Audio Steganography

A SEMINAR REPORT ON

AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY
Presented to the faculty of Engineering,

College of Engineering, Pune. In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of T.Y. B.tech (I.T. Engineering) Submitted By,

Miss Deepal Sushil Dhariwal (Roll No- 705017)
Under the Guidance of

Prof. Mr. S. U.Ghumbre
Department of Computer Engineering & Information Technology COLLEGE of ENGINEERING, PUNE

College of Engineering, Pune

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T. Pune Page 2 . U. Engineering during the academic year 2009-2010. A.Ghumbre Professor In-Charge Prof. Prof. Ghumbre in partial fulfillment of T. S. Mr. A. B.Y. Mr. Sawant Head of Department Department of Computer Engineering and Information Technology College of Engineering Pune-411005 College of Engineering. S.tech I.Audio Steganography CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the seminar report entitled “Audio Steganography” has been successfully presented by Miss Deepal Sushil Dhariwal under the guidance of Prof.U.

I would like to show my greatest appreciation to Prof.Ghumbre. Miss Deepal Sushil Dhariwal Roll No 705017 College of Engineering. I am grateful for their constant support and help. Pune Page 3 . was vital for the success of the project.S.U. The guidance and support received from all the Faculty of Department/Institute and classmates who contributed.Audio Steganography Acknowledgement Apart from the efforts put in by me. the success of this seminar depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been and will be instrumental in the successful completion of this seminar. Mr. Without his encouragement and guidance this seminar report would not have materialized.

such as digital images. These methods range from rather simple algorithms that insert information in the form of signal noise to more powerful methods that exploit sophisticated signal processing techniques to hide information. HTML. and even MP3 sound files. Pune Page 4 . a form of security through obscurity. text. cipher text. invisible information. suspects the existence of the message. AU. Steganography works by replacing bits of useless or unused data in regular computer files (such as graphics. apart from the sender and intended recipient. Embedding secret messages in digital sound is usually a more difficult process than embedding messages in other media. sound. Thus the main purpose of this seminar is to explain Audio Steganography and algorithms commonly employed for Audio Steganography and its applications. or even images.Audio Steganography ABSTRACT TITLE – AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one. or even floppy disks ) with bits of different. In a computer-based audio Steganography system. secret messages are embedded in digital sound. The secret message is embedded by slightly altering the binary sequence of a sound file. Existing audio Steganography software can embed messages in WAV. College of Engineering. This hidden information can be plain text.

2 PHASE CODING………………………………………………………………………………….3 ECHO HIDING…………………………………………………………………………………….2 DISADVANTAGES…………………………………………………………………………….12 3.4 2.1 LSB ENCODING………………………………………………………………………………….14 References……………………………………………………………………………………………….13 4.12 3.15 College of Engineering..10 3.0 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………………………….7 2...6 2.4 SPREAD SPECTRUM………………………………………………………………………….3 2..0 EVALUATION OF AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY……………………………………………….Audio Steganography INDEX 1.1 ADVANTAGES………………………………………………………………………………….0 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………….4 2.0 AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY METHODS…………………………………………………………. Pune Page 5 ..

Steganography is a type of cryptography in which the secret message is hidden in a digital picture.Audio Steganography 1. College of Engineering. meaning “covered writing” and is taken in its modern form to mean the hiding of information inside other information. This has many possible applications including the copyright watermarking of audio. the main applications being in couriering information during times of war. Naturally these techniques date back throughout history. under the right circumstances. Steganography is mainly oriented around the undetectable transmission of one form of information within another. The term Steganography is adapted from the Greek word steganographia.0 Introduction People use cryptography to send secret messages to one another without a third party overseeing the message. by the receiving party.  The embedded data must maintain its integrity within the carrier and should be easily removable. creating new methods for performing “reversible data hiding” as it is often dubbed. User can select only wav files to encode. With the invention of digital audio and images files this has taken on a whole new meaning. Steganography concentrates on concealing the very existence of such messages from detection. In digital media. While cryptography is preoccupied with the protection of the contents of a message or information. Pune Page 6 . according to the human ear is extremely sensitive to perturbations in sound and can in fact detect such turbulence as low as one part in 10 million. whether it is to the human visual/auditory system or in increased file size for the carrier file. In order for a data hiding technique to be successful it must adhere to two rules:  The embedded data must be undetectable within its carrier medium (the audio or image file used). Further embedding information into sound files is generally considered more difficult than images. The existing system of Audio Steganography poses more restrictions on the choosing of audio files. video and still image data. The four methods discussed further provide users with a large amount of choice and makes the technology more accessible to everyone. The carrier should display no properties that flag it as suspicious.

1 LSB CODING Least significant bit (LSB) coding is the simplest way to embed information in a digital audio file. c. Pune Page 7 . By substituting the least significant bit of each sampling point with a binary message. Algorithm: Improved/ Modified LSB embedding if host sample a>0 if bit 0 is to be embedded College of Engineering. The following steps are a. b. Receives the audio file in the form of bytes and converted in to bit pattern. The following diagram illustrates how the message 'HEY' is encoded in a 16-bit CD quality sample using the LSB method: Standard LSB ALGORITHM: It performs bit level manipulation to encode the message.Audio Steganography 2. LSB coding allows for a large amount of data to be encoded. Replaces the LSB bit from audio with LSB bit from character in the message.0 Methods of Audio Steganography This section presents some common methods used in audio Steganography 2. Each character in the message is converted in bit pattern.

..0 and if ai+1=0 then ai+1=1 else if ai+2=0 then ai+2=1 ..a0=11....a0=00..a0=00......a0=00..........1 if ai−1=1 then ai−1ai−2..a0=11.Audio Steganography if ai−1=0 then ai−1ai−2.0 and if ai+1=1 then ai+1=0 else if ai+2=1 then ai+2=0 . else if a15=0 then a15=1 else if bit 1 is to be embedded if ai−1=1 then ai−1ai−2. else if a15=1 then a15=0 else if bit 1 is to be embedded if ai−1=1 then ai−1ai−2.1 and if ai+1=1 then ai+1=0 else if ai+2=1 then ai+2=0 ... Pune Page 8 . else if a15=1 then a15=0 College of Engineering...1 if ai−1=1 then ai−1ai−2.1 and if ai+1=1 then ai+1=0 else if ai+2=1 then ai+2=0 .....0 if ai−1=0 then ai−1ai−2....a0=11..a0=00..0 if ai−1=0 then ai−1ai−2....a0=11. else if a15=1 then a15=0 if host sample a<0 if bit 0 is to be embedded if ai−1=0 then ai−1ai−2...

Low Bit Encoding is therefore an undesirable method. one should consider the signal content before deciding on the LSB operation to use. This increases the amount of data that can be encoded but also increases the amount of resulting noise in the audio file as well. Phase coding relies on the fact that the phase components of sound are not as perceptible to the human ear as noise is. Thus. For example. In some implementations of LSB coding. the two least significant bits of a sample are replaced with two message bits. 2. On the other hand. mainly due to its failure to meet the Steganography requirement of being undetectable. achieving an inaudible encoding in terms of signal-to-perceived noise ratio. College of Engineering. the same noise would be audible in a sound file containing a piano solo. the ideal data transmission rate is 1 kbps per 1 kHz.Audio Steganography In LSB coding. the technique encodes the message bits as phase shifts in the phase spectrum of a digital signal. depth of the modified LSB layer becomes larger. however. The main advantage of the LSB coding method is low computational complexity of the algorithm while its major disadvantage : As the number of used LSBs during LSB coding increases or. equivalently. Pune Page 9 . probability of making the embedded message statistically detectable increases and perceptual transparency of stego objects is decreased.2 PHASE CODING Phase coding addresses the disadvantages of the noise-inducing methods of audio Steganography. Rather than introducing perturbations. a sound file that was recorded in a bustling subway station would mask low-bit encoding noise.

3 ECHO HIDING Echo hiding embeds its data by creating an echo to the source audio. its weakness is still in its lack of robustness to changes in the audio data. 2. In addition. A Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is applied to each segment to create a matrix of the phase and magnitude. and a second offset value represents a binary zero. the delay. Once the encoding process is completed. This method has many advantages over Low Bit Encoding. College of Engineering.Audio Steganography The phase coding method breaks down the sound file into a series of N segments. Like all of the techniques described so far though. Pune Page 10 . the most important being that it is undetectable to the human ear. The new phase and original magnitude are combined to get the new segment. The first segment is detected as a 0 or a 1 and this indicates where the message starts. and all other segments have newly created phase frames. The phase difference between each segment is calculated. only one bit of information could be encoded. As the delay between the original source audio and the echo decrease it becomes harder for the human ear to distinguish between the two signals until eventually a created carrier sound’s echo is just heard as extra resonance. If only one echo was produced from the original signal. Sn. One offset value represents a binary one. These new segments are then concatenated to create the encoded output and the frequency remains preserved. the original signal is broken down into blocks before the encoding process begins. the decay rate and the initial amplitude. Three parameters of this Artificial echo are used to hide the embedded data. offset is varied to represent the binary message to be encoded. the first segment (s0) has an artificial absolute phase of p0 created. Any single sound operation or change to the data would distort the information and prevent its retrieval. Therefore. In order to decode the hidden information the receiver must know the length of the segments and the data interval used. the blocks are concatenated back together to create the final signal.

} The blocks are recombined to produce the final signal. i++) { if (blocks[i]. else blocks[i] = offset1(blocks[i]). Pune Page 11 .length. } } Block offset0(Block block) { return (block + (block .echoValue() == 0) blocks[i] = offset0(blocks[i]). i < blocks.OFFSET_1)).OFFSET_0)). } Block offset1(Block block) { return (block + (block . College of Engineering.Audio Steganography Then the following algorithm (illustrated through pseudo code) is used to encode each block. init(Block blocks[]) { for (int i=0.

the receiver must be able to break up the signal into the same block sequence used during the encoding process. Much like phase encoding this has considerably better results than Low Bit Encoding and makes good use of research done so far in psychoacoustics. Then the autocorrelation function of the signal's spectrum (the spectrum is the Forward Fourier Transform of the signal's frequency spectrum) can be used to decode the message because it reveals a spike at each echo time offset. As with all sound file encoding. The final signal is less abrupt than the one obtained using the first echo hiding implementation. These two characteristics of the mixer signals produce smoother transitions between echoes. The following diagram summarizes the second implementation of the echo hiding process. It allows for a high data transmission rate and provides superior robustness when compared to the noise inducing methods. The transmission of audio files via e-mail or over the web is much less prolific than image files and so is much more suspicious in comparison. Pune Page 12 .Audio Steganography The "one" echo signal is then multiplied by the "one" mixer signal and the "zero" echo signal is multiplied by the "zero" mixer signal. To extract the secret message from the stego-signal. College of Engineering. allowing the message to be reconstructed. This is because the two mixer echoes are complements of each other and that ramp transitions are used within each signal. we find that working in audio formats such as WAV is very costly. more so than with bitmap images in terms of the “file size to storage capacity” ratio. Then the two results are added together to get the final signal.

The technique has been used by the military since the 1940s because the signals are hard to jam or intercept as they are lost in the background noise. but it can introduce random noise to the audio thus creating the chance of data loss. the secret message is spread out by a constant called the chip rate and then modulated with a pseudorandom signal. They have the potential to perform better in some areas than LSB coding. Pune Page 13 . the audio file's frequency spectrum is altered so that it hops rapidly between frequencies. parity coding. Spread spectrum encoding techniques are the most secure means by which to send hidden messages in audio. It is then interleaved with the cover-signal. and phase coding techniques in that it offers a moderate data transmission rate while also maintaining a high level of robustness against removal techniques College of Engineering.4 SPREAD SPECTRUM Spread spectrum systems encode data as a binary sequence which sounds like noise but which can be recognised by a receiver with the correct key. Audio Steganography in conjunction with Spread Spectrum may provide added layers of security. In direct-sequence SS. Two versions of SS can be used in audio Steganography: the direct-sequence and frequencyhopping schemes. Spread spectrum techniques can be used for watermarking by matching the narrow bandwidth of the embedded data to the large bandwidth of the medium .Audio Steganography 2. Spread Spectrum Steganography has significant potential in secure communications – commercial and military. In frequency-hopping SS.

Audio Steganography The following procedural diagram illustrates the design: College of Engineering. Pune Page 14 .

On the other hand. Not only can information be encrypted. a large corporation wishing to protect its intellectual property from "digital pirates" may consider a more sophisticated method such as phase coding.  Users no longer have to rely on one method alone.0 Evaluation of Audio Steganography 3. it can be hidden altogether. embedding information into audio seems more secure due to less steganalysis techniques for attacking to audio.g.1 ADVANTAGES :  Audio based Steganography has the potential to conceal more information:      Audio files are generally larger than images Our hearing can be easily fooled Slight changes in amplitude can store vast amounts of information The flexibility of audio Steganography is makes it very potentially powerful : The methods discussed provide users with a large amount of choice and makes the technology more accessible to everyone. and noise audibility and then select the method that best fits their specifications. SS. or echo hiding.) cannot be implemented against audio Steganography schemes.  Another aspect of audio Steganography that makes it so attractive is its ability to combine with existing cryptography technologies. two individuals who just want to send the occasional secret message back and forth might use the LSB coding method that is easily implemented. geometrical distortions. Consequently. A party that wishes to communicate can rank the importance of factors such as data transmission rate.  For example. etc.  Many sources and types makes statistical analysis more difficult :  Greater amounts of information can be embedded without audible degradation  Security :  Many attacks that are malicious against image Steganography algorithms (e. Pune Page 15 .Audio Steganography 3. bandwidth. robustness. College of Engineering. spatial scaling.

 Robustness: Copyright marks hidden in audio samples using substitution could be easily manipulated or destroyed if a miscreant comes to know that information is hidden this way. due to dynamic supremacy of the HAS over human visual system. even when passing through insecure channels. P2P software.  Commercialized audio Steganography have disadvantages that the existence of hidden messages can be easily recognized visually and only certain sized data can be hidden.Audio Steganography  As emphasis placed on the areas of copyright protection. Pune Page 16 .  Compressing an audio file with lossy compression will result in loss of the hidden message as it will change the whole structure of a file. privacy protection. several lossy compression schemes use the limits of the human ear to their advantage by removing all frequencies that cannot be heard. 3.  Audio Steganography in particular addresses key issues brought about by the MP3 format. Also. College of Engineering. Steganography will continue to grow in importance as a protection mechanism. and the need for a secure broadcasting scheme that can maintain the secrecy of the transmitted information. and surveillance increases.2 DISADVANTAGES:  Embedding additional information into audio sequences is a more tedious task than that of images. This will also remove any frequencies that are used by a Steganography system which hides information in that part of the spectrum.

various Audio Steganography algorithms namely LSB Coding. In summary. feasibility of Audio Steganography was evaluated by considering it’s the pros and cons. if implemented correctly and in conjunction with cryptographic methods to secure the embedded data before insertion to a cover medium. Spread Spectrum and Echo Hiding. many of the data hiding methods described above could become powerful tools for the transmission of undetectable and secure communication. Pune Page 17 . Phase Coding. Section II described in detail. Section I gave an overview of Steganography and in particular the concept of Audio Steganography. College of Engineering.0 Conclusion : This report has looked in detail at the major techniques used for data hiding in audio files.Audio Steganography 5. At the end.

com/work/school/405/methods.Org] March 18th 2006 .infosecwriters.com/text_resources/pdf/Steganography_AMangarae.Aelphaeis Mangarae [Zone-H.comp. <http://www.pdf>  “Steganography : Reversible Data Hiding Methods for Digital Media “ – Andrew Tilley <http://www.html>  < http://www.ac. Pune Page 18 .leeds.snotmonkey.in/2009/07/13/steganography-how-to-hide-data-in-images-andaudio-files/>  “Steganography FAQ” .uk/fyproj/previous-titles/bsc2002.html> College of Engineering.Audio Steganography References: The literature in this report is taken from the following sources:  < http://technofriends.