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Farland

Fun
tions

Yuliang Zheng

S
hool of Network Computing

Monash University

M
Mahons Road, Frankston, VIC 3199, Australia

Email: yuliang.zhenginfote
h.monash.edu.au

Xian-Mo Zhang

S
hool of Information Te
hnology & Computer S
ien
e

University of Wollongong

Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia

Email: xianmo
s.uow.edu.au

Abstra
t

Maiorana-M
Farland fun
tions were originally introdu
ed in
ombinatori
s. These fun
tions are useful in
onstru
ting bent fun
tions,

although only in spe
ial
ases. An interesting problem is therefore

to investigate whether Maiorana-M
Farland fun
tions that are not

bent
an be used, indire
tly, to obtain bent fun
tions. This question

is given an armative answer in this paper. More spe
i
ally, we

show that the non-zero terms in the Fourier transform of a MaioranaM
Farland fun
tion that is asso
iated with an one-to-one mapping,

an be used to form the sequen
e of a bent fun
tion. This result

presents new insights into the usefulness and properties of MaioranaM
Farland fun
tions.

Key Words

Motivation

Let Vn be the ve
tor spa
e of n tuples of elements from GF (2). For positive

integers k and m, let Q be a mapping from Vk to Vm and r be a (Boolean)

fun
tion on Vk . Dene a fun
tion f (y; x) on Vm+k as

f (y; x) = Q(y)xT

r(y)

fun tion. Maiorana-M Farland fun tions play an important role in the

design of ryptographi fun tions that satisfy ryptographi ally desirable

properties su h as high nonlinearity, propagation hara teristi s and orrelation immunity[1, 2, 7, 8.

It is known that when k = m and Q is a permutation on Vk , f is a

bent fun tion on V2k [3, 4. This provides us with a powerful method for

k

onstru ting as many as (2k !)22 dierent bent fun tions on V2k . If we use

nonsingular linear transformations on the variables, we will obtain even

more bent fun tions from this kind of bent fun tions. Of ourse, there exist

bent fun tions that are not equivalent to Maiorana-M Farland fun tions by

any nonsingular linear transformation on the variables [5.

We know that when k < m, a Maiorana-M Farland fun tion is not a

bent fun tion. This observation motivates us to ask a question, namely,

given a Maiorana-M Farland fun tion that is not bent in its own right,

an it still be used to obtain a bent fun tion after a simple transformation

? In this work, we provide an armative answer for the ase of k m.

More spe i ally, we show that if k m and Q is an one-to-one mapping,

then the non-zero terms in the Fourier transform of a Maiorana-M Farland

fun tion f (y; x) = Q(y)xT r(y), when on atenated together, form the

sequen e of a bent fun tion on V2k .

2

(f (0 ); f (1 ); : : : ; f (2n 1 ));

and the sequen e of f is a (1; 1)-sequen e dened by

(( 1)f (0 ) ; ( 1)f (1 ) ; : : : ; ( 1)f (2n

1)

);

matrix of f is a (1; 1)-matrix of order 2n dened by

M = (( 1)f (i j ) )

2

Given two sequen es a~ = (a1 ; ; am ) and ~b = (b1 ; ; bm ), we dene the

omponent-wise produ t of the two sequen es by a~ ~b = (a1 b1 ; ; am bm ).

In parti ular, if m = 2n and a~, ~b are the sequen es of fun tions f and g on

Vn respe tively, then a~ ~b is the sequen e of f g, where denotes the

addition in GF (2).

Let a~ = (a1 ; ; am ) and ~b = (b1 ; ; bm ) be two sequen es or ve tors,

the s alar produ t of a~ and ~b, denoted by ha~; ~bi, is dened as the sum of

omponent-wise multipli ations. In parti ular, when a~ and ~b are from Vm ,

ha~; ~bi = a1 b1 am bm, where the addition and multipli ation

are over

P

GF (2), and when a~ and ~b are (1; 1)-sequen es, ha~; ~bi = m

a

b

, where

i

i

i=1

the addition and multipli ation are over the reals.

An ane fun tion f on Vn is a fun tion that takes the form of

f (x1 ; : : : ; xn ) = a1 x1 an xn , where aj ; 2 GF (2), j = 1; 2; : : : ; n.

Furthermore f is alled a linear fun tion if = 0.

A (1; 1)-matrix A of order n is alled a Hadamard matrix if AAT =

nIn , where AT is the transpose of A and In is the identity matrix of order

n. A Sylvester-Hadamard matrix of order 2n, denoted by Hn , is generated

by the following re ursive relation

H

H

n

1

n

1

H0 = 1; Hn = H

Hn 1 ; n = 1; 2; : : : :

n 1

Let `i , 0 i 2n 1, be the i row of Hn . It is known that `i

is the sequen e of a linear fun tion 'i (x) dened by the s alar produ t

'i (x) = hi ; xi, where i is the ith ve tor in Vn a ording to the as ending

alphabeti al order.

The Hamming weight of a (0; 1)-sequen e , denoted by HW ( ), is the

number of ones in the sequen e. Given two fun tions f and g on Vn , the

Hamming distan e d(f; g) between them is dened as the Hamming weight

of the truth table of f (x) g(x), where x = (x1 ; : : : ; xn ).

Let f be a fun tion on Vn and denote the sequen e of f . Then we all

a sequen e dened by

1

2 2 n Hn

the Fourier

transform of the fun tion f . Note that

generally

ea h oordinate

1

1

2 n to 2 2 n . An interesting fa t

take

a

value

ranging

from

2

of 2 21 n Hn an

1

is that if 2 2 n Hn is a (1; 1)-sequen e, then f must be a bent fun tion

[6.

A bent fun tion on Vn exists only for n even. The algebrai degree

of bent fun tions on Vn is at most 21 n [6. From the same paper, it is

known that f is a bent fun tion on Vn if and only if the matrix of f is

an Hadamard matrix. Although the on ept of bent fun tions was initially

introdu ed in ombinatori s, they have sin e found numerous appli ations

in logi synthesis, digital ommuni ations and ryptography.

3

f (z ) = f (y; x) = Q(y)xT

r(y)

(1)

and z = (y; x).

Let 0 ; 1 ; : : : ; 2k 1 be an arbitrary (1; 1)-sequen e of length 2k and

fj0 ; j1 ; : : : ; j2k 1 g be an arbitrary subset of f0; 1; : : : ; 2m 1g, where j0 , j1 ,

: : :, j2k 1 are not ne essarily mutually distin t. Let `i denote the ith row

of Hm , 0 i 2m 1. Set

(2)

Given a Maiorana-M Farland fun tion f dened in (1), let 0 ; 1 , : : : ,

2k 1 be the sequen e of r whi h is involved in the onstru tion of f . Furthermore let j0 be the integer representation of Q(0 ), j1 the integer representation of Q(1 ), : : :, and j2k 1 the integer representation of Q(2k 1 ).

Then (2) is the sequen e of the fun tion f in (1).

Conversely, assume that we are given fj0 ; j1 ; : : : ; j2k 1 g f0; 1; : : : ; 2m

1g, where j0 ; j1 ; : : : ; j2k 1 are not ne essarily mutually distin t, and a

(1; 1)-sequen e, 0 ; 1 ; : : : ; 2k 1 . Let r be the fun tion whose sequen e

is 0 ; 1 ; : : : ; 2k 1 , and similarly let Q be the mapping from Vk to Vm su h

that Q(0 ) is the binary representation of j0 , Q(1 ) is the binary representation of j1 , : : :, and Q(2k 1 ) is the binary representation of j2k 1 . Then

(1) must be a fun tion whose sequen e is (2).

The above observations indi ate that the sequen e of ea h fun tion on

Vm+k , dened in (1), an be expressed in (2), and onversely, ea h sequen e

in (2) an be expressed in (1).

4

Fun tions

Maiorana-M
Farland fun
tions play an important role in the
onstru
tion

of bent fun
tions, as well as in the design of
ryptographi
fun
tions that

satisfy
ryptographi
ally desirable properties. We are parti
ularly interested in the
ase when m = k and Q is a permutation on Vk . For the

sake of
onvenien
e, we use P to denote the permutation on Vk . Then the

Maiorana-M
Farland fun
tion introdu
ed in (1)
an be spe
ialized as

f (z ) = f (y; x) = P (y)xT

4

r(y)

(3)

In [3, 4, Dillon proves that the fun tion f in (3) is a bent fun tion on

V2k .

Inter hanging x and y in (3) also gives a bent fun tion. Namely,

r(x)

(4)

In a sense, (3) and (4) omplement ea h other. A question that arises

naturally is how fun tions dened in (3) relate to those dened (4).

Notation 1 Let

2k denote the set of bent fun
tions on V2k expressed in

(3), and similarly let 2k denote the set of bent fun
tions on V2k expressed

in (4).

Then one
an verify that f 2

2k \ 2k if and only if f (y; x) = xyT ,

where x; y 2 V2k . Hen
e we have #(

2k \ 2k ) = 1. In addition, we

k

have #

2k = # 2k = (2k !)22 . Thus (3) and (4) allow us to
onstru
t

exponentially many bent fun
tions all of whi
h, ex
ept f (y; x) = xyT , are

distin
t.

We note that by the use of nonsingular linear transformations on the

variables, a further greater number of bent fun
tions
an be obtained from

those in

2k and 2k . Nevertheless, it is important to point out that there

exist bent fun
tions that are neither in

2k or 2k , nor
an they be obtained

by applying a nonsingular linear transformation on the variables of bent

fun
tions in

2k or 2k (see [5).

To prove the main result in this paper, we examine in more detail the

sequen
e of f in (4).

if there ex

1

if

i = (j )

k

ists a permutation on f0; 1; : : : ; 2 1g su h that bij = 0 otherwise.

Let C = diag( 0 ; 1 2k 1 ) be a 2k 2k diagonal matrix where ea h

j = 1. Denote the entry on the ross of the ith row and the j th olumn

of Hk by hij , i; j = 0; 1; : : : ; 2k 1. Let hi denote the ith row of Hk , i.e.,

hi = (hi0 ; hi1 ; : : : ; hi2k 1 ). Set N = Hk BC . Denote the entry on the ross

of the ith row and the j th olumn of N by nij , i; j = 0; 1; : : : ; 2k 1. Let i

denote the ith row of N , i.e., i = (ni0 ; ni1 ; : : : ; ni2k 1 ), i = 0; 1; : : : ; 2k 1.

Hen e we have

1)

(5)

Set

= (0 ; 1 ; ; 2k 1 );

5

(6)

Let 2k denote the set of all the fun tions on V2k , whose sequen es take

0

the form expressed in (6). We now prove that 2k = 2k .

Consider whi h is dened in (6). Re all that Hk is symmetri and

the ith row (the ith olumn) is the sequen e of a linear fun tion on Vk ,

denoted by '(x) = hi ; xi, where i is the binary representation of an

integer i, 0 i 2k 1. Hen e we have hij = ( 1)hj ;i i . From ,

a permutation on f0; 1; : : : ; 2k 1g, we dene P , a new permutation on

Vk , as follows: P (j ) = (j) , where j is the binary representation of an

integer j , j = 0; 1; : : : ; 2k 1. Furthermore, from 0 ; 1 ; : : : ; 2k 1 , we dene

a fun tion r on Vk su h that 0 ; 1 ; : : : ; 2k 1 is the sequen e of r. Hen e

for any j; i 2 f0; 1; : : : ; 2k 1g, we have f (j ; i ) = P (j )Ti r(j ) =

(j) Ti r(j ) = h(j) ; i i r(j ). This proves that

( 1)f (j ;i ) = ( 1)h(j) ;i ir(j ) = j hi(j)

(7)

Hen
e we have 2k 2k .

0

k

Finally, it is easy to verify that # 2k = # 2k = 2k ! 22 . This property,

0

0

together with the fa
t that 2k 2k , shows that 2k = 2k is indeed true.

Thus we have proved the following result:

and any 2k 2k diagonal matrix C with diagonal entries 1, set N =

Hk BC . Denote the ith row of N by i , i = 0; 1; : : : ; 2k 1. Then (0 , 1 ,

: : :, 2k 1 ) is the sequen e of a bent fun tion on V2k .

This lemma will be used in the next se tion in proving Theorem 1, our

main result in this paper.

5

Maiorana-M Farland Fun tions

Vm that satises the ondition of F () 6= F (0 ) for 6= 0 (i.e., F is an

one-to-one mapping). Also let r be a fun tion on Vk . Set

f (z ) = f (y; x) = F (y)xT

r(y)

Dis ussions in Se tion 3 indi ate that the sequen e of f an be expressed

as

= ( 0 `j0 ; 1 `j1 ; : : : ; 2k 1 `j2k 1 )

6

1g and ea h `i denotes the ith row of Hm , 0 i 2m 1. Sin e F is an

one-to-one mapping, j0 ; j1 ; : : : ; j2k 1 are mutually distin t.

Let Lj denote the j th row of Hm+k , 0 j 2m+k 1, and es the sth

row of Hk , 0 s 2k 1. Sin e Hm+k = Hk Hm , where denotes the

Krone ker produ t [9, we have

2

Li+2m

..

.

Hk `i = 6

6

4

Li

Li+2m (2k

7

7

7

5

1)

for ea
h xed i, 0 i 2m 1.

As in Se
tion 3, we denote by hij the entry on the
ross of the ith row

and the j th
olumn of Hk , where i; j = 0; 1; : : : ; 2k 1, and denote by hi

the ith row of Hk , i.e., hi = (hi0 ; hi1 ; : : : ; hi2k 1 ). Then we have

(hs Hk ) `i =

2k

X1

u=0

hsu Li+u2m

(8)

sth, are zero. We further have

2 k (hs Hk ) `i = (0; : : : ; 0; `i; 0; : : : ; 0)

(9)

where ea
h 0 denotes the all-zero sequen
e of length 2m and the sth sequen
e of length 2m is `i . Comparing (9) and (8), we
on
lude

(0; : : : ; 0; `i; 0; : : : ; 0) = 2

2k

X1

u=0

hsu Li+u2m

and hen e

k 1

k 1

2X

2X

= 2 k (
0

h0u Lj0 +u2m ;
1

h1u Lj1 +u2m ; : : :

u=0

: : : ; 2k

2k

u=0

u=0

h2k 1u Lj2k

m

1+ 2

(10)

8

0

if i 6= j0 + u2m; j1 + u2m; : : : ; j2k 1 + u2m,

>

>

<

u = 0; 1; : : : ; 2k 1

(11)

h; Li i = > 2m s hsu where

if

i

=

j

s + u2m for some s and u,

>

:

0 s; u 2k 1

Let t0 ; t1 ; : : : ; t2k 1 be a rearrangement of j0 ; j1 ; : : : ; j2k 1 su h that

t0 < t1 < < t2k 1 and be the permutation on fj0 ; j1 ; : : : ; j2k 1 g su h

that

(j0 ) = t0 ; (j1 ) = t1 ; : : : ; (j2k 1 ) = t2k 1 :

Note that tj +v2m < ti +u2m if v u and j < i, where 0 u; v; i; j 2k 1.

Next we rearrange 0 ; 1 ; : : : ; 2k 1 in su h a way that s is pla ed before

s0 if and only if js < js0 . We write the rearranged sequen e as

b0 ; b1; : : : ; b2k 1 :

Now we an use (11) to list all the non-zero terms in 2 mHm+k , from the

left to the right, as follows

b0 ht0 0 ; b1 ht1 0 ; : : : ; b2k 1 ht2k 1 0 ;

b0 ht0 1 ; b1 ht1 1 ; : : : ; b2k 1 ht2k 1 1 ;

:::;

b0 ht0 2k 1 ; b1 ht1 2k 1 ; : : : ; b2k 1 ht2k 1 2k 1

(12)

Another way to look at the non-zero terms in 2 mHm+k , from the left to

the right, is as follows:

b0 h (j0 )0 ; b1 h (j1 )0 ; : : : ; b2k 1 h (j2k 1 )0 ;

b0 h (j0 )1 ; b1 h (j1 )1 ; : : : ; b2k 1 h (j2k 1 )1 ;

:::;

b0 h (j0 )2k 1 ; b1 h (j1 )2k 1 ; : : : ; b2k 1 h (j2k 1 )2k 1

(13)

(0) = j0 ; (1) = j1 ; : : : ; (2k 1) = j2k 1 :

Sin e Hk is symmetri , (13) an be rewritten as

b0 h0(0) ; b1h0(1) ; : : : ; b2k 1 h0(2k 1) ;

b0 h1(0) ; b1h1(1) ; : : : ; b2k 1 h1(2k 1) ;

:::;

b0 h2k 1(0) ; b1 h2k 1(1) ; : : : ; b2k 1 h2k 1(2k 1)

(14)

Noting (5) and (6), together with Lemma 1, we have proved that (14) is

the sequen e of a bent fun tion on V2k . Thus the following theorem holds.

8

and r be a fun tion on Vk . Dene a fun tion on Vk+m :

f (z ) = f (y; x) = F (y)xT

r(y)

the sequen e obtained by on atenating the non-zero terms in 2 m Hm+k ,

from the left to the right, is the sequen e of a bent fun tion on V2k .

As a onsequen e, we have

1, takes the form of (6), and also the form of (4).

It should be noted that Theorem 1 does not ontradi t the well-known

fa t that a fun tion is bent if and only if its Fourier transform is bent [6.

This is simply be ause the sequen e 2 m Hk+m in Theorem 1 is a (1; 1; 0)sequen e, but not a (1; 1)-sequen e. In addition, we also note that the

1

Fourier transform of f on Vk+m , dened1 in Theorem 1, is 2 2 (k+m) Hk+m ,

but not 2 m Hk+m . However, as 2 2 (1k+m) Hk+m an be obtained by

multiplying 2 mHk+m by a fa tor of 2 2 (m k) , we an think of the bent

fun tion dened in Theorem 1 as one that is \hidden" in (the non-zero

terms of) the Fourier transform of f .

6

Con lusions

resultant Maiorana-M Farland fun tion is bent; and in ontrast, when k <

m the Maiorana-M Farland fun tion is not bent. Results in this paper show

that the Fourier transform of a Maiorana-M Farland fun tion ontains a

\hidden" bent fun tion, provided that when k m and Q is an one-to-one

mapping. We hope that this new property will ontribute to the further

understanding of Maiorana-M Farland fun tions and its appli ations both

in ombinatori s and engineering elds.

7

A knowledgement

23 1002).

Referen es

[1 P. Camion, C. Carlet, P. Charpin, and N. Sendrier. On
orrelationimmune fun
tions. In Advan
es in Cryptology - CRYPTO'91, volume

576 of Le
ture Notes in Computer S
ien
e, pages 87{100. SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1991.

[2 C. Carlet and P. Codes. More
orrelation-immune and resilient fun
tions over Galois elds and Galois ring. In Advan
es in Cryptology EUROCRYPT'98, volume 1233 of Le
ture Notes in Computer S
ien
e,

pages 422{433. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1997.

[3 J. F. Dillon. A survey of bent fun
tions. The NSA Te
hni
al Journal,

pages 191{215, 1972. (un
lassied).

[4 J. F. Dillon. Elementary Hadamard Dieren
e Sets. Ph.D. dissertation,

University of Maryland, 1974.

[5 J. F. Dillon. Elementary Hadamard dieren
e sets. In Pro
eeding of the

Sixth Southeastern Conferen
e on Combinatori
s, Graph Theory, and

Computing, pages 237{249, 1975.

[6 O. S. Rothaus. On \bent" fun
tions. Journal of Combinatorial Theory,

Ser. A, 20:300{305, 1976.

[7 J. Seberry, X. M. Zhang, and Y. Zheng. On
onstru
tions and nonlinearity of
orrelation immune fun
tions. In Advan
es in Cryptology EUROCRYPT'93, volume 765 of Le
ture Notes in Computer S
ien
e,

pages 181{199. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1994.

[8 J. Seberry, X. M. Zhang, and Y. Zheng. Nonlinearity and propagation

hara
teristi
s of balan
ed boolean fun
tions. Information and Computation, 119(1):1{13, 1995.

[9 R. Yarlagadda and J. E. Hershey. Analysis and synthesis of bent sequen
es. IEE Pro
eedings (Part E), 136:112{123, 1989.

10

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