Test Unit 3 Modal verbs (I) Must not = prohibition Must = obligation/necessity Might = possibility Should = advice Don’t

have to = lack of obligation/necessity … so it must = logical deduction Can? = permission Can = ability (Grammar reference pg 196): Modal verbs can be used to express the following: Possibility = could, might, may, can’t Logical deduction = must, can’t Obligation/necessity = must, have to/had to, have got to Lack of obligation/necessity = don’t have to, didn’t have/need to, needn’t have (the same in fact as an obligation except the word ‘not’) Prohibition = mustn’t Advice (weak obligation) = should, ought not to, should have/ought to have (ask) permission = can (I), may (I), could Ability = can, couldn’t Gerunds: A gerund is a verb ending with –ing that is used as a noun.  I like swimming. / Swimming is one of my hobbies. When one verb follows another verb, the structure usually is verb + -ing or to + infinitive. When is it (most often) ending on –ing?: When we talk about an action that happens before the main verb (or at the same time).  They denied (main verb) stealing the money. When do we then use to + infinitive?: For an action that follows the first verb.  They denied to steal the money. / I want to go out. When we have a structure with ‘’rather than’’, you always get to + infinitive, it’s a fixed structure. Phrases (vaste uitdrukkingen): To laugh it off = not to take seriously To stand out in a crowd = be distinctive Really fed up = very unhappy I happened to = by chance (toeval) To get his tongue round = pronounce

To split up = end a relationship Made redundant = lost his job Did the trick = achieved its aim A snap decision = happen quickly To tease = make fun of Adjectives: (-/+ most often, not always the case) Idealistic = idealistisch + Conscientious = gewetensvol + Well-organised = overzichtelijk, goed georganiseerd + Ambitious = ambitious + High profile = + Quiet = -/+ Sensitive = gevoelig -/+ Self-conscious = verlegen Confident = zelfbewust, zelfverzekerd + Curious = nieuwsgierig -/+ Independent = onafhankelijk + Taciturn = zwijgzaam -/+ Trustworthy = betrouwbaar + Supportive = ondersteunend + Glib = easily said Heartfelt = sincere, strongly felt Backing down = admit you are wrong Single-minded = mind is set for one aim Fallible = able to make mistakes Self-righteous = vol eigendunk Vulnerable = kwetsbaar Committed = geëngageerd (gedaan?) Trivial = triviaal (alledaags) Stubborn = koppig