Research Facts You Should Know About Pregnancy and Infant Health and Safety

BY OLIVERINK PUBLISHING

Wanting the Best for Baby & You

Your Guide to

OliverINK

Copyright © 2012 by OliverINK All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, and printing or by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the publisher. Published by OliverINK Email:oliverinkinc@gmail.com Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Your Guide to Wanting the Best for Baby & You [electronic resource] / OliverINK Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-9784753-0-7 1. Infants--Health and hygiene. 2. Infants--Care. 3. Infants’ supplies. 4. Mothers. I. Title. II. Title: Wanting the best for baby & you. RJ61.O45 2007 649’.122 First Printing January 2008 Second Printing January 2012 Third Printing September 2012 Warning and Disclaimer This book is solely for informational purposes and is not medical advice. Please consult your physician on all medical matters. The author and the publisher shall have neither the liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to loss or damages caused, directly or indirectly, by the information contained within this book. C2007-906127-3

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Table of Contents
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pregnancy Health - What’s Best ................................................ 6

The Nursery - What’s Best ........................................................ 11 Baby Gear - What’s Best ........................................................... 15 Baby Safety - What’s Best ......................................................... 20 Baby Clothes - What’s Best ....................................................... 22 Baby’s Health - What’s Best ...................................................... 25 Baby’s Health - What’s NOT Best .............................................. 34 Organic - What’s Best................................................................ 40 Brainy Baby - What’s Best ........................................................ 44

10 Pregnancy Weight - What’s Best ............................................... 50 Citations ..................................................................................53

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Introduction

This e-book is all about the facts — published scientific research and

government reports regarding pregnancy and infants. Delivered in a concise, bullet point format this e-book is a great reference for anyone planning to get pregnant. All research is referenced to its original source. This e-book will get you quickly up-to-date on the latest information and help you to make more informed decisions with your doctor. This book is designed to provide an overview of pertinent topics in regards to the subject matter covered based on current research. Some of the research quoted in this book is ongoing, meaning that the results require further testing. As such, this book is not intended to, and should never substitute for the advice of your pediatrician or other physician, who should be consulted on all pregnancy, infant and toddler matters. Enjoy!

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Pregnancy Health - What’s Best
Folic Acid/Prenatal Vitamins
REDUCES RISK OF CHILDHOOD CANCERS: In 2007, researchers at Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children reported that taking prenatal vitamins fortified with folic acid has been proven to reduce the risk of three common childhood cancers 1. The research states that prenatal vitamins are associated with a 47 percent decrease in the occurrence of neuroblastoma — a cancer of specialized nerve cells which is the most common type of cancer in infants — a 39 percent decrease in childhood leukemia, and a 27 percent decrease in brain tumors. REDUCES RISK OF CLEFT LIP: In 2007, researchers at the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) found that 400 mcgs a day of folic acid reduces a baby’s risk of developing an isolated cleft lip (with or without cleft palate) by one-third 2. A cleft lip is a birth defect that occurs between weeks six and twelve of pregnancy when parts of the lips and roof of the mouth (palate) don’t grow together. Because the lips and the palate develop separately, it’s possible to have either a cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. REDUCES RISK OF COLORECTAL CANCER: In 2011, researchers at the American Cancer Society discovered that taking folic acid during pregnancy may significantly protect against the development of colorectal cancer in the infant 3. The research states that giving folic acid during

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pregnancy and lactation appears to reduce DNA damage and suppresses the proliferation of cells in the colon, thus offering protection against colon cancer. The report was based on experiments where folic acid supplements were given to pregnant and breast-feeding rats reduced the rate of colon cancer in their offspring by 64 per cent. REDUCES RISK OF AUTISM: In 2011, researchers at the UC Davis MIND Institute found that women who consume the recommended daily dosage of folic acid during the first month of pregnancy may have a reduced risk of having an autistic child 4. The researchers’ earlier had found that women who take prenatal vitamins around the time of conception also have a reduced risk of having a child with autism. It is believed that folic acid might offer protection against problems in embryonic brain development by facilitating DNA methylation reactions that can lead to changes in the way that the genetic code is read. TOO MUCH FOLIC ACID POSES A CANCER RISK: In 2011, researchers at the University of Toronto found that not all prenatal multivitamins are the same, including the amount of folic acid they contain, and overdoing it on folic acid isn’t a good thing either. Their research found that rats given folic acid supplements before conception, during pregnancy and while breast-feeding, produced female offspring with breast cancer rates that were twice as high as the group that did not take the supplements 5. Though it is a study of rats and not people, the researchers still suggest women of childbearing age should not ingest too high a level of folic acid and just the recommended amount. GREEN TEA REDUCES EFFECT OF FOLIC ACID: In 2005, Spanish researchers found that pregnant women should avoid green tea, as there is an enzyme in it that is also involved in folic acid absorption6. If the enzyme is inactivated it could reduce the protection given by folic acid over the healthy development of the fetus because it is absorbing the folic acid meant for the baby.

Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)
DHA FOR INTELLIGENCE: In 2003, researchers at the University of Oslo conducted a study where pregnant women were randomly chosen to receive two teaspoons per day of either cod liver oil, which is high in DHA) or corn oil, beginning in their eighteenth week of pregnancy and

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continuing until three months after delivery 7. When the children of these mothers reached the age of four, they were given a IQ test. The children whose mothers had taken the cod liver oil scored significantly higher on the test than those whose mothers had taken the corn oil. CAUTION! Now it should be noted that the study is not recommending that pregnant women take two teaspoons of cod-liver oil per day as it is very high in vitamin A and excessive amounts of vitamin A poses an increased risk of birth defects in the fetus. Instead women should find natural sources of DHA such as fish (see below), nuts, kidney beans, avocados, eggs and organ meats such as liver and kidney.

Methylmercury
WATCH FISH CONSUMPTION: In 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised that pregnant women can safely eat 12 ounces per week of cooked fish and seafood (not raw or smoked) such as shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish — all good sources of DHA 8. However, certain types of fish can be high in mercury content, particularly methylmercury which can harm a baby’s developing nervous system. The fish to avoid eating during pregnancy and while nursing, include shark, swordfish, king mackerel and tile fish. Other experts add all fresh or frozen tuna, striped bass, bluefish, Chilean sea bass, golden snapper, marlin, orange roughy, amberjack, Crevalle jack, Spanish mackerel from the Gulf of Mexico, and walleye from the Great Lakes. It is also necessary to be careful of methylmercury before even getting pregnant. If you regularly eat the high risk types of fish mentioned, methylmercury can build up in your blood stream over time and pass from your blood to the fetus. It gradually exits the body naturally, but it may take over a year to drop to a safe level.

Choline
CHOLINE FOR BRAIN DEVELOPMENT: In 2004, researchers at Duke University discovered that choline improved learning and memory in animals, as well as in their babies when they received prenatal choline supplements 9. They believe that choline super charges the brain cells, making them larger and faster at sending off electrical signals. A diet that includes beef, fish, dairy and eggs should provide you with enough choline.

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Listeriosis
PROBIOTICS CAN PREVENT INFECTIONS: In 2011, scientists from University College Cork did a study that showed that probiotics may protect against listeriosis, a deadly infection caused by food borne pathogens, which pregnant women are at a high risk of getting 10. It is very serious as one in five people who contract listeriosis actually die from it. It can also lead to fetal death, premature delivery, miscarriage, stillbirth or severe illness of the newborn. Speak to your doctor, but drinking a yogurt drink with probiotics once a day may help prevent contracting this serious infection.

Vitamin A
VITAMIN A AND BIRTH DEFECTS: In 1995, researchers from the Massachusetts Medical Society found that women who take large doses of vitamin A around the time of conception or early in their pregnancy run a higher risk of having a child born with birth defects 11. They found that women taking more than 10,000 IU of vitamin A daily, either in food or supplements, were three times more likely to have a baby born with deformities of the head, heart and brain. Surprisingly, such amounts of vitamin A are found in some prenatal multivitamins. Over the past few years, many vitamin companies have switched from vitamin A to betacarotene, which is reportedly safe and does not cause birth defects, so consult your doctor. Skin creams containing retinol and Retin-A — which are topical forms of vitamin A — should also be avoided the months prior to conception and during pregnancy. Vitamin A can also pop up in stretch mark creams so be sure to check the ingredient list if using while pregnant.

Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
RISK OF MISCARRIAGE: In 2011, researchers from a variety of Quebec universities found that women who take non-aspirin, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in early pregnancy — such as naproxen (Aleve), ibuprofren, diclofenac, and celecoxib (Celebrex) — have a 2.4 times greater risk of miscarriage12. The research was conducted on over 47,000 women who had miscarried. As a result they recommend nonaspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs be used with caution

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during pregnancy. Many over the counter products contain these drugs so check labels and ask your doctor.

Codeine
CAN CAUSE MORPHINE OVERDOSE: In 2005, doctors at Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children’s Motherisk Program found that mothers who are prescribed codeine after childbirth should be concerned that they may have a gene that can turn the pain reliever into morphine — producing toxic breast milk that could kill your newborn. This is after studying a Canadian newborn that died from a morphine overdose caused by consuming his mother’s unknowingly toxic breast milk 13. Taking codeine that is prescribed after a caesarian or episiotomy is normally safe, except for those mothers that have this gene. Around one percent of Caucasian women are estimated to be ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine (those with a specific CYP2D6 genotype). Since women cannot currently be tested as to whether or not they have the gene, if you are prescribed codeine or a mixture of codeine and acetaminophen after giving birth, you should speak to your doctor about possible alternative pain remedies, as well as know the signs of morphine overdose and the potential risks to your baby.

Flaxseed Oil
RISK OF PREMATURE BIRTH: In 2008, researchers in Montreal found that the risks of a premature birth quadruple if flaxseed oil is consumed in the last two trimesters of pregnancy 14 In the general population, the average rate of premature births is 2 to 3 percent, but for women consuming flaxseed oil in their last two trimesters that number jumps up to 12 percent. The correlation existed only with flaxseed oil; women eating flax seeds were unaffected.

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Citations
1. Goh Y.I., Bollano E., Einarson T.R., Koren G.: “Prenatal Multivitamin Supplementation and Rates of Pediatric Cancers: A Meta-Analysis”, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, advanced online publication, February 21, 2007. 2. Wilcox A.J., Lie R.T., Solvoll K., Taylor J., McConnaughey D.R., Åbyholm F Vindenes H., Vollset S.E., and Drevon C.A.: “Folic acid supplements ., and risk of facial clefts: national population based case-control study”, British Medical Journal, Vol 334, No 7591, March 3, 2007. 3. Ly, A., Lee H., Chen J., Sie K., Renlund R., Medline A., Sohn K.J., Croxford R., Thompson L., and Kim, Y.I..: “Effect of Maternal and Postweaning Folic Acid Supplementation on Mammary Tumor Risk in the Offspring”, Cancer Research, Vol 71, Issue 3, February 1, 2011. 4. Schmidt RJ, Hansen RL, Hartiala J, Allayee H, Schmidt LC, Tancredi DJ, Tassone F, Hertz-Picciotto I. “Prenatal vitamins, one-carbon metabolism gene variants, and risk for autism”. Epidemiology 22(4):476-85, July 2011. 5. Ly A., Lee H., Chen J., Sie, K.K.Y, Renlund R., Medline A., Sohn K.J., Croxford R., Thompson L.U., Kim Y.I. “Effect of Maternal and Postweaning Folic Acid Supplementation on Mammary Tumor Risk in the Offspring”. Cancer Research 71; 988 February 1, 2011. 6. Navarro-Perán E., Cabezas-Herrera J., García-Cánovas F Durrant M.C., ., Thorneley R.N.F Rodríguez-López J.N.: “The Antifolate Activity of Tea ., Catechins”, Cancer Research, Vol 65, Issue 6, March 15, 2005. 7. Helland I.B., Smith L., Saarem K., Saugstad O.D., Drevon C.A.: “Maternal Supplementation With Very-Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids During Pregnancy and Lactation Augments Children’s IQ at 4 Years of Age”, Pediatrics, Vol 111, No 1, January 2003. 8. “Food Safety for Moms to Be”, US FDA CFSAN/Office of Food Safety, Defense, and Outreach, August 24, 2005. 9. Qiang L., Guo-Ross S., Lewis D.V., Turner D., White A.M., Wilson W.A., Swartzwelder H.S.: “Dietary Prenatal Choline Supplementation Alters Postnatal Hippocampal Structure and Function”, Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol 91, No 4, April 2004.

10. Bravo J.A., Forsythe P Chew M.V., Escaravage E., Savignac H.M., Dinan ., T.G., John Bienenstock J., and Cryan J.F “Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain . regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve”. PNAS vol. 108 no. 38 16050-16055 September 20, 2011. 11. Rothman K., Moore L.L., Singer M.R., Nguyen D.T., Mannino S., Milunsky A.: “Teratogenicity of High Vitamin A Intake”, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol 333, No 21, November 23, 1995. 12. Nakhai-Pour H.R., Broy P Sheehy O., Bérard A. : “Use of nonaspirin ., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion”, Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), Vol 183, No. 15, September 6, 2011. 13. “Painkillers and breast milk”, Kids’ Health from the Hospital for Sick Children, Fall 2006 Volume 7, Issue 4. 14. “Pregnant Women Consuming Flaxseed Oil Have High Risk Of Premature Birth”. University of Montreal (2008, October 29).