HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT

CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
INTRODUCTION:The term career planning is frequently used in relation young boys and girls studying at the college level. College students are expected to consider their qualities (physical and mental), psychological make-up, likes and dislikes, inclinations, etc. and decide what they want to be in their life. In other words, they should decide what they want to achieve in their life and adjust their education and other activities accordingly. This means they have to plan their career. In such career planning, parents, family members and college teachers offer helping hand and guide young boys and girls in selecting the most suitable career. Lot of literature, psychological tests etc. are also available on career planning. Even lectures, workshops and TV programmes are arranged for guiding students on career selection (particularly after the declaration of HSC results). Career planning enables them to use their abilities/qualities fully and make their life happy, prosperous and rich in quality. At present, even experts are available to help youth in their career planning. IQ and other tests are also conducted for this purpose. The term career planning and development is used extensively in relation to business organizations. It is argued that if the organizations want to get the best out of their employees, they must plan the career development programmes in their organization effectively. Such programmes offer benefits to employees and also to the organizations. The employees will develop new skills will be available to the organization. This type of career planning can be described as organizational career planning.

MEANING OF CAREER (WHAT IS CAREER?):A career is a sequence of positions/jobs held by a person during the course of his working life. According to Edwin B. Flippo “a career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity, order and meaning to a person’s life”. Career of an employee represents various jobs performed by him during the course of his working life. This is described

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they must plan regularly the career development programmes in their organizations. career planning refers to the formal programmes that organizations implement to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources available. He joins the organization with a desire to have a bright career in terms of status. higher status and opportunity to use knowledge. compensation payment and future promotions. An individual with potentials joins a firm not for job but for career development. If the organizations want to get the best out of their employees. In brief. the career path includes the following job positions: Unskilled worker – Semi-skilled worker – Skilled worker – Highly skilled worker – Assistant foreman – Foreman. career planning and development have become crucial in management process. Every individual who joins an organization desires to make a good career for himself within the organization. From the point of view of an organization. education and skills effectively. An organization has to provide better opportunities to its employees in their career development and also use their efficient services for the benefit of the organization. Employees (of all categories) want to grow in their careers as this provides more salary. 2 .HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT as career path. ability. In the case of an ordinary worker. skills and so on. every person joining an organization has a desire to make career as per his potentiality. Career planning and development is the responsibility of the HR department of the organization. MEANING OF CAREER PLANNING (WHAT IS CAREER PLANNING?):Career planning is one important aspect of human resource planning and development. An organization has to provide facilities/opportunities for the career development of individual employees. As already noted.

SCOPE OF ORGANISATIONAL CAREER PLANNING:The following activities/areas are covered within the scope of organizational career planning: a) HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND PLANNING:Here. etc) will be supplied to employees. information relating to career opportunities (promotions. Supplying career information/opportunities has special significance as this motivates employees to grow and reach to higher position. training for self development. efforts will be made to identify the number of employees required in future. Such career guidance encourages subordinate employees to take interest in certain areas where suitable opportunities of career development are available. 6) To improve employee morale and motivation by providing training and opportunities for promotion. Such counselling is needed when employees have to plan their own careers and develop themselves for career progress. 2) To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT NEED/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF CAREER PLANNING:1) To map out careers of employees as per their ability and willingness and to train and develop them for higher positions. It is a type of internal guidance and motivation of employees for the selection of possible career paths. c) CAREER COUNSELLING:Such counselling is next to supplying career information. Career counselling is possible by senior executives through periodic discussions with their subordinates. 3) To utilize available managerial talent within the organization fully. the selection procedure will be adjusted with the overall strategic goals of the organization. In addition. b) CAREER INFORMATION:Here. 5) To provide guidance and assistance to employees to develop their potentials to the highest level. 4) To achieve higher productivity and organizational development. 3 .

ii. Career pathing creates suitable mental make up of employees for self development. organizational and job manpower requirement analysis should be undertaken by the management. This makes transfers and promotions systematically with advance information to employees. 4 . etc. Along with job analysis. ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING:A properly designed system of career planning can provide the following benefits: i. therefore to group together people talking on a similar wavelength and place them under supervisors who are responsive to that wavelength. This prepares proper background for the introduction of career planning programmes for employees. resignation. The employees required to fill job vacancies in future can be identified and developed in time. Career planning anticipates the future vacancies that may arise due to retirement. Career planning encourages him to avail of the training and development facilities in the organization so as to improve his ability to handle new and higher assignments. Career planning involves a survey of employee abilities and attitudes. Career planning facilitates expansion and growth of the enterprise. v. iv. death. iii. It becomes possible. e) SKILL ASSESSMENT TRAINING:Training is essential for career planning and also for manpower development. Therefore. at managerial level. Career planning helps an employee to know the career opportunities available in an organization.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT d) CAREER PATHING:Management now plans job sequences for transfers and promotions of their employees. it provides a fairly reliable guide for manpower forecasting.

What is happening in most of the organizations is that this concepts is given only lip service and theoretical importance. etc. political intervention in appointments and reservations of seats for scheduled castes/tribes and backward classes. particularly for illiterate and unskilled workers. members of the family expect to progress faster in their career than their professional colleagues. In a developing country like India. iv. Systematically career planning becomes difficult due to favouritism and nepotism in promotions. it is not suitable for a very small organization. environmental factors such as government policy. DETAILS OF THE STEP IN CAREER PLANNING:1) ANALYSIS OF PERSONEL SITUATION:This is the first step which needs to be completed before the introduction of career planning programme. it must plan the career developments programmes continuously and effectively in its organization. This relates to a time from which career planning is to be introduced. Career planning can become a reality when opportunities for vertical ability are available. ii. public sector development. Career planning is not an effective technique for a large number of employees who work on the shop floor. This upset the career planning process. If the organization wants to get the best out of their employees.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONS OF CAREER PLANNING:The main problems in career planning are as follows: i. In family business houses in India. Moreover. Here. HOW TO INTRODUCE CAREER PLANNING PROGRAMME? (PROCESS OF CAREER PLANNING):It is not easy to introduce career development programme at the level of an organization. Therefore. such career development planning is a continuous activity. influence business and industry. growth of backward areas. iii. Therefore. v. career plans for a period exceeding a decade may not be effective. the base line will be 5 .

9. ii. PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION 3. 5. 4. ANALYSIS OF PESONNEL SITUATION 2. Total number of employees – their age distribution. (Category wise) Span of control available within the organization. iii. positions. and Facilitates available for training and development within and outside the organization. MANAGERIAL PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW AND EVALUATION FUTURE NEEDS 6 .HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT prepared to help the planners to make projections for the planning period and to help in the evaluation of plans. 1. 10. The information collected on these aspects serves as the base for the preparation of career development plan for the future period. Structure – broad as well as detailed and the qualifications required for each grade. etc. v. qualifications. specializations. the following information will be required: i. vi. In order to analyze the present career situation. IDENTIFYING CAREER NEEDS SELECTION OF PRIORITIES DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLANS 6. WRITE UP OF FORMULATED CAREER PLANS 7. Personnel need of the organization. Field staff at head office with necessary details. iv. 8.

In addition. 5) DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLAN:This is the most important step in the whole process of career developing plan. 4) SELECTION OF PRIORITIES:It is rather difficult to meet all the needs of the employees and the organization for career development immediately i. the organization should: a) Introduce systematic policies and programmes of staff training and career development for all categories of employees so as to enable them to: I. e. other factors such as technical. 7 . 3) IDENTIFYING OF CAREER NEEDS:In this third step of career development plan. This can be done on the basis of assumption which can predict what is likely to happen at the close of the career development plan. c. The extent to which it is to be attained. The department in which the proposed plan will operate. The employees involved. there is a need to select the pressing and urgent problems of employees and organization. through one career development plan.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT 2) PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION:In this second step. What is to be attained/achieved? b. Naturally. financial and administrative must be taken into consideration while finalizing the priorities. an attempt is being made to find out the situation likely to develop after the completion of career development plan. Such plan must describe the following in concrete form/forms: a. In order to execute the career development plan. It is possible to identify the scope and limitations of career development needs on the basis of the data collected (through personnel inventory of the organization. Improve their level of skill and knowledge. The length of time required the achieving the goals. and appraisal of employees). employee potentials.e. efforts are made to find out precisely the career development needs of the future period. d.

3. Planned (expected) targets and targets actually achieved can be compared through suitable monitoring of the plan. and III. Providing within the organization. Take positive steps to encourage career development. Establish and effectively implement a system of study Removing artificial barriers to promotion. Gain wider experiences. promotion within the organization. Giving priorities in the filling of vacancies in the following order for: 1. IV. the next major step is to prepare a write up (brief report) of the career plan. II. b) leave. 8) IMPLEMENTATION (OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN):Implementation/execution of the plan is an integral aspect of planning process itself. Transfer within the organization. procedures and other details so that the evaluation of the plan will be easy and meaningful. In addition. Develop the experience of the employees by encouraging their rotation from one region to another. Assume higher responsibilities. 6) WRITE-UP OF FORMULATED PLAN:After deciding the priorities of career development plan. 7) MONITORING PLANNING i. c) d) such as: I. III. co-operation and co- 8 . Outside recruitment. suitable remedial measures can be taken to rectify the shortfalls. The gap between the two (i. MONITORING OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN:Monitoring of the plan is essential for its effective execution. short falls) can be located quickly.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT II. This writup should contain all necessary details such as schedule (time sequence of plan). For effective implementation. Establishing a register of employees for promotion on meritcum-seniority basis. Expected results/benefits will be available only when the plan is implemented properly.e. 2.e.

CAREER STAGES:Education is thought of in terms of employment. etc during the implementation stage. on the basis of the achievements of the current plan. deficiencies. People go for school and college education and prepare for their occupation. From the point of view of organization. 10)FUTURE NEEDS:This is the last step/stage of the current career development plan and the first step/stage of the next plan. This rule is applicable to career development plans of an organization. 9) REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF CAREER PLANS:A plan needs periodical review. Actual benefits available will be known only through such review and evaluation. Such evaluation avoids mistakes. depending on available opportunity. Such evaluation should be done by experts. this stage is of no relevance because it happens prior to the employment. The new priorities are decided and the details of the new career development plan are prepared. It is built-in device to measure the effectiveness of the plan. They go through the following stages: 1) EXPLORATION:Almost all candidates who start working after college education start around mid-twenties. Very few people stick to the same job throughout their life. Here. The implementation needs proper monitoring so as to avoid possible shortfalls. It should be conducted systematically and also impartially. Where opportunity is restricted they continue with the same job.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT ordination at all levels is necessary. Chances are they change jobs. Planning is a continuous process/activity. Most of them switch job either within the organization or in some other organization. several times before retirement. Many a time they are not sure about future prospects but take up a job in anticipation of rising higher up in the career graph later. Some candidates who come from better economic background can wait and 9 . the career needs of the future period (of employees and also of the organization) are estimated.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT select a career of their choice under expert guidance from parents and well-wishers. Authority. Employees tend to settle down inn their jobs and “job hopping” is not common. 4) LATE CAREER:This career stage is pleasant for the senior employees who like to survive on the past glory. 5) DECLINE STAGE:This career stage represents the completion of one’s career usually culminating into retirement. there is marked deterioration in their performance. employees who are unhappy and frustrated with the job. On the other hand. rewards and incentives are highest at this stage. Ambitious candidates will keep looking for more lucrative and challenging jobs elsewhere. 10 . There is no desire to improve performance and improve past records. “climbers” must go on improving their own performance. Others may think of “life after retirement”. In other to show their utility to the organization. There is continuous improvement in performance. responsibility. Slowly and gradually they become responsible towards the job. After decades of hard work. such employees have to retire. This may either result in migration to another job or he will remain with the Same job because of lack of opportunity. Employees who were climbers and achievers will find it hard to compromise with the reality. 2) ESTABLISHMENT:This career stage begins with the candidate getting the first job getting hold of the right job is not an easy task. 3) MID-CAREER STAGE:This career stage represents fastest and gainful leap for competent employees who are commonly called “climbers”. Candidates are likely to commit mistakes and learn from their mistakes. They are expected to train younger employees and earn respect from them. Such employees enjoy playing the role of elder statesperson. employees must remain productive at this stage.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT HIGH EXPLORATION ESTABLISHMENT MID-CAREER LATE CAREER DECLINE LOW 25 35 AGE 45 55 60 STAGES IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT/INTRODUCTION TO CAREER DEVELOPMENT:Career development consists of the personal actions one undertakes to achieve a career plan. PERFORMANCE:- 11 . Career development looks at the long-term career effectiveness of employees where as employee development focuses of effectiveness of an employee in the immediate future. The actions for career development may be initiated by the individual himself or by the organization. Some of the important steps that could help an individual cross the hurdles on the way ‘up’ may include: I. INDIVIDUAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:Career progress and development is largely the outcome of actions on the part of an individual. The terms ‘career development’ and ‘employee development’ need to be differentiated at this stage.

LOYALTY TO CAREER:Professionals and recent college graduates generally jump jobs frequently when they start their career. LEVERAGING:Resigning to further one’s career with another employer is known as leveraging. jumping the jobs frequently (job-hopping) may not be a good career strategy in the long-run. which implies becoming known by those who decide promotions.). for years men have used private clubs. If the performance is sub-standard. the only option left is to resign from the current position and take up the new job (opportunity in terms of better pay.g.. generally speaking. IV. Mentors take 12 . II. You must undertake actions that would attract the attention of those who matter most in an organization. etc. however.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT Career progress rests largely on performance. an older person in a managerial role offering informal career advice to a junior employee. transfers and other career opportunities. new title. EXPOSURE:Career development comes through exposure.). business deals. V. To overcome this problem. VI. MENTORS AND SPONSORS:A mentor is. lucrative job offers. etc. companies such as Infosys. innovative compensation packages in addition to employee stock option plans for those who remain with the company for a specified period. a new learning experience. even modest career goals can’t be achieved. old-boy networks to gain exposure and achieve their career ambitions. III. NETWORKING:Networking implies professional and personal contacts that would help inn striking good deals outside (e. They do not think that careerlong dedication to the same organization may not help them further their career ambitions. professional associations. When the opportunity is irresistible. WIPRO (all information technology companies where the turnover ratios are generally high) have come out with lucrative. NIIT.

if supervisors act as coaches they should be 13 . career paths. interests. After individuals complete their self-assessment. consists of a form of career guide in the question-answer format outlining steps for realizing career goals. They act as role models. develop suitable action plans and point out obstacle that come in the way. called as a career workbook. These workshops throw light on how to prepare and follow through individual career strategies. skills and work attitudes and preferences. They identify career goals. Sometimes outside experts are also be called in. The first one is called the careerplanning workshop. tailor-made guide to learn about their career chances. It is usually done through face-toface meetings between the employee and the counselor or coach. qualifications for jobs and career ladders. A sponsor. Here discussions of employees’ interests goals. ORGANISATIONAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:The assistance from managers and HR department is equally important in achieving individual career goals and meeting organizational needs. is someone in the organization who can create career development opportunities. current job activities and performance and career objectives take place.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT junior employees under their protégé and offer advice and guidance on how to survive and get ahead in the organization. they share their findings with others in career workshops. This guide. The second tool. generally throws light on organization’s structure. a) SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOLS:Here the employees go through a process in which they think through their life roles. Counselling is generally offered by the HR department. Two self-assessment tools are quite commonly used in the organizations. A variety of tools and activities are employees for this purpose. Individuals use this company specific. on the other hand. b) INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING:Employee counselling is a process whereby employees are guided in overcoming performance problems.

child care centers.. who takes care of children. long parental leave. When we talk of dual career couples (a situation where both husband and wife have distinct careers outside the home) certain puzzling questions arise naturally: whose career is important. job rotations and mentoring programmes are used to develop a broad base of skills as a part of such developmental activities. realizing these problems. b) EXPOSURE:Employee’s desire for career progress should expose their skills. organizations are providing a place and a procedure for discussing such role conflicts and coping strategies. c) EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES:These consist of skill assessment and training efforts that organizations use to groom their employees for future vacancies. achievements. etc. This is. to those who take the decision about career progress.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT given clearly defined roles and training. what if the wife gets a tempting promotion in another location. They are coming out with schemes such as part-time work. Seminars. qualifications. performance etc. a costly and time-consuming process. flexible working hours and promotions and transfers in tune with the demands of dual career conflicts. there is growing evidence regarding dual career families developing tensions and frictions owing to their inability to reconcile the differences between the family roles and work demands. if he wants career progress. d) CAREER PROGRAMMES FOR SPECIAL GROUPS:In recent years. CAREER DEVELOPMENT ACTIONS:a) JOB PERFORMANCE:Employee must prove that his performance on the job is to the level of standards established. however. 14 . who buys groceries and cleans the house if both are busy. workshops. knowledge.

e) CAREER GUIDANCE:And counselling provides information. advice and encouragements to switch over to other career or organization.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT c) RESIGNATIONS:Employees may resign the present job in the organization. d) CHANGE THE JOB:Employees who put organizational loyalty above career loyalty may change the job in the same organization are better than those in the present job. where career opportunities are better. 15 . if they find that career opportunities elsewhere are better than those of the present organization.

P. AHMED 2) PERSONNEL AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT --.N. KALE --. G.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMANT BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT --.SANTOSH GUPTA --.M.SACHIN GUPTA RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 16 . SUBBA RAO 3) HUMAN --.