Trade Policy Review Body

RESTRICTED WT/TPR/S/249 10 August 2011

TRADE POLICY REVIEW Report by the Secretariat INDIA

This report, prepared for the fifth Trade Policy Review of India, has been drawn up by the WTO Secretariat on its own responsibility. The Secretariat has, as required by the Agreement establishing the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (Annex 3 of the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization), sought clarification from India on its trade policies and practices. Any technical questions arising from this report may be addressed to Mrs. Eugenia Lizano (tel: 022/739 6578) and Mr. Angelo Silvy (tel: 022/739 5249). Document WT/TPR/G/249 contains the policy statement submitted by India.

Note: This report is subject to restricted circulation and press embargo until the end of the first session of the meeting of the Trade Policy Review Body on INDIA.

WT/TPR/S/249 Trade Policy Review Page ii CONTENTS Page SUMMARY (1) (2) (3) (4) I. TRADE POLICIES AND PRACTICES BY MEASURE (1) (2) INTRODUCTION MEASURES DIRECTLY AFFECTING IMPORTS (i) Customs procedures (ii) Customs valuation and clearance (iii) Rules of origin (iv) Tariffs (v) Other charges affecting imports (vi) Import prohibitions. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT TRADE AND INVESTMENT POLICY FRAMEWORK TRADE POLICY BY MEASURE TRADE POLICIES BY SECTOR ix ix x xi xiii 1 1 1 6 10 12 14 14 16 16 18 20 20 20 20 23 26 26 27 28 28 31 35 35 36 36 39 42 43 50 53 58 60 ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) OVERVIEW RECENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS FISCAL POLICY MONETARY AND EXCHANGE RATE POLICY BALANCE OF PAYMENTS DEVELOPMENTS IN TRADE (i) Composition of trade in goods (ii) Direction of trade in goods (iii) Trade in services DEVELOPMENTS IN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (7) II. and objectives TRADE AGREEMENTS AND ARRANGEMENTS (i) World Trade Organization (ii) Regional trade agreements INVESTMENT REGIME (i) Business environment (ii) Foreign investment regime (3) (4) III. implementation. TRADE POLICY REGIME: FRAMEWORK AND OBJECTIVES (1) (2) OVERVIEW TRADE POLICY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION (i) Institutional and legal framework (ii) Trade policy formulation. and licensing (vii) State trading (viii) Contingency measures . restrictions.

charges.India WT/TPR/S/249 Page iii Page (ix) (x) (3) Technical regulations and standards Sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) 67 71 74 74 75 76 77 78 79 81 88 89 MEASURES DIRECTLY AFFECTING EXPORTS (i) Procedures (ii) Quality control and preshipment inspection (iii) Export taxes. restrictions. and licensing (vi) State trading (vii) Export support (viii) Export promotion and marketing assistance (ix) Export finance and insurance (4) MEASURES AFFECTING PRODUCTION AND TRADE 91 (i) Incentives 91 (ii) Role of state-owned enterprises (other than state-trading companies). and levies (iv) Minimum export prices (v) Export prohibitions. TRADE POLICIES BY SELECTED SECTOR (1) (2) OVERVIEW AGRICULTURE (i) General overview (ii) Agricultural policy objectives SERVICES (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 138 Overview Financial services Telecommunications Transport Tourism (3) REFERENCES APPENDIX TABLES . and disinvestment 96 (iii) Competition policy 98 (iv) Price controls 102 (v) Government procurement 106 (vi) Intellectual property rights 112 125 125 126 126 128 138 140 157 162 174 179 187 IV.

by sector. I. 2006/07 and 2009/10 Direction of merchandise trade. 2006/07 and 2009/10 TRADE POLICIES AND PRACTICES BY MEASURE Distribution of MFN applied tariff rates. 2011 Tariff structure. 2010/11 39 41 42 44 46 48 49 51 22 22 23 25 26 29 30 33 2 4 7 12 18 18 139 45 47 55 64 90 92 15 17 . 2006-11 Rules of origin under preferential trade agreements. 2011 TRADE POLICIES AND PRACTICES BY MEASURE Metallic waste and scrap subject to preshipment inspection. by HS section. IV. August 2009-March 2011 WTO dispute settlement cases involving India.5 III.4 I.4 III. 2006/07 and 2010/11 Summary analysis of the tariff. 2006/07 and 2009/10 TABLES I. by economic activity. 2006-11 Foreign direct investment inflows/outflows.7 III. 2010/11 Summary analysis of India's imports charges. I. 2010/11 Average applied MFN and bound tariff rates. III.6 II. January 2006-December 2010 Loans by the Export-Import Bank of India.8 ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Selected macroeconomic indicators. 2006-11 Balance of payments.3 I. 2006-11 Basic economic and social indicators.1 III.2 II.2 III. 2006/07 and 2009/10 Explicit subsidies.1 III.1 II.6 III. 2011 Main institutions involved in trade policy formulation and implementation.7 II. 2006-11 TRADE AND INVESTMENT REGIMES Enforcement of legislation: the case of the Competition Act 2002 Hierarchy of legal and regulatory instruments. by HS section.4 II.2 I. 2006/07 and 2010/11 Products subject to tariff-rate quotas. III.3 III. 2006/07 and 2010/11 TRADE POLICIES BY SELECTED SECTOR Trade in services. 2011 Tariff values (reference prices).6 IV. 2011 Industries for which industrial licensing is compulsory. 2010/11 Import licensing.4 III.WT/TPR/S/249 Trade Policy Review Page iv CHARTS Page I. 2011 Sectors where FDI is prohibited. II. 2006-11 Summary analysis of the preferential tariff.2 III. 2006-11 Foreign direct investment inflows/outflows.5 I.1 I.1 ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Product composition of merchandise trade. 2010/11 Anti-dumping measures. 2006-11 Central Government's tax revenue. 2007-11 Setting up a business. 2011 Changes in export policy: the case of cotton and onions.5 II.6 II.8 III.1 I.5 III.3 II.3 III.2 III. by origin.

22 III. 2007-11 Government procurement methods. by group of products. 2011 Intellectual property legislation. by destination.4 II. 2006-10 TRADE AND INVESTMENT REGIMES Jurisdiction between central and state legislatures. 2011 Exports from EOUs. 2011 Export cess.12 IV.14 III.1 AI. 2007-11 Incentives granted to SEZ units.3 AI.9 IV.10 IV. 2006-10 Merchandise exports.26 III. AI. by origin. 2011 Notifications to the WTO. 2011 Selected incentives to road concessionaires.24 III.2 ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Merchandise exports. 2006-10 Merchandise imports.17 III. 1 January 2007-30 June 2011 193 195 189 190 191 192 126 128 133 136 142 150 152 154 156 158 170 171 175 53 57 59 68 72 74 77 77 80 83 83 85 85 91 93 94 95 97 108 112 113 .6 IV.16 III. 2010/11 Value of imports subject to state trading.19 III. 2006-10 Trends in the banking sector's gross loans and deposits and prudential indicators.5 IV. subject to minimum import price.10 III.4 IV. 2011 Export taxes. 2007-11 Standards. 2011 TRADE POLICIES BY SELECTED SECTOR Selected indicators for agriculture.7 IV. 2011 Capital defence procurement. 2006-10 Insurance and reinsurance market. IV. 2007-10 Sanitary and phytosanitary legislation. by group of products.3 IV. 2007-10 Road concession contracts.29 IV. 2010 Agriculture sector schemes/programmes. AII. 2011 Subsidies in agriculture inputs.12 III.20 III.13 III.8 IV.India WT/TPR/S/249 Page v Page III. 2011 Products reserved for MSEs.11 IV. 2011 Items whose import is free.21 III.28 III. 2006-10 Preferential interest rates to exporters.18 III.1 AII.2 IV. 2011 APPENDIX TABLES I. 2007-10 Tax incentives phased out.11 III. 2011 Selected telecom indicators. 2011 Selected support schemes for tourism. 2011 Exports subject to state trading. end-December 2010 Insurance set asides for social and rural sectors.9 III. 2007-10 Incentives granted to EOUs. 2008-11 Market-access and national-treatment conditions for foreign investment in the securities market. 2011 Exports from SEZs.13 Import prohibitions. 2011 Securities market.27 III.25 III. 2007-11 Targets for lending to priority sectors.1 IV. 2006-10 Merchandise imports. 2011 Overview of disinvestment. 2006-10 Institutions involved in formulating and implementing agricultural policy.15 III.23 III.2 AI. 2011 Plant quarantine.

AIV. 2007-11 Amount forgone/disbursed on imports under export promotion schemes. 2011 Policy on foreign direct investment.1 AIV.WT/TPR/S/249 Trade Policy Review Page vi Page AII.4 III.4 AIII.2 AIV. 2011 Export incentives schemes.6 AIII. 2011 Auctioning of 3G and BWA spectrums. 2011 Central public sector enterprises.2 AIII. 2011 Cesses and surcharges levied by the Central Government. 2011 TRADE POLICIES BY SELECTED SECTOR India's banking system. 2010 231 234 235 207 208 210 212 214 216 219 220 222 225 197 203 .3 AIII. 2011 Export prohibitions.3 Overview of India's preferential trade agreements.10 IV.7 AIII. 2011 Safeguard investigations. 2006-10 Selected incentive schemes/programmes for MSMEs. 2007 and 2010 Telecom licensing regimes.5 AIII.1 AIII. 2011 TRADE POLICIES AND PRACTICES BY MEASURE IEC exemptions for imports and exports.9 AIII. 2007-10 Revenue forgone under the Income Tax Act 1961.8 AIII. 2008-11 Other institutions responsible for standards formulation and enforcement.3 AII. AIII.

5%. The Indian economy continued to expand at a fast pace during the review period. and the expansion of both exports and imports. with agriculture growing much more slowly. as potential GDP growth has been estimated at between 8% and 8. India has intended to introduce a goods and services tax (GST) and consolidate several pieces of legislation regarding taxation. lower excise and customs duties. and defining more transparent trade and investment regimes. India responded to the global crisis by implementing an important stimulus package consisting of increased spending. Annual real GDP growth averaged over 8. More recently. However. India also makes use of trade policy instruments to attain short-term objectives.1% in 2006/07. introducing a large stimulus package consisting of increased . India's process of fiscal consolidation.India WT/TPR/S/249 Page vii SUMMARY 1.1% at an annual rate in April-December 2010. (1) ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT spending. It will also need the simplification of the business environment by eliminating overregulation. and subsidies. 2. As a result. In the wake of the global financial crisis. In certain circumstances. the focus of fiscal policy has been shifted back to achieving fiscal consolidation and tax rationalization. rendering the trade regime more complex and creating additional costs. This contributed to the high GDP growth rates achieved. the Government conducted a very proactive policy. and support measures. exceeding 9%. In this respect. the resilience of the Indian economy to the global financial crisis. India's growth prospects remain strong. which may detract somewhat from the stability sought. and changes in their levels are a much used policy tool. India uses trade policy actively. 3. particularly corporate income tax and on service tax revenues. development. Growth was particularly strong in 2006/07 and 2007/08. For some time. or self-sufficiency. During the period under review. continue to be an important source of revenue. Reflecting India's shift towards lower tariffs. India has continued to reap benefits from the process of trade liberalization and structural reform initiated in the early 1990s. However. Growth has been led by services and manufacturing. the Government reversed some of these stimulus measures.5% of GDP in 2009/10. from 15.4% between 2006/07 and 2010/11. including taxes that fall solely or mainly on imports. such as containing inflation. A new tax Code has been drafted to simplify the tax regime and increase reliance on direct rather than indirect taxes. sometimes as an instrument to attain its long-term goals. however. GDP growth at 2004/05 market prices reached 10. Hence the consolidated fiscal deficit reached 9. a gradual reform of the tax structure was implemented. 4. lower excise and customs duties. or fostering industrialization. Its public finances deteriorated partly as a result of lower revenue and the impact on spending of the stimulus package in the wake of the global financial crisis. India aims at providing a stable trade policy environment to attain these goals. driven mainly by private investment and consumption. to reduce customs and excise duties and rely more on direct taxes. growth was driven by government spending. However. supported primarily by strong domestic demand. Throughout the review period. the simple average MFN tariff rate declined to 12% in 2010/11. such as promoting overall economic growth. despite the mild slowdown caused by the global financial crisis in 2008/09. as inflation started to accelerate and growth strengthened. India continued to post sizeable public sector deficits. has not resulted yet in the intended decrease in the fiscal deficit. to face the financial crisis. which began in 2004. sustained non-inflationary growth will require addressing bottlenecks and investing in infrastructure and education. indirect taxes. as this requires constant fine tuning of policies.

India is an original Member of the WTO and provides at least MFN treatment to all Members and other trading partners. policies need to be designed to attract more medium. However. in accordance with the latest FTP. both foreign direct and portfolio investment. India implements a mix of policies including tax incentives. Therefore.and long-term capital. 8. this volatility has been largely accommodated by letting the exchange rate adjust. however. India's trade policy objectives are stipulated in its Foreign Trade Policy (FTP). In the latest Budget. particularly given India's infrastructure and general investment needs. as asserted in the 2009-14 FTP. setting two objectives: to double India's share of global merchandise trade within five years. Measures to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) have included gradually increasing the number of sectors in which FDI is permitted and reducing sectoral restrictions. In order to meet these objectives. and to use trade expansion as a policy to promote economic growth and employment generation. the Government is also aiming to improve infrastructure. Merchandise trade as a percentage of GDP continues to increase despite the adverse effects of the global financial crisis. is to achieve annual export growth of 15%. India has sought to arrest and reverse the declining trend of exports and to provide additional support especially to the sectors hit badly by the global recession. and some agriculture activities. such as retail trading. subject to a cap and specific conditions. which is issued every five years. but revised periodically. such schemes may contribute to the complexity of India's trade regime. The Government's recent decision to increase investor limits in the corporate and government bond markets is a step in this direction. Although the floating exchange rate regime has served India well in accommodating short-term capital inflows.WT/TPR/S/249 Trade Policy Review Page viii 5. the authorities have further expressed the need to promote market and product diversification. leading to a current account deficit throughout the review period. FDI is prohibited in a number of sectors/activities. India's short-term objective. illustrating India's increasing participation in the global economy. and credit facilitation schemes. This is evidenced by the seven preferential agreements it signed during the period under review and the negotiation of other agreements. partly explained by its large population and development needs. through the issuance of notifications. to take into account internal and external factors. India highlighted the need to expand trade. The deficit has been financed through large capital inflows. A recent consolidation of all prior regulations on FDI is aimed at clarifying India's FDI policy and provides for better understanding and predictability of the foreign investment rules . (2) TRADE AND FRAMEWORK INVESTMENT POLICY 6. to "neutralize" the cost of imported inputs used in exports. attracted by expanding domestic demand and the good prospects of the economy. However. India posts a structural trade deficit. leading to a widening of the trade deficit. the long-term objective is to accelerate export growth to 25% per annum and double India's share in global trade by 2020. In its 2004-09 FTP. some real estate activities. Capital inflows have been somewhat volatile. 7. Strong domestic demand and rising oil prices have contributed to the widening of the trade deficit. regionalism has increasingly become an element of its overall trade policy objective of enhanced market access for exports. manufacture of tobacco and tobacco substitute. India accepted the Fourth and Fifth Protocols and is a Member of the Information Technology Agreement. In the context of the global crisis. despite India's reservations. Imports continued to grow faster than exports. export promotion. In its attempt to increase exports. India is a strong advocate of the multilateral trading system and has historically been party to few regional agreements. most sectors are currently at least partially open to FDI.

9%) is considerably lower than the average for WTO agricultural products.7%.4% of lines at 25-30%. In general. and its tariff structure.1% of all tariff lines). Despite the implementation of these measures. with rates varying according to product. and brass scrap. in some cases to around and above 600%. as well as packaging. individual tariff rates may be changed during the year.042) was subject to a tariff rate of between 5% and 10%.3%. The inclusion of AVEs in the tariff analysis affects only industrial average tariffs. 15. separate customs and excise tax schedules must be consulted. value.f. 14. and handling) of 1% is added to the c. The percentage of duty-free lines has increased slightly. respectively.8% of total lines were subject to a tariff rate greater than zero but lower than 5%. The largest proportion of lines (71% or 8. quality. tariffs ranged from zero to 150%. certain palm oils. while 685 are alternate rates affecting textiles and clothing. to calculate the transaction value (earlier known as "assessable value"). The simple average applied MFN tariff including AVEs was 13. to calculate customs duty levied on imports of. Imports may also be subject to non-tariff barriers including prohibitions. India has continued to streamline customs procedures and implement trade facilitation measures.3% (or 10. from 2.4% (12% without AVEs) in 2010/11. inter alia.7% to 3. (3) investors and sectoral TRADE POLICY BY MEASURE 9. India's tariff comprises mainly ad valorem rates (some 94% of tariff lines). followed by 10. These "tariff values" must in principle be revised every two weeks and adjusted to align them with international market prices. the value of imports is based on the transaction value. India's import regime remains complex. while 12. An electronic system for customs clearance has been introduced and a risk management system is in place to selectively screen high. which increase to 16. which. however. In practice. The use of specific rates considerably increases protection for certain products. especially for many agricultural products. when 65% of all tariff lines were within the 10-15% range. India's tariff is announced in the annual Budget. In 2010/11. which has multiple exemptions. 11. which adds to the complexity of the tariff.and medium-risk cargo for customs examination. and sanitary requirements. poppy seeds. some of the "tariff values" applied by India have remained unchanged since 2006. A landing charge (for loading. This is a major change from 2006/07.e. and restrictions. as well as crude soybean oil. The simple average MFN tariff rate declined to 12% in 2010/11. which is 33.6% to 10. The average for WTO non-agricultural products (8. In addition to the standard tariff rate. due to India's shift towards lower tariffs.6% and 10% if AVEs are not included. India's WTO bound tariff levels are much higher than the applied rates. from of 9.India WT/TPR/S/249 Page ix among foreign regulators. especially its licensing and permit system. licences. 13.1% in 2006/07. levied on the c. from 15. unloading.i. These gaps allow the Indian Government to modify tariff rates in response to domestic and international market conditions. user or specific export promotion programme.2% and 25. 12. basic duties and other customs duty) on a particular product.i. 10.6% for WTO non-agriculture).f. Import restrictions may . however. Non-ad valorem rates apply to 690 tariff lines of which 5 are specific rates. value of imports. This is reflected in a decrease in both agricultural and industrial average tariffs. In particular. the estimation of AVEs raises average tariff rates applied on textiles and clothing. To determine the "effective" applied tariff rate (i. increase from 8.2% of the total. when including AVEs. and some alternate or specific duties (6. India uses "tariff values"(reference prices). importers are required to pay an additional duty ("countervailing duty") and a special additional duty instead of local taxes.

which apply to some commodities. base metals. On occasion. It initiated 209 anti-dumping investigations against 34 trading partners during the review period. inter alia. import restrictions and licensing requirements are relaxed when imports are necessary to alleviate inflation or supply shortages. compared with 176 in the period covered in its last Review. As a result of an amendment of the legislation. India did not take any countervailing actions during this period. and to ensure "reasonable price" of quality drugs. comprising a multiplicity of entities at different levels of Government (including numerous central public-sector enterprises). food security. Public procurement is considered an important government policy instrument and is used to obtain certain socio-economic objectives. 18. started operations in 2009. are aimed at providing subsidies to farmers and a population under the poverty line. a "fair" return to farmers. Price controls. health. and to establish an institution to deal with SPS issues. As in the case of imports. public health. The states also provide additional subsidies. In addition. and for self-sufficiency and balance-of-payments reasons. Since its last Review in 2007. 21. 19. Other key subsidies include those for diesel and fertilizers. 17. the supply of fertilizer to farmers. safety. In 2006.g. India. and water. Tax holidays are also available to investors through export processing zones and export-oriented units. Most central government subsidies are destined for agriculture. and no common legislation governing procurement. However. 16. plastics and rubber and products thereof. SPS matters continue to be governed and enforced through a number of laws and agencies. However. has taken several initiatives to modernize its IPR administration and continue its efforts to . the Central Government maintains reservations and price preferences as part of the procurement system. Its procurement system continues to be decentralized. As a result.WT/TPR/S/249 Trade Policy Review Page x be imposed on grounds of. India grants direct and indirect assistance to various sectors. The products involved included chemicals and products thereof. and the impact that intellectual property has on public policy issues (e. For instance. India has also imposed several safeguard measures. India became an observer to the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement in February 2010. since its last review. some aspects of the law affecting mergers and acquisitions recently entered into force. In order to reduce the anti-export bias inherent in India's import and indirect tax regimes. Since its last Review in 2007. moral and security reasons. and the Competition Commission of India. a number of duty remission and exemption schemes are in place to facilitate exports. inter alia. and textiles and clothing. India is one of the most active users of anti-dumping measures among WTO Members. created under the Competition Act 2002. Given the importance that an effective intellectual property system has on economic and social development. especially for basic services such as education and health. and the functioning of the domestic price support system. the rules and regulations to operationalize this Act have not been notified yet and the Act is therefore not in force. competition from foreign suppliers is ordinarily allowed. the environment and food security). India links the use of trade policy instruments to domestic policy considerations. India has made several amendments to its competition policy legislation. India passed the Food Safety and Standards Act to consolidate separate laws. compared with 177. and it imposed 207 anti-dumping measures. since 2010 safeguard measures may also take the form of quantitative restrictions. electricity. 20. export prohibitions and restrictions are mainly in place to ensure domestic supply of specific goods and thus may be removed and applied as the circumstances require. State trading is also used as a policy tool to ensure.

Agriculture has been characterized by low productivity and modest growth rates.9%). which led to a decline in foreign demand. The sector showed robust growth over 2006/07 and 2007/08. despite this decline in its relative share. 24. therefore. However. is the main driver of economic growth. there was a resurgence of growth in the sector. The services sector. To address this concern. transport and communications subsectors. airports. The importance of tourism. irrigation. During the period under review. except for financial services. (4) TRADE POLICIES BY SECTOR goods. drinking water. However. However. and warehousing. less volatile. capital inflows. Average tariff protection for agriculture (33. substantially higher than for manufactured goods (8. 23. expanding by an average 10% between 2006/07 and 2009/10. is considerable. India has also retained the price support system for basic commodities and implements other agricultural support programmes at the central and state level. particularly in areas including textiles and clothing. which was the most dynamic sector during the review period. Inadequate infrastructure has become a critical constraint to India's economic development. mainly triggered by stronger domestic demand. enforcement. and so has agriculture. India also offers a wide range of tax incentives. telecommunications. In general. India considers it necessary to maintain protection and offers this sector greater tariff protection than to others. remains under the purview of the state governments rendering it difficult to collect data on the application of IPRs. specific market-access conditions or permits may apply. including electric power. Due to its strategic importance. may play an important role not only in developing infrastructure but also in providing an opportunity for foreign investors. Its contribution to GDP declined from 18. Tourism has good growth potential and the capacity to stimulate growth through its backward and forward linkages and cross-sectoral synergies. which accounts for 56% of GDP. This would result in more stable. agriculture continues to be the mainstay of the majority of the population. but was subsequently affected by the economic crisis. the sector is also critical for achieving the Government's objectives of food security and price stability.6% in 2006/07-2009/10. public investment alone would probably be insufficient to address India's infrastructure needs. capital . The share of the manufacturing sector in GDP has declined slightly. particularly considering India's quest for fiscal consolidation. sanitation. where limits apply to foreign ownership. including foreign investment. except at the international borders. The structure of India's economy has not changed significantly since 2007. Hence. growth in manufacturing has been erratic. 22. 26. continues to be the largest contributor to GDP and has exhibited resilience to the negative effects of the global crisis. an increase in private investment in infrastructure would be necessary to attain India's goal. concessionary credit. which in some cases may be more restrictive than an explicit investment cap. the 11th Five-Year Plan outlined a comprehensive strategy to improve both rural and urban infrastructure. In 2009/10. FDI up to 100% is allowed for most services activities. hotel. However. even though it is not apparent from GDP figures.1% to 16. Further private sector investment. India's tariffs are higher for processed goods than for semi-manufactures. ports. roads. storage. particularly for consumer durables. and industrial inputs. 25. Growth in services continued to be led by the financial services subsector. and the trade. and other types of assistance. railways. occupying some 52% of the total workforce (including non-organized labour). The services sector.India WT/TPR/S/249 Page xi enforce IPRs.2%) remains. In order to encourage investment in the manufacturing sector.

WT/TPR/S/249 Trade Policy Review Page xii .