1

A Parametric Study Using Two Design Methodologies for
Pressure Jet and Swirl Injectors

K. Mazaheri
Professor
Sharif University of Technology
Center of Excellence in Aerospace
System
Tehran, Iran
+982166164614
mazaheri@sharif.ir
M. R. Morad
Assistant Professor
Sharif University of Technology
Center of Excellence in Aerospace
System
Tehran, Iran
+982166164664
morad@sharif.ir
A. R. Shakeri
Ph.D. Student
Sharif University of Technology
Center of Excellence in Aerospace
System
Tehran, Iran
+982166164629
a_shakeri@ae.sharif.ir

Abstract—One of the most important subsystems in the air-
breathing engines is the atomizers, which break the fuel into
many droplets. It is well known that atomization quality has a
significant influence on combustion characteristics such as
stability limits, efficiency, and pollutant emission. Both jet and
swirl injectors are applicable in gas turbine engines. The latter
have been widely used for combustion chambers and the
former are usually employed for fuel injection in the
afterburner part. Since experimental and numerical study of
atomizers could be complex and costly, a design methodology
of atomizers based on empirical relations is still very
advantageous and effective in reducing experimental efforts.
We describe the design algorithm for both jet and swirl
injectors, for which it is inevitable to use empirical relations.
Detailes of the design algorithm are presented to determine the
injector dimensions. The final dimensions are also a function of
fuel properties and surrounding conditions. For instance, in
liquid jet injectors, the type of the inlet and its length to
diameter ratio are very important in term of instability
aspects. Therefore, the effect of five type of inlets are
considered and compared. Loss effects are also taken into
account in this study, including loss of energy related to
vortices generated due to fluid contraction, loss of energy
related to vortices generated due to expansion after contraction
and loss of energy due to friction. Using the methodology of
design presented here for both types of injectors, the influence
of different parameters on atomizer dimensions as well as
spray characteristics of both types are finally compared and
discussed.
Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ............................................... 1
2. DESIGN OF LIQUID FUEL JET INJECTORS ....... 1
3. DESIGN OF SWIRL INJECTORS ......................... 4
4. RESULTS ......................................................... 7
5. CONCLUSION .................................................. 8
REFERENCES .................................................... 10
BIOGRAPHY ........................................................ 9

1. INTRODUCTION
The liquid fuel injection process has a significant influence
on combustion performance. In both jet atomizers and
pressure swirl atomizers [1-3], energy is transferred to the
liquid inside the atomizer by applying a pressure difference
and passing it through an orifice. In the case of simple swirl
atomizers, a swirling chamber is responsible for giving a
swirl motion to the liquid before entering the orifice. This
results in a tangential velocity component in the flow;
forming a hollow and thin liquid cone out of the orifice of
the atomizers, in jet atomizers we do not generate a hollow
cone but a solid cone with narrow spray angles. In this
paper, the design methodologies for both types of atomizers
are described and the corresponding flowcharts are
presented. As a sample result, based on some given input
parameters, the effect of orifice inlet shape and angle for jet
atomizer as well as the spray angle for pressure swirl
atomizer are studied. The procedure described here can be
effectively used for primary design of atomizers of both
types.
1

2. DESIGN OF LIQUID FUEL JET INJECTORS [3]
A schematic diagram of the liquid fuel jet injector is shown
in figure 1.

Figure 1- Schematic of Liquid Jet injector
Relations
- Reynolds Numbers
The Reynolds number (Re) through the liquid jet injector is
defined as:

u
i i
d U
= Re (1)

978-1-4577-0557-1/12/$26.00 ©2012 IEEE

2
Where
i
U ,
i
d are average velocity through the injector and
its diameter and u is the kinematic viscosity of the fuel.
- Loss Coefficient
c ÷ 1
ç
The loss coefficient
c ÷ 1
ç is considered as loss of energy due
to generated vortex when the liquid fuel flows through the
injector. The variation of loss coefficient
c ÷ 1
ç in terms of
the Reynolds Number can be obtained from figure 2.

Figure 2- Coefficient
c ÷ 1
ç versus Re[3]
- Loss Coefficient
2 ÷ c
ç
The loss coefficient
2 ÷ c
ç

is defined as loss of energy due to
fuel expansion after its contraction. It may approximately be
considered equivalent with
in
ç

that is energy loss due to
inlet shape of the injector.
- Loss Coefficient
in
ç
In general, there are three different kinds of inlet shape for
liquid jet injectors. The schematic form of the first type, i.e.
A, is shown in figure 3.

Figure 3- Inlet type A
For this type of inlet, we can obtain the value of
in
ç

in
terms of some relevant geometric parameters from figure 4.

Figure 4- Loss coeffiecient
in
ç of Inlet type A[3]
The schematic form of the second type of inlet of the
injectors, i.e. B, is shown in figure 5.

Figure 5- Inlet type B
For this type of inlet, we can obtain the value of
in
ç

in
terms of some relevant geometric parameters from figure 6.

Figure 6- Loss coeffiecient
in
ç of Inlet type B[3]
The schematic form of the third type of inlet of the injectors,
i.e. C, is shown in figure 7.

Figure 7- Inlet type C
For this type of inlet, the value of
in
ç

in terms ofo , inlet
tilt angle, can be determined from figure 8.

Figure 8- Loss coeffiecient
in
ç of Inlet type C[3]
Because variation of loss coefficient
in
ç in terms of tilt
angle in inlet type C is linear, we can use the following
equation instead of figure 8.

3
( ) 30 10 67 . 6 9 . 0
3
÷ × ÷ =
÷
o ç
in

(2)

- Loss Coefficient
fr
ç
The loss coefficient
fr
ç

is defined as loss due to friction,
which can be calculated from the equation below:

i i fr
d l ì ç =
(3)
In the above equation, ì

is the drag coefficient, and its
value can be obtained using the equation below:
3 25 . 0
10 4 Re , Re 3164 . 0 × > =
÷
ì
(4)
- Hydraulic Loss Coefficient
i
ç
i
ç

, the hydraulic loss coefficient is the sum of three loss
coefficients,
c ÷ 1
ç ,

2 ÷ c
ç

and

fr
ç :

fr c c i
ç ç ç ç + + =
÷ ÷ 2 1

(5)
- Flow Coefficient
The flow coefficient is defined as the ratio of actual mass
flow rate to ideal mass flow rate and it can be calculated
with the following equation.

i
ç c µ + = 1
(6)
- Injector Diameter
The injector diameter can be obtained from the equation
below:

( )
25 . 0 5 . 0
5 . 0
95 . 0
÷ ÷
-
A =
i
i
i
p m d µ µ
(7)
- Exit Velocity of the Injector
The exit velocity in the injector can be determined by using
the following equation.

( ) µ ç
i i
p U A + = 2 1 1
2
(8)
- Fluid Velocity into Injector
The fluid velocity into the injector can be calculated by
using following equation:

( )
2 1
273 . 1
÷ ÷
-
=
i
i
i
d m U µ
(9)

Input Parameters
All input parameters required for designing a liquid jet
injector can be classified into three groups. The first group
is liquid properties and the second is surrounding condition
and the third is liquid injection conditions. The design
parameters are presented in table 1.

Table 1. Input Parameters for Jet Injector Design
Value Acronym Parameter NO
0.08 ) / ( s kg m
i
-

Injector mass flow rate 1
5
10 8×
) (Pa p
i
A
Pressure Difference 2
780 ) / (
3
m kg µ Liquid Density 3
6
10 2
÷
×
) / (
2
s m u Cinematic Viscosity 4

Jet Injector Design Flowchart
The flowchart of the jet injector design is presented in figure
9.

Figure 9- Flowchart for Jet Injector Design


Start
Specify
u µ, , ,
i
m p
i
 A

Guess
( )
i
d
i
l
i
l 5 . 1 >
Guess
( ) ( ) 5 . 2 8 . 0 ÷
old i
d

Calculate
i
U
from (9)
Calculate Re from (1)
Determine
c ÷ 1
ç
from fig (2)
Select Inlet Type and Determine
in
ç
from fig (4),(6),(8)
Calculate
fr
ç
from (3) Calculate ì from (4)
Calculate
i
ç
from (5) Calculate
µ
from (6)
Calculate
( )
new i
d
from (7)
( ) ( )
9
10
÷
< ÷
old i
d
new i
d

( ) ( )
old i
d
new i
d =

End
Y
N

4
3. DESIGN OF SWIRL INJECTORS [3]
A schematic diagram of the swirl injectors is shown in
figure 10.

Figure 10- Schematic of Swirl injector [3]
Design Parameters
The design parameters of the swirl injectors are listed in
table 2.
Table 2. Design Parameters of Swirl Injectors
Definition Par. NO
Injector Mass Flow Rate m 1
Manifold Pressure
f
p
2
Combustion Chamber Pressure
c
p 3
Inlet Pressure in Tangential Passage
in
p 4
Injection Cone Angle o 5
Mass Flow Coefficient
µ
6
Coefficient of Passage Fullness
¢
7
Liquid Film Thickness h 8
Overall Velocity
¿
U 9
Swirl Velocity in Nozzle
un
U 10
Axial Velocity in Nozzle
an
U 11
Redial Velocity in Nozzle
rn
U 12
Swirl Velocity of Swirl Chamber`s Inlet
uk
U 13
Redial Velocity of Swirl Chamber`s Inlet
rk
U 14
Entrance Velocity in Swirl Chamber
in
U 15
Liquid Film Radius in Swirl Chamber`s Exit
mk
r 16
Liquid Film Radius in Nozzle
mn
r 17
Nozzle Area
n
A 18
Radial Position of Tangential Passage
in
R 19
Geometric Characteristic Parameter A 20

Basic Relations of Ideal Swirl Injectors
For the sake of simplicity, at first all of governing relations
for an ideal swirl injector are presented, and other effects,
such as viscous effects, are added later.
- Overall Velocity
In ideal swirl injectors the overall velocity in terms of
injector pressure difference and density of the fluid is
calculated with the following equation:

( ) µ
c
p
f
p U ÷ =
¿
2
(10)
The overall velocity in terms of velocity component can be
determined by using the equation below:

2 2 2
rn
U
an
U
un
U U + + =
¿

(11)
- Mass Flow rate
The mass flow rate of the swirl injector is determined from
the equation below:

( )
c
p
f
p
n
A m ÷ = µ µ 2 
(12)
- Liquid Velocity in The tangential Passage Inlet
Using the Bernoulli equation, tangential velocity is
determined by the following equation.

( ) µ
in f in
p p U ÷ = 2
(13)
- Radial Velocity in the Swirl Chamber Inlet
As shown in below relations radial velocity in the swirl
chamber`s inlet is zero.
0 =
rk
U (14)
- Radial Velocity in the Nozzle
Also, the radial velocity in the nozzle is zero.
0 =
rn
U (15)
- Angular Momentum between the Nozzle and the
Inlet Passage.
The angular momentum conservation between the nozzle
and the inlet is presented in the equation below:

in in mk uk
R U r U = (16)
- Angular Momentum between the Inlet Passage and
the Swirl Chamber Inlet.

in in mn un
R U r U = (17)
- Coefficient of Passage Fullness

5
The coefficient of passage fullness is the ratio of area
occupied by the fluid to total exit area of the nozzle, as
calculated from the following equation:

( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
1
n mn n mn n
R r R r R ÷ = ÷ = t t ¢
(18)
- Mass Flow coefficient
The mass flow coefficient is determined by the ratio of
actual mass flow rate at the nozzle's exit to the maximum
ideal mass flow rate. Because the radial velocity in nozzle is
zero, the mass flow coefficient is obtained as follows:
2
2
2 2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷
= = =
¿
¿
¿
¿ ¿
U
U
U
U U
U
U
A U
A U
un un an
n
n an
¢ ¢ ¢
µ
¢ µ
µ
(19)
Using angular momentum conservation can be gained below
relation.

( )
2
1
mn mk
r r ÷ = ¢ µ
(20)
- Geometric Characteristic Parameter
The Geometric characteristic parameter is defined in the
equation below:

n in in n
R A R A A =
(21)
- Injection Cone Angle
The injection cone angle is calculated with the following
equation:

( )
an un
U U
1
tan
÷
= o (22)
Effects of Geometric Characteristic on Design Parameters
Effects of geometric characteristic parameter on design
parameters of the swirl injectors are presented in figure 11.

Figure 11- Effects of geometric characteristic on design
parameters [3]
Relations of Actual Swirl Injectors
The flow in the swirl injector is investigable by considering
viscous effects and using Navier-Stokes equations. In
general there is no analytical solution, and using numerical
methods is inevitable.
- Radius of the Nozzle Exit
The radius of the nozzle exit is calculated by the following
equation:

i
i
n
p
m
R
A
=
-
µ µ
475 . 0
(23)
- Radius of the Inlet Tangential Passage
The radius of the inlet tangential passage is calculated in the
equation below which n is number of inlet passages.

4 2 , s s = n
nA
R R
r
n in
in
(24)
- Length of the Inlet Tangential Passage
The length of the inlet tangential passage is calculated in the
equation below:
( )
in in
r l 6 3÷ =
(25)
- Length of the nozzle
The length of the nozzle is obtained from the equation
below:
( )
n n
R l 2 5 . 0 ÷ =
(26)
- Length of the Swirl Chamber
The length of the swirl chamber is determined from the
equation below:

in s
R l 2 >
(27)
- Radius of the Swirl Chamber
The radius of swirl chamber is calculated by the following
equation:

in in s
r R R + =
(28)
- Reynolds Number in Tangential passages
The Reynolds number in the tangential passages can be
obtained from the following equation:

6

µu
in i in
r n m . 637 . 0 Re  = (29)
- Friction coefficient in Tangential passages
The friction coefficient in the tangential passages can be
determined from the equation below:
25 . 0
Re 3164 . 0
in
= ì (30)
- Tilt Angle in Tangential passages
The tilt angle in the tangential passages can be figured using
the equation below:

( )
in s
l R
1 0
tan 90
÷
÷ = o (31)
- Loss Coefficient of Tilted Tangential passages
The loss coefficient due to tilted tangential passages can be
figured from the following equation:

( ) 30 10 67 . 6 9 . 0
0 3
÷ × ÷ =
÷
o ç
in
(32)
- Hydraulic Loss Coefficient
The amount of hydraulic loss coefficient can be obtained
from the equation below:

in
in
in
r
l
2
ì ç ç + =
(33)
- Equivalent Mass Flow Coefficient
The amount of equivalent mass flow coefficient can be
calculated from the equation below:

eq
eq eq
eq
in
eq i
eq
i
R
A
¢
¢ ¢
µ
µ ç
µ
µ
÷
=
+
=
2
,
1
2
2
2

(34)
- Equivalent Geometric Characteristic Parameter
The amount of equivalent geometric characteristic
parameter can be obtained by the following equation:

( )
n in in in
n in
eq
R R R nr
R R
A
÷ +
=
2
2
ì

(35)
Swirl Injector Design Flowchart
A flowchart for the swirl injector design is illustrated in
figure 12.

Figure 12- Flowchart for the Swirl Injector Design

Start
Specify
o u µ , , , , , ,
i
m
in
p
c
p
f
p 
Determine
i
A µ ,
from Fig (11)
( ) ( )
i old i
A
old
A µ µ = = ,
Calculate
in
r
from (24)
Calculate
in
l
from (25) Calculate
n
l
from (26)
Select
s
l
from (27) Calculate
s
R
from
Calculate
ì , Re
in
from (29), (30)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
8
10
8
10
÷
< ÷
÷
< ÷
old i new i
old
A
new
A
µ µ

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
eq new i old i new
A
old
A o o µ µ = = = , ,
End
Calculate
n
R
from (23) Select No. of Tangential Passage
Calculate
in
ç o,
from (31), (32)
Calculate
( ) ( ) ( )
new i new
A
new n
R µ , ,
from (23), (24), (34)
N
Y

7
4. RESULTS
Liquid Jet Injector Results
The liquid jet injector diameter versus the cone angle of the
injector`s inlet is plotted for three case of the inlet type A in
figure (13). It can be found that the jet injector diameter
becomes minimum for a specific (say optimum) inlet cone
angle for each case and that decreasing the ratio
i in
d l

increases the optimum value of the inlet cone angle.
Inlet Cone Angle [deg]
J
e
t
I
n
j
e
c
t
o
r
D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
[
m
m
]
0 50 100 150
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.1
Jet Injector Diameter vs. Inlet Cone Angle
(m_dot=0.08 kg/s, Del_p=8 bar,
Ro= 780 kg/m^3, nou=2e-6m/s^2)
lin/di=0.6
lin/di=0.15
lin/di=0.1

Figure 13- Jet Injector Diameter vs. Inlet Cone Angle
Figure 14 shows the same plot for a lower amount of
pressure drop. As shown in figure (14), decreasing the
injector pressure difference may increase the injector
diameter.
Inlet Cone Angle [deg]
J
e
t
I
n
j
e
c
t
o
r
D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
[
m
m
]
0 50 100 150
1.24
1.26
1.28
1.3
1.32
Jet Injector Diameter vs. Inlet Cone Angle
(m_dot=0.1kg/m^3, Del_p=6bar,
Ro=780kg/m^3,Nou=2e-6m/s^2)
lin/di=0.6
lin/di=0.15
lin/di=0.1

Figure 14- Jet Injector Diameter vs. Inlet Cone Angle
The diameter of liquid jet injector versus the ratio of inlet
curvature radius to its diameter for injector type B with
pressure difference of 8 bars is plotted in figure 15.

Inlet Curvature Radius to Injector Diameter Rtio
J
e
t
I
n
j
e
c
t
o
r
D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
[
m
m
]
0 0.5 1 1.5
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.1
Liquid Jet Injector Design(InletType 4)
Delp=8bar, mdot=0.08kg/s,
Ro=780kg/m^3,Nou=2e-6m/s^2)

Figure 15- Jet Injector Diameter of Type B

As shown in figure 15, the minimum amount of injector
diameter is obtained in optimum ratio of inlet curvature
radius to injector diameter. As illustrated in figure 16, for
the same type of injector, decreasing injector pressure ratio
can again cause increasing its diameter.
Inlet Curvature Radius to Injector Diameter ratio
I
n
j
e
c
t
o
r
D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
[
m
m
]
0 0.5 1 1.5
1.26
1.27
1.28
1.29
1.3
1.31
1.32
Jet Injector design (InletType4)
Delp=6bar, mdot=0.1kg/s,
Ro=780 kg/m^3, Nou=2e-6m/s^2

Figure 16- Jet Injector Diameter of Type B

The diameter of swirl injector of type C versus inlet tilt
angle is plotted in figure indicating that increasing inlet tilt
reduces the injector diameter.

8
Inlet Oblique Angle [deg]
I
n
j
e
c
t
o
r
D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
[
m
m
]
35 40 45 50 55
1.14
1.145
1.15
Jet Injector Design (InletType5)
Delp=8bar,mdot=0.08kg/s,
Ro=7800kg/m^3,Nou=2e-6m/s^2

Figure 17- Jet Injector Diameter of Type C

Also, for injector type of C decreasing of injector pressure
difference can cause increasing the injector diameter.

Swirl Injector Results
The dimensions of the swirl injector with an injection
angle of 60° for three and four number of tangential
passages are shown in table 3 in millimeters.

Table 3. Swirl Injector Dimensions with Spray Angle 60°
s
R
s
l
n
l
in
l
in
r
in
R
n
R N
2.67 3.82 0.83 2.8 0.93 1.74 1.65 4
2.81 3.82 0.83 3.23 1.10 1.74 1.65 3
at
2 6 3
/ 10 2 , / 780 , / 08 . 0 , 3 s m m kg s kg m bar p
l i i
÷
× = = = = A u µ 


As seen in the table, increasing the number of tangential
passages decreases the radius and the length of the
tangential passage and the radius of swirl chamber
respectively, and no variation can be reported for other
geometrical parameters.
The dimensions of the swirl injector with an injection
angle of 90° for three and four number of tangential
passages are shown in table 4 in millimeters.

Table 4. Swirl Injector Dimensions with Spray Angle 90°
s
R
s
l
n
l
in
l
in
r
in
R
n
R N
2.4 3.14 0.68 2.9 0.97 1.42 1.36 4
2.55 3.14 0.68 3.36 1.12 1.43 1.36 3
at
2 6 3
/ 10 2 , / 780 , / 08 . 0 , 3 s m m kg s kg m bar p
l i i
÷
× = = = = A u µ 


Here, it can be seen that increasing the number of tangential
passages decreases the radius and the length of the
tangential passage and the radius of the swirl chamber
respectively, and no variation in other geometrical
parameters occurred.
The dimensions of the swirl injector with an injection
angle of 120° for three and four number of tangential
passages are shown in table 5 in millimeters.

Table 5. Swirl Injector Dimensions with Spray Angle 120°
s
R
s
l
n
l
in
l
in
r
in
R
n
R N
3.06 2.65 0.57 5.57 1.86 1.20 1.15 4
3.35 2.65 0.58 6.43 2.14 1.20 1.15 3
at
2 6 3
/ 10 2 , / 780 , / 08 . 0 , 3 s m m kg s kg m bar p
l i i
÷
× = = = = A u µ 


It can be seen from this table that increasing the number of
tangential passages decreases the radius and the length of
the tangential passage and the radius of the swirl chamber
respectively while the other parameters not influenced.

5. CONCLUSION
In this paper we presented a design methodology based
on empirical relations and an algorithm for determining
dimensions of liquid jet injectors and swirl injectors. From
the results obtained for liquid jet injectors the following can
be posited:
- The trend of liquid jet injector diameter versus inlet
cone angle is similar to the trend of loss coefficient
variation
in
ç and, there is an optimum inlet cone
angle for each ratio of inlet length to injector
diameter that the value of this optimum is
increased by decreasing the ratio.
- The trend of liquid jet injector diameter versus the
ratio of inlet curvature radius to injector diameter is
similar to that of inlet loss coefficient and,
increasing this ratio decreases the injector
diameter. The minimum value of the injector
diameter can be recognized as the optimum value
for this ratio.
From the results obtained for swirl injectors we can
conclude the following:
- Increasing the spray cone angle decreases the
radius and the length of the injector.
- Increasing the spray cone angle decreases the
radius of the swirl chamber and then increases it.
- The length of swirl chamber is decreased by
increasing the spray cone angle.
- The radius and the length of tangential passage are
increased by increasing the spray cone angle.
- Decreasing the number of tangential passages
increases the radius of chamber and its radius and
the length.



9
REFERENCES
[1] Bayvel. L. & Orzechowski. Z .(1993), Liquid Atomization,
Taylor and Ftancis, Philadelphia, PA
[2] Lefevbre. A. H. (1983), Gas Turbine Combustion,
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, DC,
USA.
[3] Vigor. Y., Habiballah. M., Hulka. J., and Popp. M. (2004),
Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers- Aspects of Modeling,
Analysis, and Design, Vol, 200, American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics.

BIOGRAPHIES
Karim Mazaheri received a MSc. in
Aerospace Sciences from the university
of Michigan, USA and a PhD in
Aerospace Engineering and Scientific
Comp from the university of Michigan,
USA in 1992. He has been working in
industry for more than 20 years.

Mohammadreza Morad received a PhD
in Aerospace Engineering from Sharif
University of Technology, Iran, in 2005
and a Postdoctoral from Max Plank
Institute in 2010. He has been working
in industry for more than 10 years.













Alireza Shakeri received a B.S. in
Mechanical Engineering from Shahid
Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran, in
2003, a M.Sc. in Aerospace Engineering
from Amirkabir University of
Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 2005. He
is a PhD Student in Sharif University of
Ttechnology, Tehran, Iran. He has been
working in industry for more than 7 years.






The schematic form of the first type. Figure 7. we can use the following equation instead of figure 8.e. can be determined from figure 8. d i are average velocity through the injector and its diameter and  is the kinematic viscosity of the fuel. C. we can obtain the value of  in in terms of some relevant geometric parameters from figure 6. It may approximately be considered equivalent with  in that is energy loss due to inlet shape of the injector. Figure 2.Loss coeffiecient  in of Inlet type A[3] The schematic form of the second type of inlet of the injectors.Coefficient 1c versus Re[3]  Loss Coefficient  c 2 The loss coefficient  c 2 is defined as loss of energy due to fuel expansion after its contraction.Where U i .Loss coeffiecient  in of Inlet type B[3] The schematic form of the third type of inlet of the injectors.Inlet type C For this type of inlet. The loss coefficient 1c is considered as loss of energy due to generated vortex when the liquid fuel flows through the injector.e.Loss coeffiecient  in of Inlet type C[3] Because variation of loss coefficient  in in terms of tilt angle in inlet type C is linear. 2 . Figure 3. inlet tilt angle.  Loss Coefficient  in Figure 6.  Loss Coefficient 1c Figure 4. we can obtain the value of  in in terms of some relevant geometric parameters from figure 4. is shown in figure 5. In general. is shown in figure 3. Figure 8. i. the value of  in in terms of  . is shown in figure 7. i. The variation of loss coefficient 1c in terms of the Reynolds Number can be obtained from figure 2.Inlet type B For this type of inlet. there are three different kinds of inlet shape for liquid jet injectors. B. A.Inlet type A For this type of inlet. i. Figure 5.e.

25 .67 10 3   30  (2) Input Parameters  Loss Coefficient  fr The loss coefficient  fr is defined as loss due to friction. Re  4 103  Hydraulic Loss Coefficient  i (4)  (m / s 2 ) Jet Injector Design Flowchart The flowchart of the jet injector design is presented in figure 9.Flowchart for Jet Injector Design  Fluid Velocity into Injector The fluid velocity into the injector can be calculated by using following equation: U i  1.5di   i   1 c   c  2   fr  Flow Coefficient Guess di old 0.95 m i   0. mi . the hydraulic loss coefficient is the sum of three loss coefficients.  is the drag coefficient.5 pi   0. Start Specify  p . which can be calculated from the equation below:  fr   li di All input parameters required for designing a liquid jet injector can be classified into three groups. The first group is liquid properties and the second is surrounding condition and the third is liquid injection conditions. Calculate Calculate Determine Ui from (9) from (1) from fig (2) from fig (4).  .5 The flow coefficient is defined as the ratio of actual mass flow rate to ideal mass flow rate and it can be calculated with the following equation.  c 2 and  fr : (5) Guess li li  1.  i  i . Input Parameters for Jet Injector Design (3) NO 1 2 3 4 Parameter Injector mass flow rate Pressure Difference Liquid Density Cinematic Viscosity Acronym  m i ( kg / s) Value 0.3164Re0.273 mi  1 di  2  (9) 3 .(8) Re    Injector Diameter 1  i (6) 1c Select Inlet Type and Determine  in The injector diameter can be obtained from the equation below: d i  0.9  6.(6). and its value can be obtained using the equation below: p i (Pa)  (kg / m ) 3 780 2 106   0. The design parameters are presented in table 1.25 Calculate Calculate  fr from (3) from (5) Calculate Calculate  from (4) from (6) (7) i   Exit Velocity of the Injector Calculate di new from (7) The exit velocity in the injector can be determined by using the following equation. 1c . in  0.5  0.8  2. U 2  1 1  i di new  di old  109 N di new  di old   2pi  (8) Y End Figure 9. Table 1.08 8 105 In the above equation.

the radial velocity in the nozzle is zero. In ideal swirl injectors the overall velocity in terms of injector pressure difference and density of the fluid is calculated with the following equation: U   2 p f  pc    (10) The overall velocity in terms of velocity component can be determined by using the equation below: 2 2 2 U   Uun  U an  U rn (11)  Figure 10.3. U unrmn  U in Rin (17) 4 . tangential velocity is determined by the following equation.  Table 2. A The angular momentum conservation between the nozzle and the inlet is presented in the equation below: U uk rmk  U in Rin (16) Basic Relations of Ideal Swirl Injectors For the sake of simplicity. such as viscous effects. are added later. U rk  0 (14)  Radial Velocity in the Nozzle Also. Design Parameters of Swirl Injectors NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Par. and other effects.  m   (12) Liquid Velocity in The tangential Passage Inlet Definition Injector Mass Flow Rate Manifold Pressure Combustion Chamber Pressure Inlet Pressure in Tangential Passage Injection Cone Angle Mass Flow Coefficient Coefficient of Passage Fullness Liquid Film Thickness Overall Velocity Swirl Velocity in Nozzle Axial Velocity in Nozzle Redial Velocity in Nozzle Swirl Velocity of Swirl Chamber`s Inlet Redial Velocity of Swirl Chamber`s Inlet Entrance Velocity in Swirl Chamber Liquid Film Radius in Swirl Chamber`s Exit Liquid Film Radius in Nozzle Nozzle Area Radial Position of Tangential Passage Geometric Characteristic Parameter Using the Bernoulli equation. DESIGN OF SWIRL INJECTORS [3] A schematic diagram of the swirl injectors is shown in figure 10. at first all of governing relations for an ideal swirl injector are presented.  Overall Velocity  Coefficient of Passage Fullness  Angular Momentum between the Inlet Passage and the Swirl Chamber Inlet.Schematic of Swirl injector [3] Mass Flow rate The mass flow rate of the swirl injector is determined from the equation below:  m  An 2  p f  pc Design Parameters The design parameters of the swirl injectors are listed in table 2. U in  2 p f  pin  pf pc pin   (13)   Radial Velocity in the Swirl Chamber Inlet   h U U un U an U rn U uk U rk U in rmk rmn An Rin As shown in below relations radial velocity in the swirl chamber`s inlet is zero. U rn  0 (15)  Angular Momentum between the Nozzle and the Inlet Passage.

Because the radial velocity in nozzle is zero.5  2Rn The injection cone angle is calculated with the following equation:   tan 1Uun U an  (22) (26) Effects of Geometric Characteristic on Design Parameters Effects of geometric characteristic parameter on design parameters of the swirl injectors are presented in figure 11. and using numerical methods is inevitable.475 mi (23)  pi (19)  Radius of the Inlet Tangential Passage Using angular momentum conservation can be gained below relation. the mass flow coefficient is obtained as follows: U an An U   an   U  An U 2 U 2  U un 2 U The radius of the nozzle exit is calculated by the following equation:   U    1   un  U    2 Rn  0. In general there is no analytical solution.Effects of geometric characteristic on design parameters [3] Reynolds Number in Tangential passages The Reynolds number in the tangential passages can be obtained from the following equation: 5 .  Length of the Swirl Chamber The length of the swirl chamber is determined from the equation below: ls  2 Rin (27)  Radius of the Swirl Chamber The radius of swirl chamber is calculated by the following equation: Rs  Rin  rin (28)  Figure 11.    1  rmk rmn 2 The radius of the inlet tangential passage is calculated in the equation below which n is number of inlet passages. 2n4 nA (20) (24)  Geometric Characteristic Parameter  Length of the Inlet Tangential Passage The length of the inlet tangential passage is calculated in the equation below: lin  3  6rin The Geometric characteristic parameter is defined in the equation below: A  An Rin Ain Rn (21) (25)  Injection Cone Angle  Length of the nozzle The length of the nozzle is obtained from the equation below: ln  0. as calculated from the following equation: 2 2 2    Rn  rmn Rn  1  rmn Rn 2 Relations of Actual Swirl Injectors The flow in the swirl injector is investigable by considering viscous effects and using Navier-Stokes equations. rin  Rin Rn .The coefficient of passage fullness is the ratio of area occupied by the fluid to total exit area of the nozzle.  Radius of the Nozzle Exit   (18)  Mass Flow coefficient The mass flow coefficient is determined by the ratio of actual mass flow rate at the nozzle's exit to the maximum ideal mass flow rate.

pin . i from Fig (11)  Tilt Angle in Tangential passages Calculate Rn  Aold  A. Rein  0. (30) from (31). pc . (24).9  6.  . i old  i new. i old  i The tilt angle in the tangential passages can be figured using the equation below:   900  tan 1Rs lin  from (23) Select No.67  10 3  0  30 from (27) Calculate from   (32) Calculate Calculate Re in .25 in (30) A. mi .3164 Re0.  Anew. i new from (23).   eq N  Anew   Aold  108  108 i new  i old  Equivalent Mass Flow Coefficient Y End Figure 12. (32)  Hydraulic Loss Coefficient  . of Tangential Passage from (24) (31) Calculate Select ls lin Calculate rin  Loss Coefficient of Tilted Tangential passages from (25) Calculate ln from (26) Rs The loss coefficient due to tilted tangential passages can be figured from the following equation: in  0. Start Specify Determine  p f .  eq   eq  eq 2   eq  Equivalent Geometric Characteristic Parameter The amount of equivalent geometric characteristic parameter can be obtained by the following equation: Aeq  Rin Rn  2 nrin  Rin Rin  Rn  2 (35) 6 .637 mi n .rin  (29) Swirl Injector Design Flowchart A flowchart for the swirl injector design is illustrated in  Friction coefficient in Tangential passages figure 12.Flowchart for the Swirl Injector Design (34) The amount of equivalent mass flow coefficient can be calculated from the equation below:  eq 2 1   i eq i  A2 2 Rin .  . (34) (33)  Aold   Anew .  in The amount of hydraulic loss coefficient can be obtained from the equation below:   in   lin 2 rin Calculate Rn new.  from (29).  The friction coefficient in the tangential passages can be determined from the equation below:   0.

for the same type of injector.Nou=2e-6m/s^2) 1. Ro=780 kg/m^3. 50 100 150 lin/di=0. Del_p=8 bar. the minimum amount of injector diameter is obtained in optimum ratio of inlet curvature radius to injector diameter.28 1.5 1 1. nou=2e-6m/s^2) 1. decreasing the injector pressure difference may increase the injector diameter.31 Jet Injector design (InletType4) Delp=6bar. RESULTS Liquid Jet Injector Results The liquid jet injector diameter versus the cone angle of the injector`s inlet is plotted for three case of the inlet type A in figure (13).06 Figure 15. decreasing injector pressure ratio can again cause increasing its diameter. Inlet Cone Angle [deg] Figure 13.Jet Injector Diameter vs.1 Liquid Jet Injector Design(InletType 4) Delp=8bar.09 Jet Injector Diameter [mm] 1. 1.05 lin/di=0.5 1 1.Jet Injector Diameter vs. mdot=0. Inlet Cone Angle Figure 14 shows the same plot for a lower amount of pressure drop. Ro=780kg/m^3.5 Inlet Curvature Radius to Injector Diameter ratio Figure 16. Inlet Cone Angle The diameter of liquid jet injector versus the ratio of inlet curvature radius to its diameter for injector type B with pressure difference of 8 bars is plotted in figure 15. 7 .26 0 1. 1.08 1.08 1. mdot=0.3 1.24 0 Inlet Cone Angle [deg] Figure 14.32 Jet Injector Diameter vs.26 lin/di=0.4.15 The diameter of swirl injector of type C versus inlet tilt angle is plotted in figure indicating that increasing inlet tilt reduces the injector diameter.08 kg/s. As illustrated in figure 16. Del_p=6bar.1 1.3 1.05 0 0.08kg/s.07 Inlet Curvature Radius to Injector Diameter Rtio 1.Jet Injector Diameter of Type B lin/di=0.04 0 lin/di=0.1 Jet Injector Diameter vs. Ro=780kg/m^3.6 1. As shown in figure (14).27 Jet Injector Diameter [mm] 1.06 1.09 Jet Injector Diameter [mm] 1.29 1. Inlet Cone Angle (m_dot=0. It can be found that the jet injector diameter becomes minimum for a specific (say optimum) inlet cone angle for each case and that decreasing the ratio l in d i increases the optimum value of the inlet cone angle.1kg/s.07 1.6 50 100 150 As shown in figure 15.5 1.32 1.15 1.Nou=2e-6m/s^2) 1. Inlet Cone Angle (m_dot=0. Ro= 780 kg/m^3.Jet Injector Diameter of Type B lin/di=0.1kg/m^3. Nou=2e-6m/s^2 Injector Diameter [mm] 1.1 1.28 0.

The minimum value of the injector diameter can be recognized as the optimum value for this ratio.65 3.mdot=0.Increasing the spray cone angle decreases the radius and the length of the injector.83 3.82 2. mi  0.14 N 4 3 Rn Rin rin lin ln ls Rs 1.57 0. The dimensions of the swirl injector with an injection angle of 120° for three and four number of tangential passages are shown in table 5 in millimeters. Table 3.08kg / s.14 2. From the results obtained for swirl injectors we can conclude the following: . Swirl Injector Dimensions with Spray Angle 120° 1.08kg / s.4 2.06 3. l  780kg / m3 .20 1. .Jet Injector Diameter of Type C Also. l  780kg / m3.Nou=2e-6m/s^2 Injector Diameter [mm] 1.  2  106 m / s 2 8 . CONCLUSION In this paper we presented a design methodology based on empirical relations and an algorithm for determining dimensions of liquid jet injectors and swirl injectors.145 1.57 6. The dimensions of the swirl injector with an injection angle of 90° for three and four number of tangential passages are shown in table 4 in millimeters.86 2.15 1.65 2.65 1.43 0. Table 4.43 0.The radius and the length of tangential passage are increased by increasing the spray cone angle. From the results obtained for liquid jet injectors the following can be posited: .14 3.74 1.14 5.58 2.65 1.The trend of liquid jet injector diameter versus inlet cone angle is similar to the trend of loss coefficient variation in and.9 3.8 3.67 2.93 1. mi  0.15 Here. mi  0.23 0.10 2.97 1.15 1.12 2. it can be seen that increasing the number of tangential passages decreases the radius and the length of the tangential passage and the radius of the swirl chamber respectively. Ro=7800kg/m^3.83 0.68 3.08kg / s.  2  106 m / s2 35 40 45 50 55 Inlet Oblique Angle [deg] Figure 17.20 1. increasing this ratio decreases the injector diameter. . 5. for injector type of C decreasing of injector pressure difference can cause increasing the injector diameter. .36 1.Increasing the spray cone angle decreases the radius of the swirl chamber and then increases it. Swirl Injector Results The dimensions of the swirl injector with an injection angle of 60° for three and four number of tangential passages are shown in table 3 in millimeters.35  at pi  3bar.55  at pi  3bar .81  at pi  3bar.82 3.08kg/s.74 0.68 0.Decreasing the number of tangential passages increases the radius of chamber and its radius and the length. . .The trend of liquid jet injector diameter versus the ratio of inlet curvature radius to injector diameter is similar to that of inlet loss coefficient and.36 1.  l  780kg / m3 . 1. and no variation in other geometrical parameters occurred. Swirl Injector Dimensions with Spray Angle 90° N 4 3 Rn Rin rin lin ln ls Rs 1. there is an optimum inlet cone angle for each ratio of inlet length to injector diameter that the value of this optimum is increased by decreasing the ratio.36 0. Table 5.Jet Injector Design (InletType5) Delp=8bar.  2 106 m / s 2 As seen in the table.The length of swirl chamber is decreased by increasing the spray cone angle.42 1. and no variation can be reported for other geometrical parameters. increasing the number of tangential passages decreases the radius and the length of the tangential passage and the radius of swirl chamber respectively. Swirl Injector Dimensions with Spray Angle 60° N 4 3 Rn Rin rin lin ln ls Rs It can be seen from this table that increasing the number of tangential passages decreases the radius and the length of the tangential passage and the radius of the swirl chamber respectively while the other parameters not influenced.

. M.S. and Popp. DC. Iran. Hulka. Habiballah. H. He has been working in industry for more than 7 years.Aspects of Modeling. Kerman. Iran. Y. in 2003.(1993). Z . and Design. He is a PhD Student in Sharif University of Ttechnology. Analysis. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He has been working in industry for more than 20 years. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. USA in 1992. 9 .Sc. Liquid Atomization. in 2005. Tehran. J. in Aerospace Engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology. (1983). PA [2] Lefevbre. (2004).REFERENCES [1] Bayvel. Vol. Tehran. Taylor and Ftancis. Iran. Philadelphia. in 2005 and a Postdoctoral from Max Plank Institute in 2010. & Orzechowski. Iran. USA and a PhD in Aerospace Engineering and Scientific Comp from the university of Michigan.. [3] Vigor. Gas Turbine Combustion. He has been working in industry for more than 10 years. A. a M. M. BIOGRAPHIES Karim Mazaheri received a MSc. Washington. in Aerospace Sciences from the university of Michigan. Mohammadreza Morad received a PhD in Aerospace Engineering from Sharif University of Technology. Alireza Shakeri received a B. Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers. USA. 200. L. in Mechanical Engineering from Shahid Bahonar University..