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Early life and career
Indira Nehru was born on 19 November 1917 at the Anand Bhavan in the historically important town of Allahabad, in what was then the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, into the politically influential Nehru family. Indira Gandhi's father was Jawaharlal Nehru and her mother was Kamla Nehru. Her grandfather, Motilal Nehru, was a prominent Indian nationalist leader. Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a pivotal figure in the independence movement of India.
With M. K. Gandhi fasting, mid 1920s Nehru did her pre-schooling at the Modern school in Delhi. She attended primary school in a variety of institutions in India and Europe, including Ecole Internationale in Geneva, Ecole Nouvelle in Bex, St Cecilia's and St Mary's convent schools (both in Allahabad), before graduating from the Pupils' Own School in Poona and Bombay. In 1936, Nehru enrolled at Somerville College, Oxford, University of Oxford in United Kingdom. While preparing for the entrance exam, she suffered a personal tragedy after her mother died from a prolonged battle with tuberculosis in Switzerland. This left her emotionally
During her stay in the UK. disrupting her studies. Nehru soon showed an ability to win elections and outmanoeuvre opponents. She imposed a state of emergency in 1975. Then Congress Party President K. Nehru tried to return to England through Portugal but was left stranded for nearly two months. Oxford further honoured Gandhi by selecting her as one of the ten Oxasians. She had excelled in history. Kamaraj was instrumental in making Indira Gandhi the Prime Minister after the sudden demise of Shastri. In the 1950s. She was being treated by the famed Swiss doctor Auguste Rollier in 1940. . Despite the setbacks.devastated: she subsequently failed the exam. She managed to enter England in early 1941. when the Nazi armies rapidly conquered Europe. illustrious Asian graduates from the University of Oxford. Nehru frequently met her future husband Feroze Gandhi. Gandhi chose to continue studying in England and spent a few months at the Badminton School in Bristol before clearing the Oxford entrance exam in 1937. Nehru served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first Prime Minister of India. In 2010. She introduced more left-wing economic policies and promoted agricultural productivity. and who was studying at the London School of Economics. failing in the subject several times. and from there returned to India without completing her studies at Oxford. After her father's death in 1964 she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting. The marriage took place in Allahabad according to Adi Dharm rituals though Feroze belonged to a Parsi family of Gujarat. Congress Party and Indira Gandhi herself lost the next general election for the first time in 1977. Nehru was plagued with ill-health and was constantly attended by doctors. The Oxford university later conferred on her an honorary degree. political science and economics but struggled with her Latin. She led India as Prime Minister during the decisive victory of East Pakistan over Pakistan in 1971 war and creation of an independent Bangladesh. During her time in Europe. She had to make repeated trips to Switzerland to recover. whom she knew from Allahabad.
Indira Gandhi led the Congress back to victory in 1980 elections and Gandhi resumed the office of the Prime Minister. She ruled with support from Socialist and Communist Parties for the next two years. She had to accommodate Desai as Deputy Prime Minister of India and Minister of Finance. to remove armed insurgents present inside the temple. Rammanohar Lohia called her Gungi Gudiya which means 'Dumb Doll'. and the conservatives led by Morarji Desai. Legislative career When Indira became Prime Minister in 1966. the socialists led by Gandhi. In the same year. the Indian National Congress split. In 1969 after many disagreements with Desai. the Congress was split in two factions. The internal problems showed in the 1967 election where the Congress lost nearly 60 seats winning 297 seats in the 545 seat Lok Sabha. in July 1969 she nationalized banks. Indira Gandhi & Nicolae Ceauşescu . In June 1984. the most sacred Sikh Gurdwara. under Gandhi's order. the Indian army forcefully entered the Golden Temple. She was killed on 31 October 1984 in retaliation for this operation by her bodyguards.
With Richard Nixon. arrest. Removal. 1971 Gandhi with Jacqueline Kennedy in new delhi. and return .1962 In Gandhi meeting Shah of Iran Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi and Shahbanu Farah Pahlavi during the latter's State visit to India in 1970.
gained her great sympathy from many people. Charan Singh. Her arrest and long-running trial. the three were compelled to part ways and form a new political entity CFD (Congress for Democracy) primarily due to intra party politicking and also due to circumstances created by Sanjay Gandhi. the government was bogged down by infighting. The arrest meant that Indira Gandhi was automatically expelled from Parliament. Raj Narain and Atal Bihari Vajpayee. These allegations included that she “‘had planned or thought of killing all opposition leaders in jail during the Emergency’”. and Charan Singh was . The prevailing rumour was that Sanjay had intentions of dislodging Gandhi and the trio stood between that. Choudhary Charan Singh. Desai resigned in June 1979. The Janata coalition was only united by its hatred of Gandhi (or "that woman" as some called her). none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. Jayaprakash Narayan died on 8 October 1979. which broke the unity of the Janata Party and Desai took his place. However. The Janata government's Home Minister. The Janata Party came into power after the State of Emergency was lifted. With so little in common. ordered the arrest of Indira and Sanjay Gandhi on several charges. however. The other party leaders of the Janata Party were Morarji Desai. this strategy backfired disastrously. The leader of the Janata Party was Jayaprakash Narayan.1984 USSR commemorative stamp The Congress Party split during the election campaign of 1977: veteran Gandhi supporters like Jagjivan Ram and her most loyal Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna and Nandini Satpathy.
two of Gandhi's Sikh bodyguards. Congress withdrew support and President Reddy dissolved Parliament in the winter of 1979. Satwant Singh and Beant Singh. New Delhi. Rajiv Gandhi. She was to have been interviewed by the British actor Peter Ustinov. After a short interval. Assassination The day before her death Indira Gandhi visited Orissa on 30 October 1984 where she gave her last speech: "I am alive today. I may not be there tomorrow. Afterwards they . I shall continue to serve till my last breath and when I die every drop of my blood will strengthen India and keep a united India alive. The shooting occurred as she was walking past a wicket gate guarded by Satwant and Beant. Beant Singh shot her three times using his side-arm. and Satwant Singh fired 30 rounds. who was filming a documentary for Irish television. shot her with their service weapons in the garden of the Prime Minister's residence at 1 Safdarjung Road. Congress was returned to power with a landslide majority. Beant Singh and Satwant Singh dropped their weapons and surrendered. the Parade Ground was converted to the Indira Gandhi Park which was inaugurated by her son. After her death." Indira Gandhi's last speech at Bhubaneswar Indira Gandhi delivered her last speech at the then Parade Ground in front of the Secretariat of Orissa. On 31 October 1984. In elections held the following January.appointed Prime Minister by Reddy after Gandhi promised that Congress would support his government from outside.
the earth shakes. Dogra appeared in the court of Shri Mahesh Chandra as an expert witness (PW-5). a Sten gun and a pistol. Dogra extracted bullets to establish the identity of the weapons and to correlate each weapon with the bullets recovered by ballistic examination. and his testimony lasted several sessions.were taken away by other guards into a closed room where Beant Singh was shot dead. where doctors operated on her. Gandhi was cremated on 3 November near Raj Ghat. Dogra stated that as many as 30 bullet wounds were sustained by Indira Gandhi. Both Satwant and Kehar were sentenced to death and hanged in Delhi's Tihar jail. Dr. Kehar Singh was later arrested for conspiracy in the attack. from two sources. of which 30 had hit. including the BBC. the defence counsel. . T D Dogra. The post-mortem examination was conducted by a team of doctors headed by Dr. Rajiv Gandhi on a live TV show said of the carnage. The bullets were matched with respective weapons at CFSL Delhi. millions of Sikhs were displaced and nearly three thousand were killed in anti-Sikh riots. She was declared dead at 2:20 PM. "When a big tree falls. Her funeral was televised live on domestic and international stations. The assailants had fired 31 bullets at her. Subsequently Dr. Indira Gandhi was brought at 9:30 AM to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences. The cross examination was conducted by Shri P N Lekhi. 23 had passed through her body while 7 were trapped inside her. Following her cremation. Dr.
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