enhanced image. from where S (u. that is. y).jntuworld. v) and Fr (u. Now we have Finally. v) by means of a filter function H (u.9. If we process Z (u.com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers where Fi (u. Fig.

particularly at the junctions of dissimilar objects. A good deal of control can be gained over the illumination and reflectance components with a homomorphic filter. In this particular application.jntuworld.2 tends to decrease the contribution made by the low frequencies (illumination) and amplify the contribution made by high frequencies (reflectance). 9.jntuworld. they can be used to advantage in image enhancement. 9.2 shows a cross section of such a filter. Fig. GRIET/ECE 18 www.2 Cross section of a circularly symmetric filter function D (u. The enhancement approach using the foregoing concepts is summarized in Fig. the key to the approach is the separation of the illumination and reflectance components achieved.com . Figure 9. v) can then operate on these components separately.1. the filter function shown in Fig.and high-frequency components of the Fourier transform in different ways. v) that affects the low. while the reflectance component tends to vary abruptly. This method is based on a special case of a class of systems known as homomorphic systems. The net result is simultaneous dynamic range compression and contrast enhancement. This control requires specification of a filter function H (u. Although these associations are rough approximations. If the parameters γL and γH are chosen so that γL < 1 and γH > 1. The homomorphic filter function H (u.9.com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers and are the illumination and reflectance components of the output image. These characteristics lead to associating the low frequencies of the Fourier transform of the logarithm of an image with illumination and the high frequencies with reflectance. The illumination component of an image generally is characterized by slow spatial variations.www. v) is the distance from the origin of the centered transform.

com .www.jntuworld.jntuworld.com Digital Image Processing Question & Answers GRIET/ECE 19 www.

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