6th Class Notes: Abhidharma 5 – The Path and the Nobles Ones KEY POINTS FOR TODAY: - The

Path and Cessation in the overall soteriological vision - The major components and basic structure of the Path - The distinctions between the Path of Seeing and the Path of Cultivation - Stages of Attainment, Sequence Variants, Retrogressibility CONTEXT: 1. The truth of suffering (duḥkhe-satya)

2. The truth of the cause of suffering (samudaye-satya) Defilement [5th class]

3. The truth of cessation (nirodha-satya)

4. The truth of the path (mārga-satya) Knowledge / insight [6th - 7th class]

World [4th class] Action [5th class] └───impure (sāsrava) dharmas───┘ - The above two diagrams can be expanded/combined as follows:

Cessation [6th class] Meditation [7th classes] └───pure (anāsrava) dharmas───┘

II. Conducive to penetration nirvedha-bhāgīya Dhyāna: Meditation and Jñāna: Knowledge [7th class] “Cultivation Gap” III.a) Path of Seeing (darśana-mārga) Saṃsāra III.b) Path of Cultivation [4th class] (bhāvanā-mārga) Nirvāṇa “No Gap” Nirodha: Cessation [6th class] I.b) Conducive to liberation mokṣa-bhāgīya I.a) Conducive to virtue puṇya-bhāgīya Śīla: Ethics [5th class]

Defilement [5th class] “Karma gap” Action [5th class]

- This class will focus on the realization of the 3rd Noble Truth of Cessation (nirodha) and offer a general overview of the path. “Cessation” in general refers to the cessation of suffering (duḥkha) but in the Abhidharma context, practitioners acquire (prāpti) cessations of the defilements – one cessation for each defilement. - For the Sarvāstivāda the path is a very long journey of gradual progress. The most rapid obtain deliverance in three existences which define three major phases or stages of practice. In the first, the seeds are planted (I. Preliminaries). In the second, the seeds are matured (II. Conducive to Penetration). In the third, liberation (nirvāṇa) is attained (III. The Path Proper). These three phases can be accomplished in one lifetime each, but can also take many kalpas to traverse. I. Preliminaries a) Practices conducive to virtue (puṇya-bhāgīya) and b) Practices conducive to liberation (mokṣa-bhāgīya) II. Conducive to Penetration (nirvedha-bhāgīya) III. The Path Proper (in which the practitioner actually acquires the cessations of the defilements) a) The Path of Seeing (darśana-mārga) and b) The Path of Cultivation (bhāvanā-mārga)

Śamatha (tranquility) a) The visualization of the loathsome counteracting greed. vipaśyanā or both. with this for its support. counteracting belief in permanence. Mokṣa-Bhāgīya (Conducive to Liberation) [necessarily preliminaries which definitively lead to liberation] i. and 6. it is the wisdom arisen from One who knows how to meditation.clothing. c) Mind (citta) – contemplated as impermanent (anitya). The early discourses preserve an extensive array of such practices which can be subsumed under puṇya-bhāgīya and mokṣa-bhāgīya below. 4 Noble Truths.b) Absorption – A certitude arisen from absorption Conducive to penetration (nirvedhabhāgīya) (II. counteracting belief in purity. modification.. it is contemplating the bones. for those who are distracted by desire. (Can include the contemplation of various teachings including the 5 skandhas. Purification: To be successful in meditation. parts. Corresponding Certitude arises Path from: Knowledge Conducive to A certitude which virtue arises from a (puṇyameans of correct bhāgīya) (I.The Abhidharmakosa states: “Whoever desires to see the Truths should first of all keep the Precepts. one must purify one's body and mind: a) Dissociation from unfavorable conditions. B. Good karma: Precepts/ethics (śīla) [e. 4. Thus the swim crosses the river wisdom arisen from without any support reflection does not whatsoever exist. fixing. observation. concentration/absorption (samādhi) and understanding/wisdom (prajñā). the 10 skillful courses of action (karma-patha)] and Giving (dāna) ii. Vipaśyanā (insight) .g. when it has name for its object.I. he gives himself up to the cultivation of meditation. for those who are distracted by thinking. wisdom arisen from reflection plays no role: in fact.In keeping with the early teachings. counting. counteracting belief in happiness. It has 6 aspects: 1. Puṇya-Bhāgīya (Conducive to Virtue or Merit) [necessary preliminaries. Having reflected.” This general course relates to 3 Kinds of Understanding: With understanding (prajñā) arisen from hearing (śruta-mayī) for its support. 5. d) Dharma (dharma) – contemplated as not-self (anātman). following. counteracting belief in self. Reinterpreted in Abhidharma context to refer to mindfulness of the dharmas. 3. PRELIMINARIES . (Can include: analyzing the body in terms of the 4 elements or parts. etc.) b) Feeling or Sensation (vedanā) – contemplated as suffering (duḥkhe). wisdom arisen from reflection (cintā-mayī) develops.) . and when it has a thing for its object. 2. Understanding from cultivation (bhāvanā-mayīprajñā) The thing [it grasp the thing directly without relying on the name] 3 Kinds of Understanding (prajñā): Objection: Rather. 3. Understanding means of the name.) But. c) Abiding in 4 “noble lineages”: contentment with 1. Meditative realization takes place in the context of a thorough commitment to an ethical life and other preliminaries. he correctly reflects. in this interpretation. (Note: these 6 aspects are actually various subsumed under śamatha. we would say. 2.) ii. Then he reads the teaching upon which his Seeing of the Truths depends.a) knowledge Conducive to Examination – A certitude born liberation of rational (mokṣa-bhāgīya) examination (I.food. swim a little sometimes from reflection and sometimes it holds on to it and (cintā-mayī-prajñā) grasps the name by sometimes lets go of it means of the thing] Object: 3. or he hears their meaning. the real existents. 7 factors of awakening. Purification. delighting in the path. wisdom arisen from cultivation (bhāvanā-mayī) develops. . Receiving the teachings: śruta-mayī-prajñā (wisdom through hearing (and reading)) iii. A.There are three basic forms of practice: i. and 4. This can be compared to three persons who are crossing a river: One who does not know 1. charnel ground meditations. Having heard. 5 hindrances. but they still tend to good rebirth] .The 4 foundations of mindfulness (smrty-upasthāna) consist of the contemplation of specific characteristics (svalakṣaṇa) and the common characteristics (sāmānya-lakṣaṇa) of the 4 foundations: a) Body (kāya) – contemplated as impure (aśubha). or progressive deterioration of the body/bodies. it is wisdom arisen from the teaching. mindfulness of postures and of breathing. bed & seat. relationships & thoughts b) Practicing contentment and having few desires. b) The mindfulness of breathing (anapana-smrti) counteracting overactive imagination. the Sarvāstivāda path of practice is an approach integrating the three trainings: precepts/ethics (śīla). Understanding how to swim does not Name from hearing the [it grasps the thing by abandon even for one teaching (śrutameans of the name] moment his swimming mayī-prajñā) apparatus Name & thing [it grasps the thing by One who knows how to 2.

The mokṣa-bhāgīyas are only produced by human beings in Kāmadhātu. or modes of comprehending activity. 8. calm. .Through the 4 nirvedha-bhāgīyas (conducive to penetration). . beings in the three painful realms of rebirth – hells. in this same order.. First one individually contemplates the specific characteristics of each foundation: body as impure. There are also accounts of practitioners in meditation states literally getting very hot. arising. Then he asks what is its cause. there are two stages in practicing the foundations of mindfulness: 1. the period of examination. . obtaining. cause. They represent a course of study from beginning to advanced.The nirvedha-bhāgīyas are not cultivated in Rūpadhātu and Ārūpyadhātu as the experience of suffering (duḥkha) is absent in those realms but a requisite condition for profound insight into the 1st Noble Truth of Suffering. being the first indication or the anticipation of the Noble Path. They lead to the Path of Seeing and are understanding arising from cultivation (bhāvanā-mayī-prajñā). . The puṇya-bhāgīyas pertain more to bodily and vocal karma whereas the mokṣa-bhāgīyas pertain more to mental karma. 3. 2 Noble Truth of Origin: rd nd 2.The Abhidharma interpretation: The 4 foundations of mindfulness are ordered in terms of increasing subtlety. 12. sensations as suffering. having reached the period of comprehension. extinction. excellent. definitive salvation. he creates an idea of the Truths. and he creates an idea of its origin. Warmth (uṣma-gata) .e. condition. empty and non-self. of that by which he is tormented. 4th Noble Truth of Path: 13. Additionally.” . suffering. and dharmas as not-self. ghosts and animals – cannot cultivate the nirvedha-bhāgīyas because receptivity and knowledge of the Noble Truths cannot be produced in those states of existence. because comprehension is projected by the preparatory exercises. However. Then he asks what is the Path to extinction. . 15. not-self.Further. II.Abhidharmakosa: “From this cultivation of the foundation of mindfulness having the dharmas as its object. and he creates an idea of the path.They are generally cultivated in states of meditation (the dhyānas as well as anāgamya. a fire which burns the fuel which are the defilements”. having seen a disease. mind as impermanent. some assert that the first two can be cultivated in non-concentrated states of mind. although deep. technically they do not specifically prepare one for spiritual attainment. This name of this stage also carries the connotation of “warming up” or “getting hot” as one is making definitive progress towards liberating insight. one searches out its origin. 1. the preparatory or neighborhood concentration leading to the first dhyāna. of that from which he seeks to be delivered. 16.The 16 aspects. . doubt is abandoned and the truths are clearly distinguished. appearance. 11.The stage of the Heats is prolonged and has the 16 aspects (ākāra – or modes of understanding) of the 4 Noble Truths (arya-satya) for its object (the 16 aspects will be explicated in more detail next class under the Knowledges): 1st Noble Truth of Suffering: 1.Heat(s). are the intrinsic characteristics (sva-lakṣaṇa) of the truths and the common characteristics (sāmānya-svalakṣaṇa) of the dharmas.. 6. truth. and its remedy…In the order in which. in the course of the period of examination. 5. Second. 3 Noble Truth of Extinction: 9. The first 3 nirvedha-bhāgīyas each serve as the samanantara-pratyaya (equal and immediate condition) for the succeeding nirvedha-bhāgīya. he understands the Truths. suffering. So too. because it is similar to heat (uṣma). 2. Why are they comprehended in this order? Because. . in the period preparatory to the Path proper. and he creates an idea of extinction. and dhyāna-antara.Regarding the order of the Noble Truths: “The Truths are mentioned in the order in which they are comprehended (abhisamaya). impermanent. one collectively contemplates all four foundations (“dharmas as universal object”. namely. 14. that is. 10. definitive release. there finally arises a root of good called Uṣma-gata („Heat attained‟). impermanent. the ascetic first creates an idea of that to which he is attached. 7.The mokṣa-bhāgīyas and the nirvedha-bhāgīyas below constitute the Path of Preparation (prayoga-mārga). empty. the same way that a horse gallops without obstacle over familiar terrain…” . NIRVEDHA-BHĀGĪYAS (CONDUCIVE TO PENETRATION) . its disappearance. Then he asks what does extinction consist of. The puṇya-bhāgīyas above can be referred to rather as the Path of Requisites (sambhara-mārga) – although they are necessary prerequisites. the intermediate concentration between the 1st and 2nd dhyānas). . is not direct realization – “it is like examining pictures through the veil of a silk-cloth. 4.Insight into the Noble Truths in this stage. i. the foundation of dharmas is expanded to encompass all 4 foundations) as suffering. path.

One can never be reborn in the painful realms of existence. “change in lineage”. then for gold. and then expensive jewels. . in order to travel. one is unshakable or non-retrogressing.Abhidharmakosa: “Like Heat. Finally. by their own power.The Path of Seeing consists of the first 15 moments of Direct Realization (abhisamaya). iii.At first moment of the Path of Seeing. like the warmth and summits. 4. Receptivities or Patience (kṣānti) . . in pairs of moments. for the first time. mokṣa-bhāgīyas and nirvedha-bhāgīyas represent the deepening cultivation of impure understanding (sāsrava-prajñā – the three types of understanding: from hearing.The Supreme Worldly Dharma(s) immediate follow the moment of strong receptivity (patience) and also only last one moment. and then in the higher spheres. They are followed immediately by the Path of Seeing (and serve as the equal-immediate condition (samanantara-pratyaya) for the darśana-mārga). one gives rise to. this is a brief stage. in the absence of any similar cause (sabhāgahetu).Abhidharmakosa: “They are termed Supreme Worldly Dharmas (laukika agradharmas): because they are worldly. Medium Patience starts when one ceases to contemplate the 16th aspect (definitive release) pertaining to the higher spheres. the Supreme Worldly Dharmas are superior. one can never cut off the roots of good (kuśala-mūla). . One is also highly receptive (kṣānti) to the truths which are now studied in terms of how they bear on: a) Kāmadhātu as well as: b) the higher spheres (Rūpadhātu and Ārūpyadhātu) [for a total of 8 truths and 32 modes of activity]. finally culminating in pure understanding (anāsrava-prajñā. medium and strong: i. one‟s contemplation becomes successively more restrictive to develop focus and be more effective in inducing outflow-free knowledge. outflow-free insight). one relinquishes the nature of an ordinary worldling (pṛthagjana) and becomes noble (arya) as one enters into the certainty of attaining nirvāṇa. THE PATH OF SEEING & THE PATH OF CULTIVATION a) The Path of Seeing (darśana-mārga) .Abhidharmakosa: “Patience (kṣānti) is so-called because in this stage. The 16th moment is the 1st moment of the Path of Cultivation. This is also known as gotrabhū. contemplates fully the 16 aspects of the 4 Truths. encountering obstacles. which is the definition of Abhidharma. Like a wealthy person who. . or. One gradually reduces the number of aspects and spheres until Medium Patience finally culminates by focusing on just two aspects: the impermanence and suffering aspects of the Truth of Suffering in Kāmadhātu. one first contemplates the truth in Kāmadhātu (a dharma-knowledge – a knowledge of dharmas). . . . the Path of Seeing is only realized in Kāmadhātu by humans or devas. those from which one can fall away…” That is. It is stated that having realized the Summits. the Warmths are inferior.Of the non-retrogressing nirvedha-bhāgīyas. Pinnacle (mūrdhan) . ii. the Receptivities are inferior.The Patiences have 3 stages: weak. In the cultivation of medium Patience. the Summits have the Four Truths for their object and include the sixteen aspects: they receive another name by reason of their excellence. III. Rūpadhātu and Aupryadhātu. outflow-free (anāsrava) knowledges: the Direct Realization of the 4 Noble Truths. . because they are the most elevated or the head of the unfixed roots of good.2. comparable to being on a peak – one either proceeds forward to the non-retrogressible Patiences. they manifest the Path of Seeing the Truths”. the Supreme Worldly Dharmas bear on the suffering of Kāmadhātu and are momentary.” In this stage. reflection and cultivation).The puṇya-bhāgīyas. until they could finally maintain their wealth and travel lightly.For each truth. . The contemplation of the truth in the higher spheres is called anvaya-jñāna which refers to knowledge (jñāna) that is anvaya: consecutive. Strong Patience is momentary – it is of one moment (kṣana). They are called Summits (or „Heads‟). . 3. Like the nirvedha-bhāgīyas.Immediately following Supreme Worldly Dharmas.Among the retrogressible nirvedha-bhāgīyas. the Truths please extremely much. one falls back (retrogresses). the Summits superior. that is. Summits. Supreme Worldly Dharmas (laukika agra-dharma) . exchanges their possessions for money.Like strong Patience. strong Patience has only one aspect [impermanence] pertaining to the Truth of Suffering of Kāmadhātu for its object. being impure…They are Supreme Worldly Dharmas because. The stage of weak Patience.

completely released from doubt. They are prajñā but not yet knowledge because they are not completely free of doubt. inferential. The truths are more easily observed in Kāmadhātu. Receptivity to the Dharma Knowledge of Origin (samudaye dharma-jñāna-kṣānti) 6. an unconditioned dharma) of the defilements. This is the certitude that the defilements will not re-arise. Dharma Knowledge of Origin (samudaye dharma-jñāna-kṣānti) 7. Receptivity to the Consecutive Knowledge of the Cessation of Suffering (duḥkha-nirodhe anvaya-jñāna-kṣānti) 12. Dharma Knowledge of Suffering (duḥkhe dharma-jñāna) 3. Consecutive Knowledge of Suffering (duḥkhe anvaya-jñāna) 5. . and so forms part of the bhāvanā-mārga. Receptivity to the Dharma Knowledge of the Path Counteracting Suffering (duḥkha-pratipakṣa-marge dharma-jñāna-kṣānti) 14. . Unhindered Path or Irresistible Path (ānantarya-mārga): The Patiences are “unhindered” or “irresistible” in that they cannot be hindered in their cutting off of the possession of the defilements.the prāpti-series is cut-off. Like the patiences. to the dharma knowledge. Path of Deliverance or Path of Liberation (vimukti-mārga): Abhidharmakosa: “The Knowledges arise among the persons who are thus delivered from the possession of the defilements at the same time as does possession of disconnection from the defilements (visaṃyoga)…” Here one comes to acquire (prāpti) the cessation through the deliberation (pratisaṃkhyā-nirodha.15 moments Bhāvanā-mārga (Path of Cultivation) Pertaining to: Unhindered Path ānantaryamārga Kāmadhātu Path of Deliverance vimuktimārga Unhindered Path Higher ānantaryamārga spheres Path of Deliverance vimuktimārga Unhindered Path Kāmadhātu ānantaryamārga Path of Deliverance vimuktimārga Unhindered Path Higher ānantaryamārga spheres Path of Deliverance vimuktimārga Unhindered Path Kāmadhātu ānantaryamārga Path of Deliverance vimuktimārga Unhindered Path Higher ānantaryamārga spheres Path of Deliverance vimuktimārga Unhindered Path Kāmadhātu ānantaryamārga Path of Deliverance vimuktimārga Unhindered Path Higher ānantaryamārga spheres Path of Deliverance vimuktimārga 1st Noble Truth 4th Noble Truth =1st fruit: Srota-āpana Pratipannaka = candidate for 2nd fruit 2nd fruit = Sakṛd-āgāmin Pratipannaka = candidate for 3rd fruit 3rd fruit = Anāgāmin Pratipannaka = candidate for 4th fruit = the last unhindered path 4th fruit = Arhat 16 Moments of Direct Realization (Abhisamaya) 3rd Noble Truth 2nd Noble Truth . Receptivity to the Dharma Knowledge of Suffering (duḥkhe dharma-jñāna-kṣānti) 2. they are prajñā in nature. Receptivity to the Dharma Knowledge of the Cessation of Suffering (duḥkha-nirodhe dharma-jñāna-kṣānti) 10.) In the process of abandoning the 1st-5th grades of the defilements Having abandoned the 6th grade of the defilements In the process of abandoning the 7th-8th grade of the defilements Having abandoned the 9th grade of the defilements of Kāmadhātu In the process of abandoning the 9th grade of defilements of the higher spheres Vajropama-samādhi abandoning the 9th grade of defilements of Bhavāgra Aśaikṣa-mārga: The Path Beyond training or of No More Learning Darśana-mārga: (Path of Seeing) . according to some.subsequent. Here the defilements to be abandoned through vision into the particular truth are abandoned . ii. Consecutive Knowledge of the Cessation of Suffering (duḥkha-nirodhe anvaya-jñāna) 13. the knowledge represents a higher degree of receptivity. Consecutive Knowledge of the Path Counteracting Suffering (duḥkha-pratipakṣa-marge anvaya-jñāna) (In the 16th moment there is nothing more to see which has not been seen. Distinct contemplations of the Truths in the higher spheres is also required because Kāmadhātu is non-concentrated whereas the two higher spheres are concentrated. and also because they lead invariably to the dharma-knowledge in the next moment. following or. Receptivity to the Consecutive Knowledge of Origin (samudaye nvaya-jñāna-kṣānti) 8.The Path of Seeing and the Path of Cultivation (and the 16 Moments of Direct Realization): 1. Consecutive Knowledge of Origin (samudaye nvaya-jñāna) 9. This moment meditates on the Truth as it has been seen. Receptivity to the Consecutive Knowledge of the Path Counteracting Suffering (duḥkha-pratipakṣa-marge anvaya-jñāna-kṣānti) 16. As the defilements have been abandoned by the patience. Receptivity to the Consecutive Knowledge of Suffering (duḥkhe anvaya-jñāna-kṣānti) 4. These are patiences.Each of these pairs of moments consists of two “paths” (they are paths in the sense that they need to be traversed) which are also a patience and a knowledge as follows: i. Dharma Knowledge of the Cessation of Suffering (duḥkha-nirodhe dharma-jñāna-kṣānti) 11. Dharma Knowledge of the Path Counteracting Suffering (duḥkha-pratipakṣa-marge dharma-jñāna-kṣānti) 15. or receptivities.

and this hypothesis contradicts the Sutra which says. or origin as origin. a single. The tradition includes various attempts to reconcile or integrate the two approaches (including the formulation of the Path of Seeing and Path of Cultivation above). some forms of Buddhism actually preferred privileging dependent-arising (pratītya-samutpāda) as the ultimate content of awakening. ii.Bhāvanā is sometimes translated as “meditation” but more literally it is cultivation or development of the mind. etc. as Buddhaghosa writes: “the four noble truths are fully realized in a single moment. The cessation. b) The Path of Cultivation (Bhāvanā-Mārga) . forceful and brief (16 moments. This is the view of the Theravada. In subsequent cultivation (bhāvanā) in which one in a sense repeats or deepens one‟s insight. his thesis is inadmissible. when he judges suffering as suffering. there is then for him discernment of the dharmas associated with these pure judgments. all-at-once or sudden comprehension which finally comprehends. „The Śrāvaka.‟” . the defilement which had afflicted the mind has been abandoned and knowledge can shine forth having the positive force of inducing the acquisition of the cessation of the defilement (such that it can no longer arise). Meditation does constitute the most important aspect of the process. the remaining defilements are gradually abandoned: attachment. . Hostility or hatred (pratigha) does not arise in a mind that is concentrated and further.. hostility. one sees all the Truths under the aspect of nonself. “unique” or “momentary” – that is. comprehending the Four Noble Truths one at a time. . and closing the door. the 16 aspects (ākāra) of the Noble Truths in one moment.” Still another approach held that there had to be 16 distinct moments of direct realization: one for each aspect (ākāra) or mode of understanding. . kṣanas). . under the aspects of suffering. or do the Noble Truths express and embody and preserve the true shape and unfolding of Buddha‟s awakening? . There are some indications that at times.In this stage. are absent in Rūpadhātu and Ārūpyadhātu. being unconditioned. he would say. delusion & conceit pertaining to Kāmadhātu. . these questions connect also to different approaches to cultivation: i. Emphasizing meditation and quietism (samādhi approach) correlate to an approach to liberation which is unitary and goes beyond all distinctions.These contrasting views of the nature of Direct Realization which basically represents the ultimate liberating insight of Buddhism. delusion & conceit pertaining to Rūpadhātu and Ārūpyadhātu (=10 total bhāvanā-heya defilements). then one would not see the Truths under the aspects of suffering. 3 or 4 truths? Do the Noble Truths represent an elaboration of a unitary realization beyond all limited conceptual formulations. the comprehension of the Truths is “single”. abrupt. The Nature of Awakening ..To some extent. also concerns how to interpret accounts of the Buddha‟s awakening. or extinction as extinction. If this were the case.As demonstrated above. Emphasizing insight and knowledge (prajñā approach) correlate to an approach to liberation that is manifold.” The abandoning requires a sufficient degree of insight (that is. the patiences are not repeated. the primary object of hatred. medium and strong – see . the patiences) into the true nature of things (through the 16 aspects of the 4 Noble Truths). But.Whereas complete knowledge (parijñā) predominates in the Path of Seeing. the Sarvāstivāda account of Direct Realization of the Four Noble Truths. or clears away all doubt with respect to.Abhidharmakosa responds: “If the partisan of a single. or path as path. consists of 16 mental states.The defilements abandoned are classified into 9 grades or categories of strength by distinguishing weak (mṛdu). Is it manifold and discursive. The acquisition of the cessation serves to deepen and maintain the abandonment. but the knowledges are repeated. . and attachment.Abhidharmakosa: “there is Patience and Knowledge. In the next moment. medium (madhya) and strong (adhimātra) each of which are again subdivided into weak. The Sarvāstivāda approach arises with its soteriology as a whole and specifically its account of how the defilements are abandoned. although rapid. These approaches at times seem to have been in tension. diligence (apramāda) predominates in the Path of Cultivation. .The Sarvāstivāda approach can be seen as an attempt to develop the content of liberating insight in order to form a plausible basis for awakening. 2. in the same way that there are two actions: expelling the thief. We will hopefully revisit this topic next week. disagreeable sensations. by reason of the variety of the aspects: one does not see origin. is not produced by the knowledge but the acquisition (prāpti) of the cessation is induced by the knowledge. or does it go beyond any distinction of 1.According to other schools. etc..The Path of Cultivation begins with the 16th moment of direct realization of the truths. unique comprehension intends to speak of comprehension which consists of the seeing of the Truths.

Sakṛd-āgāmin (once-returner): Having abandoned the 6th grade of defilements pertaining to Kāmadhātu through the Path of Cultivation. “A great darkness is dispelled by a small light.The counteracting paths which abandon these defilements likewise have 9 grades. one becomes a “once-returner”. 4 principle results or fruits are delineated: 1. stages and stations. 9 Grades of the Defilements 1. strong-weak 8. – 9. medium-weak – 3. strong-medium – 7. the strong-strong grade. Srota-āpana (stream-enterer): Attained at the 16th moment of Direct Realization.below). medium-medium – 6. medium-strong 3. the 9 grades of the bhāvanā-heya (abandoned through cultivation) defilements exist in 9 bhūmis (with the exception of hostility (pratigha) which only exists in Kāmadhātu): 1.There are then 81 total grades (9 grades x 9 spheres) of the defilements abandoned through the Path of Cultivation (except hostility which only pertains to Kāmadhātu). such that the 9 grades are cut off gradually through repeated practice.” The coarsest defilement is the easiest to uproot whereas the subtlest defilement is the most difficult. strong-medium 5. abandons the tenacious cognitive-emotional defilements (greed. Ārūpyadhātu: 4 spheres corresponding to the 4 ārūpya fundamental dhyānas / dhyāna-heavens . weak-strong – 8.Among the many possible results.Gradual In a gradual process (81 steps). 2. forceful path which cuts off all 9 grades of the defilements at once. weak-weak – 2. strong-weak – 4. medium-medium 6. a maximum of 28 births total (including rebirths in the higher spheres). the 9 grades of the defilements are gradually abandoned or thinned out. the weak-weak. weak-medium – 5. the strong-strong. and a small darkness is dispelled by a great light. pride & ignorance). one by one. partially abandons the cognitive-emotional defilements (greed. medium-strong – 9. – 5. The practitioner will return to human birth at most once more. one by one (the blunt knife cuts through gradually). anger. the 9 grades of the defilements are cut off all at once (the sharp knife cuts through all at once) The defilements pertaining to Rūpadhātu & Ārūpyadhātu are abandoned simultaneously by consecutive/inferential knowledge The unhindered path consists of a patience (kṣānti) Only cultivated in Kāmadhātu 1 type: Pure / Trans-worldly Path of Cultivation (bhāvanā-mārga) Lengthy – Can last many lifetimes . The coarsest defilement. . and so on…to: the most subtle defilement. weak-weak … are abandoned by 9 Grades of Counteracting Paths – 1. the unhindered paths in this context are knowledges. Rūpadhātu: 4 spheres corresponding to the 4 fundamental dhyānas / dhyāna-heavens 6. strong-strong . The Srota-āpana is a Saptakṛtparamaḥ (maximum of seven) meaning that there will be a maximum of seven rebirths in Kāmadhātu. just after the Path of Seeing. the bhāvanā-heya defilements are abandoned through an unhindered path and a path of deliverance.As in the Path of Seeing. Whereas the Path is Seeing is a strong. pride & ignorance) Complete knowledge (parijñā) predominates and is strong Being strong and forceful. acquires “certainty of perfection” (samyaktva-niyama). The practitioner at this point. destined to achieve nirvāṇa. is abandoned by the strongest counteragent. anger.Further. Pure / Trans-worldly (cultivated after Seeing) c) Four Results or Fruits (phala): . . medium-weak 9. the Path of Cultivation is not so forceful. however. Impure / Worldly (when cultivated prior to Seeing) ii. Diligence (apramāda) predominates and is strong Not being strong and forceful. and according to the Sarvāstivāda. . Rūpadhātu and Ārūpyadhātu 2 types: i. strong-strong 2. Kāmadhātu: 1 sphere 2. These defilements then have a total of 89 total grades or levels by adding the 8 grades or manifestations of the defilements abandoned through the Path of Seeing (there being an unhindered path and a path of deliverance for each of these 8 grades). not patiences. weak-strong 4. is abandoned by the weakest counteragent.Overview of distinctions between the Path of Seeing and the Path of Cultivation: Path of Seeing (darśana-mārga) Brief – 16 moments – Abrupt or Sudden Completely abandons the cognitive defilements (the five wrong views and doubt). The defilements pertaining to Rūpadhātu and Ārūpyadhātu are abandoned separately (their counteracting paths are distinct) The unhindered paths consist of a knowledge (jñāna) Can be cultivated in Kāmadhātu. the weak-weak. . weak-medium 7.

four foundations of Dharmas mindfulness (laukika agraAbhisamaya (Direct realization): dharmas) I. this is the “Trans-Worldly Path of Cultivation” . or a non-trainee (aśaikṣa). in the Path of Seeing Seeing. 3.” These 34 moments = 16 moments (Direct Realization) + 18 moments (one for each unhindered path and path of liberation for the 9 grades of defilements pertaining to Bhavāgra).reading) 2. eliminated the only remaining defilements pertaining to Bhavāgra. 4. and further. through dhyāna practice.3. Four NirvedhaIII. Impure when cultivated before the Path of Seeing. the highest sphere of Ārūpyadhātu. precepts & giving gata) 15 moments ii. Beyond Training (aśaikṣa) Candidate for Anāgāmin 2nd fruit: Sakṛd-āgāmin 1st fruit: Srota-āpana 1. Anāgāmin (non-returner): Having abandoned the 9th grade of defilements pertaining to Kāmadhātu. Pure when cultivated after the Path of Seeing. one is completely detached from Kāmadhātu and will not return. Path of seeing bhāgīyas (darśana-mārga) a) Puṇya-bhāgīya: 1. Arhat (worthy of respect): Abandoning the final weak-weak grade defilement pertaining to Bhavāgra. based on one‟s spiritual progress on the Worldly Path before the Path of Seeing. Path of Cultivation (bhāvanā-mārga) [pure] Candidate for Sakṛd-āgāmin V. . thus one is beyond training. Patiences or prematurely interrupted. visualization of the (kṣānti) One is carried by the current of loathsome 4. II. Summits The Path of Seeing proceeds iii. this is the “Worldly Path of Cultivation” ii. “The Buddha conquered bodhi in 34 moments.) become.The abandonment of the defilements through the Worldly Path is not definitive until one has entered the Path of Seeing. it cannot be held back b) Mokṣa-bhāgīya: 3. 2. Thus. Supreme the Dharma. purification (mūrdhan) swiftly. When the 9th grade is abandoned. by virtue of his mastery of the Worldly Path before his awakening (thorough cultivation of the dhyāna practices). v. The training is complete. he traversed the Path of Seeing and then in rapid succession. Although one does not abandon the same defilements a second Candidate for Arhat 3rd fruit: Anāgāmin 4th fruit: Arhat . teaching (hearing. but continues practice in higher d) the 3rd result (Anāgāmin) d) the 9th grade (up to Ākiṃcanya) – spheres) and in the 16th moment (after the Arhat = Worthy of Offerings (never again to be Path of Seeing). Worldly Path (laukika-mārga) Transworldly Path (lokuattara-mārga) (Impure Path of Cultivation (bhāvanā-mārga)) (Path of Seeing (darśana-mārga) & Pure Path of Cultivation (bhāvanā-mārga)) . Heats (uṣmai. Bhavāgra (the highest sphere of Ārūpyadhātu).-16 a) ●────────────■─■─■─■───□□□□-□□□□-□□□□-□□□──▲──●──▲──●──▲───●─────▲ b) ●──────╥─────■─■─■─■───□□□□-□□□□-□□□□-□□□──▲──●──▲──●──▲───●─────▲ c) ●──────║─╥───■─■─■─■───□□□□-□□□□-□□□□-□□□──────── ▲──●──▲───●─────▲ d) ●──────║─║─╥─■─■─■─■───□□□□-□□□□-□□□□-□□□ ────────────── ▲───●─────▲ ║ ║ ║ Srota-āpana = Stream enterer (at most 7 more Sequence variants: b) c) d) rebirths in Kāmadhātu. at most 7 … Those who. Until the Worldly Path has been sealed by that insight. have.The Path of Cultivation is of two types: i. one may skip over the fruits of Srota-āpana (variant c) below) and Sakṛd-āgāmin (variant d) below). 1-2-3-4---5-6-7-8---9-10-11-12--13-14-15. one last rebirth here) b) the 1st result (Srota-āpana) b) up to the 5th grade of defilements – th th c) the 2nd result (Sakṛd-āgāmin) Anāgāmin = Non-returner (does not return to c) the 6 – 8 grades – Kāmadhātu. mindfulness of breathing worldly vii. one can fall from the attainments of the Worldly Path and the defilements can re-arise (one can retrogress). 4. they become reborn) abiders in those results. before entering the Path of more rebirths in the higher spheres.The Sarvāstivāda hold that one can abandon defilements through the Worldly Path of Cultivation (bhāvanā) except those that pertain to the existence-peak. Sakṛd-āgāmin = Once returner (after one rebirth candidates for: abandoned: in the higher spheres. vi.Śākyamuni Buddha. one enters the Path Beyond Training or the Path of No More Learning (aśaikṣa-mārga). As he sat under the Bodhi tree. The unhindered path of the 9th grade of defilement pertaining to Bhavāgra is called the vajropama-samādhi (the concentration or absorption that is like a diamond) capable of abandoning all defilements whatsoever. It thus said. d) Sequence Variants and the Worldly Path (Laukika-mārga) . would be classed under the d) variant above. there arises the knowledge of the exhaustion of outflows (ksaya-jñāna). Preliminaries IV.

iii. views. f) Varieties of Practitioners . . with its destinies (gati). Unsatisfactory (duḥkhila) – despite great effort. that is. indulgence in conceptual proliferation. integrating numerous practices.To some extent. iv. Coarse (audārika) – lower spheres are restless and less calm 2. liberated through wisdom (prajñā-vimutka).The Worldly Path has correlating Unhindered Paths (called “Paths of Abandoning” in this context) and Paths of Deliverance or Liberation: Worldly Paths of Abandoning Relates to lower spheres as: 1.The most basic distinction concerns those who pursue cultivation primarily through faith in contrast to those who pursue cultivation primarily through the teachings. being constantly sick. attainments and variations can be viewed as a description of the world of liberation. obstruct and hinder living beings Worldly Paths of Delieverance Relates to higher spheres as: 1. Vasubandhu employs multiple arguments and scriptural citations to refute this stance. Calm (śānta) – in the higher spheres restlessness is weakened and more calm is realized 2.time. anāsrava) acquisitions (prāptis) of the cessations by means of the pure knowledges of Direct Realization. techniques and liberating realizations with an extensive analysis of the defilements and how they are abandoned. corresponds with the extensive analysis of the varieties of practitioners. In the Abhidharmakosa. One can also “fall” from their family to a “lower” family.One who has started as a Dharmanusārin is not retrogressible. etc. the receptacle world (bhājana -loka) of the world of suffering. being non-circumstantially (asamaya) liberated. numerous variations on how the path is actually travelled find expression. The Abhidharma texts also develop an exhaustive analysis of the variety of practitioners who may traverse this path. one abandons the defilements pertaining to a lower sphere in cultivating concentration in a higher sphere.. e) Retrogressibility of the Arhat . . one can change their family and eventually become a Dṛṣṭi-prāpta. this Path cannot abandon the defilements pertaining the Bhavāgra. Excellent (praṇīta) – the higher spheres are more pleasurable or sublime 3. ii. . too many undertakings. lower spheres are unable to produce true satisfaction 3. corresponding to the description of the physical universe. v.The Sarvāstivāda hold that an arhat who has started as a Śraddhānusārin is susceptible to retrogression as one is circumstantially (samaya) liberated (vimukta). insight: Faith-types Śraddhā-nusārin: Pursuer Through Faith Śraddhā-dimutka: Liberated through predominance of Faith Of weak faculties – need to rely on faith in the teachings Circumstantially delivered (samaya-vimukta) 5 hierarchically arranged families (see table below) Through purification and perfecting.In this way.The defilements pertaining to Bhavāgra are only abandoned through the Trans-Worldly Path as there is no way for the practitioner to go beyond (and thus be released from) Bhavāgra by the Worldly Path. the cessations acquired through the Worldly Path are reacquired as pure (outflow-free. Definitive liberation (niḥsaraṇa) – in higher spheres one is released from the confines of the lower spheres . the correlate description of the world of beings (sattva-loka). Like a thick wall (sthūlabhittika) – as lower spheres enclose. Insight-types Dharma-nusārin: Pursuer Through the Teachings Dṛṣṭi-prāpta: One who Attains through Views Of sharp faculties – can rely on their own comprehension Non-circumstantially delievered (Do not retrogress) 1 family Do not change families . Likewise. concluding: “immovable deliverance of the mind belongs to all the Arhats”. Bhavāgra is the culmination or upper limit of the Worldly Path. the process of nirvāṇa. Because one can only abandon the defilements through attaining a higher sphere. the process of saṃsāra. being fond of traveling afar. . . One can then retrogress because of: i. being fond of quarrel. the description of the path with its stages. In so doing. the highest or most refined sphere of concentration.The Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma thus articulates an elaborate vision of the path.

Those who in the Preliminaries and Nirbedha-Bhāgīyas are: In the Path of Seeing.) cultivated only intensive practices. without effort “The unshakable ones”: those not susceptible to retrogression. one achieves 6. & 2. & great compassion. at will.) 2.There are 7 Śrāvakas (“hearers”): 6 families of Arhats +1 by dividing the immovable ones into two: depending on whether one was originally immovable or became so through perfecting.. The Immovable (type 6. faculties [3] & types of Anāgāmin [5] there are 12.) Arhat who realizes nirodha-samāpatti 6.b). above) obtains nirvāṇa without effort obtains nirvāṇa by going higher Subtypes of 5.] Path Beyond Training Arhat .d) Buddha (awakened one) accumulation of merit (good karma). & 4. those who can fall away 1. and destined for 1 rebirth Delivered from the 9th category of Kāmadhātu and: obtains nirvāṇa in the intermediate existence obtains nirvāṇa at rebirth obtains nirvāṇa with effort (technically. on their own.960 types who go to Rūpadhātu. Upapadya-parinirvāṇayin 3. i. Parihāṇa-dharman Who can end their existences at will 2. To these 7.]. they are susceptible to retrogression. depend on certain conditions: health. Buddha. and the sixth (6. Ūrdhva-srotas Akaniṣṭhaga – 3 types [Akanistha is the highest of the Rūpa heavens]: 5. the fourth (4. two more types of beings are added: the Pratyekabuddha and the Buddha. proceed from Dṛṣṭiprāptas.” These 6 families also exist among beings prior to the Path of Seeing.e. Sthitākampya progress nor retrogression. those who cherish deliverance Capable of penetrating the state of the akopya-dharman arhat 5. become: In the Path of Cultivation become: Ascetics of weak faculties (rely on faith in the teachings) Śraddhā-nusārin (pursuer through faith) Śraddhā-dimutka (freed through faith) Ascetics of sharp (or strong) faculties (rely on study & comprehension on their own) Dharma-nusārin (pursuer through teachings) Dṛṣṭi-prāpta (attains through views) Srotaapanna Sakṛd-āgāmin In the Path of Cultivation Not having abandoned defilements Delivered from 3 or 4 categories.) 6 types or “families” (gotra) [the first 5 arise from Śraddhā-dimuktas (liberated through faith) & are “occasionally delivered” or “circumstantially liberated” (samaya-vimukta). mindfulness.c) Pratyekabuddha (a lone awakening in their final existence without a teacher. but with weak faculties. etc. 3 foundations of complete.]: Susceptible to retrogression. 4 fearlessnesses. Only Buddhas realize Buddha: 10 powers. gotras [6]. “These make 9 persons whose faculties are respectively weak-weak. Antarā-parinirvāṇayin 2. – 5. Sabhisaṃskāra. Anabhisaṃskāra-parinirvāṇayin 5.a) Akopya-dharman have immovable deliverance of mind.) cultivated these two practices with sharp faculties. one achieves awakening in [There are 18 dharmas unique to a their final existence and becomes a Buddha. Cetanā-dharman Who can preserve themselves by constantly guarding against the 3.” . detachment [9]. and a tremendous 6. a Buddha on their own) Through the great cultivation of knowledge. with neither 4.d) Bhavāgraga (highest Ārūpya) Ārūpyaga [6th Anāgāmin] [7th Anāgāmin] Kāya-sākṣin (Bodily Witness) [may be any type] Anāgāmin (by taking into consideration the different distinctions of place [16]. above (no intermediate existence in the Ārūpyas)) One attains nirvāṇa here (by further cultivation) The Anāgāmin who realizes nirodha-samāpatti (directly experiencing a peace similar to nirvāṇa through the basis of the body (as there is no activity of mind). are subtypes of 2. the third (3.c) Sarva-cyuta (One who Dies Everywhere) 5. “When they were Śaikṣas.) only cultivated continual practices. Anurakṣaṇā-dharman loss of what has been acquired Who remain stable in their stage of attainment.) cultivated these two practices. Prativedhanā-dharman which they can attain quickly. Similar calculations can be made for all the Saints. the first two (1. etc. destined for 2 or 3 rebirths Having abandoned the 6th category Having destroyed 7 or 8 categories. 3. who 6.a) Pluta (Jumper) 5. Urdhvasrotas by “combining one‟s Dhyāna” (obtaining nirvāṇa in Akanistha heaven): “Jumping” from Brahmakayikas to Akanistha Reborn in the Suddhavasas (4th Rūpa heavens) & then Akanistha Transmigrates through all heavens (except the Mahabrahmas) The Urdvasrotas who do not combine their dhyāna go to Bhavāgra Obtains nirvāṇa in Ārūpyadhātu (possible for Anāgāmins of types Saptakṛtparamaḥ (maximum of 7) Kulaṁkula (from family to family) Sakṛd-āgāmin (once-returner) Ekavīcika (separated by one) 5 types [6th & 7th also below]: 1. Ubhayobhaga-vimukta (doubly delivered) Two further members of the Immovable Arhats are: Through the great cultivation of knowledge.parinirvāṇayin 4.b) Ardha-pluta (Half-Jumper) 5. the fifth (5. perfect & unsurpassed awakening (anuttarā-saṃyaksaṃbodhi) in which all traces (vāsanā) of ignorance are removed. not “circumstantially (Immovable One) liberated” (asamaya-vimukta).) lacked continual cultivation and intensive cultivation.