Георги Карастоянов

психология
на преднамереното влияние

София, 2012

За корицата е използвана картина на художника Васил Иванов

Всички права запазени. Нито една част от тази книга не може да бъде
размножавана или предавана по какъвто и да било начин без изричното съгласие на „Изток-Запад“.

© Георги Карастоянов, автор, 2012
© Издателство „Изток-Запад“, 2012
ISBN 978-619-152-092-3

ГЕОРГИ
КАРАСТОЯНОВ

ПСИХОЛОГИЯ НА

ПРЕДНАМЕРЕНОТО
ВЛИЯНИЕ

На Даф с много любов

Съдържание

7

Съдържание
увод / 9
1. Модели на преднамерено влияние / 15
1.1. Поведенческо съгласие.............................................................. 16
1.2. Убеждаване.................................................................................... 17
1.2.1. Същност на убеждаването............................................. 17
1.2.2. Теории за убеждаването................................................. 23
1.3. Пропаганда.................................................................................... 48
2. Когнитивно-преживелищната
теория за Аза на Сиймор Eпщайн / 65
2.1. Предпоставки и развитие на Когнитивнопреживелищната теория за Аза............................................... 65
2.2. Преживелищна и рационална система.................................. 74
2.3. Съдържание на преживелищната система.......................... 102
2.3.1. Базисни потребности.................................................... 102
2.3.2. Имплицитни вярвания.................................................. 108
3. Техники за преднамерено влияние, използвани за
постигане на поведенческо съгласие / 121
3.1. Исторически преглед на изследването на техниките
за постигане на поведенческо съгласиe............................... 121
3.2. Когнитивна манипулация........................................................ 130

3.3. Емоционална манипулация..................................................... 137
3.4. манипулация на средата.......................................................... 142

4. Техники за преднамерено влияние, използвани за
убеждаване и преодоляване на съпротивите / 149
4.1. Алфа-техники за убеждаване.................................................. 152
4.2. Съпротиви срещу убеждаване............................................... 161
4.3. Омега-техники за убеждаване и намаляване на
съпротивите................................................................................ 166
4.4. Използване
на наратив като техника за убеждаване............................... 176
5. Принципи и техники за преднамерено влияние,
използвани за пропаганда / 191
5.1. Принципи на пропагандата.................................................... 192
5.2. Седемте техники на
Института за анализ на пропагандата................................. 204
5.3. Други техники за пропаганда................................................. 213
5.4. Психологическо рамкиране (фрейминг)............................ 223
6. Индивидуални различия
и преднамерено влияние / 237
6.1. Индивидуални различия, свързани с доминиращата
система за преработка на информацията и влиянието
им върху процеса на преднамерено влияние..................... 241
6.2. Индивидуални различия, свързани
със задоволяване на главните базисни
мотивационни тенденции – хедонистичен
принцип и контрол на възбудата и влиянието им
върху процеса на преднамерено влияние........................... 244

6.3. Индивидуални различия, свързани
с подчинените базисни потребности и влиянието
им върху процеса на преднамерено влияние..................... 250
6.3.1. Индивидуални различия, свързани
с потребността от знание........................................... 250
6.3.2. Индивидуални различия, свързани
с мотивацията за поддържане на консистентна
личностна концептуална система............................ 259
6.3.3. Индивидуални различия, свързани
с потребността от социална включеност............... 270
6.3.4. Индивидуални различия,
свързани с потребността от
висока самооценка и самоутвърждаване............... 275

Заключение.......................................................................279
Бележки............................................................................287
Contents............................................................................319
Summary............................................................................323

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Георги Карастоянов v Психология на преднамереното влияние

Psychology of Intentional Influence Georgi Karastoyanov

11

Psychology of Intentional
Influence
Georgi Karastoyanov
Contents
Introduction / 9
1. Models of Intentional Influence / 15
1.1. Compliance gaining...................................................................... 16
1.2. Persuasion....................................................................................... 17
1.2.1. The Concept of Persuasion.............................................. 17
1.2.2. Theories of Persuasion...................................................... 23
1.3. Propaganda..................................................................................... 48
2. Cognitive-Experiential Self Theory
developed by Seymour Epstein / 65
2.1. Preconditions and development
of the Cognitive-Experiential Self Theory............................... 65
2.2. Experiential and rational systems............................................... 74
2.3. The content of the experiential system................................... 102
2.3.1. Basic needs........................................................................ 102
2.3.2. Basic beliefs....................................................................... 108

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3. Intentional Influence
Techniques used for Compliance gaining / 121
3.1. Historical review of
Compliance gaining techniques research............................... 121
3.2. Cognitive manipulation............................................................. 130
3.2. Emotional manipulation............................................................ 137
3.3. Manipulation of the environment............................................ 142
4. Intentional Influence Techniques used
for Persuasion and overcoming resistance / 149
4.1. Alpha techniques for Persuasion.............................................. 152
4.2. Resistance to Persuasion............................................................ 161
4.3. Omega techniques
for Persuasion and overcoming resistance............................. 166
4. 4. Narrative....................................................................................... 176
5. Principles and techniques
for Intentional Influence used for Propaganda / 191
5.1. Principles of Propaganda........................................................... 192
5.2. Seven techniques
of The Institute for Propaganda Analysis............................... 204
5.3. Other techniques for Propaganda............................................ 213
5.4. Framing.......................................................................................... 223
6. Individual differences and Intentional Influence / 237
6.1. Individual differences relevant
to experiential and rational processing
and their impact on the Intentional Influence process........ 241

Psychology of Intentional InfluenceGeorgi Karastoyanov

13

6.2. Individual differences relevant to the two
super-ordinate basic needs: the hedonic principle
and the need to control arousal, and their impact
on the Intentional Influence process....................................... 244
6.3. Individual differences relevant to the four
subordinate basic needs and their impact
on the Intentional Influence process....................................... 250
6.3.1. Individual differences
relevant to the need for knowledge.............................. 250
6.3.2. Individual differences
relevant to the need to maintain
a stable and coherent conceptual system.................... 259
6.3.3. Individual differences
relevant to the need for relatedness.............................. 270
6.3.4. Individual differences
relevant to the need for self-esteem............................. 275

Conclusion / 279
Notes / 287
Summary............................................................................................... 323

Summary
The monograph presents the Theory of Intentional Influence.
In the first chapter, a three component model of intentional
influence is proposed.
Compliance gaining or intentional influence aims to
change only behaviour and in its hard forms it could be named
psychological coercion. „Believe what you want, but do what I say.“
Persuasion or intentional influence aims to change behavior
by changing attitudes. „Like what I want, then do it!“
Propaganda or intentional influence aims to change behavior
by changing beliefs or ideology „Believe what I say, then behave
accordingly“. (Believe in the world I describe to you then behave
according that world’s rules).
The second chapter is devoted to cognitive-experiential
self-theory (CEST) as a global theory of personality that
coherently integrates the most important insights from the
classic theories of personality such as self phenomenological
theory, learning theory, cognitive theory, psychoanalytic theory,
and emotions theory. The Freudian maladaptive unconscious is
substituted for an adaptive unconscious which is an associative,
automatic learning system, mediated by affect that humans
share with other higher order animals that have adapted
successfully to it over millions of years of evolution. The system
is referred to as an „experiential system“ because it adapts by
learning from experience empirically. Humans also uniquely
process information with a „rational system,“ which is a verbal
reasoning system. The two systems operate by different rules

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and attributes. They operate in parallel and are bi-directionally
interactive, both simultaneously and sequentially. Although the
systems usually operate in harmony and often synergistically,
they also may conflict with each other and otherwise interfere
with each other’s performance. The influence of the experiential
system on the rational system can account for the irrationality
of humans, particularly when attempting to influence them
intentionally because experiential processing biases their
rational processing.
The access to the experiential system with its attributes (such
as automatic, preconscious, rapid, effortless, holistic, concrete,
associative, primarily nonverbal, and minimally demanding of
cognitive resources) was regarded as a highway to the process of
intentional influence.
According to CEST developed by Seymour Epstein, there are
two super-ordinate basic needs, the need to behave according to
the hedonic principle and the need to control arousal, and there
are four subordinate basic needs: the need for sensory pleasure
and the avoidance of sensory discomfort, the need to maintain a
stable and coherent conceptual system, the need for relatedness,
and the need for self-esteem. All the sub-ordinate basic needs are
assumed to vary along two dimensions, a bipolar dimension of
positive versus negative affect and a unipolar dimension of degree
of cortical excitation. What follows from this assumption is that
each sub-ordinate basic need is associated with some kind of
positive and negative affect.
The four subordinate basic needs are sources of four
corresponding basic beliefs. Рeople acquire implicit basic
beliefs based on their experiences regarding the fulfillment and
frustration of their basic needs. When a basic need is fulfilled,
it is accompanied by positive affect and when its fulfillment is
frustrated, it is accompanied by negative affect. Because of the
super-ordinate hedonic principle, people automatically attend to
whatever is associated with the fulfillment and frustration of their

Summary

17

basic needs. As a result, they develop basic beliefs corresponding
to each of the basic needs. These basic beliefs along with the four
basic needs are considered among the most important constructs
in an implicit theory of reality. Because of their dominant and
central position and their corresponding influence on an extensive
network of lower order beliefs, should any of the subordinate
basic beliefs be invalidated, the entire conceptual system would be
subject to destabilization and the person would experience intense
anxiety.
In the next three chapters, there are presented and explained,
from the CEST view, the psychological processes relevant to the
techniques used in those three models of intentional influence.
Compliance gaining techniques are discussed as a result from
cognitive manipulation (alter casting, manipulation of the relationship between cause and effect, conditioning), emotional manipulations (fear and guilt) and manipulation of the environment
(provoking conformity or obedience).
In the fourth chapter, an approach-avoidance model is
used to argue that there are two fundamentally different ways to
create change, two different strategies for promoting movement
toward some goal via persuasion. Alpha techniques promote
change by activating the approach forces, thereby increasing
the motivation to move toward the goal or to increase the
attractive features of the alternative by making the messages
more persuasive, increasing source credibility, providing
consensus information, emphasizing scarcity, engaging a norm
of reciprocity, emphasizing consistency and commitment. In
contrast, Omega techniques promote change by minimizing the
avoidance forces, thereby reducing the motivation to move away
from the goal by means of persuasion or to decrease the negative
features of the alternative. Dr Knowles’ research has identified
three basic sources for resistance that impede persuasion and
compliance. These are:
(a) resistance to the influence attempt, also known as „reactance“,

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(b) resistance to the proposal, also known as „skepticism“,
(c) resistance to change, also known as „inertia.“

Proper techniques to overcome each type of resistance are
analyzed.
The last section of the chapter describes narrative persuasion
as a powerful means to communicate with the experiential
system and to overcome resistance by reducing the amount and
effectiveness of counterarguing or logical consideration of the
message and increasing identification with the characters in a story.
Narratives are viewed as highly appealing and comprehensible to
the experiential system because they are emotionally engaging and
represent the unfolding of events in the same sequence in which
they occur in real life.
In the fifth chapter, the principles of propaganda campaign are
discussed from different views. There are presented the The Seven
classical techniques discovered by famous Institute for Propaganda
analysis (card stacking, name calling, glittering generality, transfer,
testimonial, plain folks, and bandwagon), as well as other devices
such as contextualization, nuance elimination, fear appeals,
cynicism, and traps. Framing is discussed as a „pre-persuasion“
or „pre– propaganda“ technique, which includes the framing of a
debate before the debate itself begins. Choosing the correct frame
is like a battlefield commander choosing the time and location
of an attack, with all the advantages that such control affords. It
is argued that most of the presented techniques are cognitive or
emotional manipulation of perceptions because of the experiential
processing of information.
The last chapter in the monograph presents the individual
differences in intentional influence. It is organized around
preferences in experiential or rational processing of information
and super-ordinate and subordinate basic motives that govern
human thought and action.
In conclusion, it is assumed that intentional influence is
effective when the influence attempts (massages):

Summary

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¤ appeal to the experiential system;
¤ are consistent with basic human needs;
¤ do not attack implicit basic beliefs;
¤ match to the individual differences;
¤ apply proper intentional influence techniques or use
experiential procedures in ways that keep people from effective
reasoning using their rational system.